THE EXPLANATION OF THE PERFECT NAMES OF ALLAH TA’ALA
Surely, the Muttaqun (the pious who fear Allah swt much) desire to be amongst the Mufarradun (those who remember Allah, subhana watala, much, and whose enemies are destroyed by Allah, t’ala, for their wrong deeds).
The Names of Allaah mentioned in the Qur’aan and Sunnah number over one hundred, as several scholars have agreed (see Al-Qawaa’id al-Muthlaa fi Sifaat Allaahi wa Asmaa’ihi by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih ibn ‘Uthaymeen). Among these names are 99 that will lead to paradise, insha’Allah. The fact that there are 99 Names leading to paradise, is authenticated in the following hadith, although it does not list which Names those are: Sahih Muslim and Bukhari 8:419, Narrated Abu Huraira : Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e., one hundred minus one, and whoever ‘ahsaha’ [enumerates them, believes in them, ponders their meanings, worships Allah by them and supplicates with them, and acts by them according to one’s belief in them] will enter Paradise; and Allah is Witr (“Odd”, i.e. He is one, and it is an odd number) and loves ‘the Witr’ (i.e., odd numbers).
The Noble Qur’an Ta-Ha 20:8 “Allâh! Lâ ilâhla illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He)! To Him belong the Best Names.”
The Noble Qur’an Al-A’raf 7:180 “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allâh, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do.”
“Shall I not inform you of the best of your deeds, the most sanctified in the sight of your Lord, that raises your ranks and that is better for you than spending in gold and money and better for you than meeting your enemy, striking their necks and them striking your necks?” They said, “Certainly [tell us].” He said, “It is dhikr (the remembrance of Allah).” [Recorded by Al-Tirmidhi. Sahih by al-Albani. Muhammad Naasir al-Deen al-Albani, Sahih al-Jaami al-Sagher, vol. 1, p. 612]
The Prophet (peace be upon him) made the following supplication, “[O Allah], I ask you of you by every name that You have named yourself or that You have revealed in Your book or that You have taught any of Your creation or that You have kept hidden, in the unseen knowledge, with Yourself.” (Recorded by Ahmad, According to al-Albani, it is sahih.)
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. May Allah raise the rank of our master Muhammad and his family and Companions and protect his nation from that which he fears for it. The Names of Allah swt should be memorized, understood, acted upon, and called upon.
The Just; the One Who is entitled to do what He does.
The Pardoner; the One with wide forgiveness. Surah An-Nisa 4:149
The Only One. Surah Ikhlas 112:1
The Last; the One whose Existence is without an end. Surah Hadid 57:3
The One Who has the Godhood, which is the power to create the entities. Surah Taha 20:14
The Most Bounteous. Surah ‘Alq :3
The Most High. Surah A’la 87:7
The Omniscient. Surah Ma’ida 5:112
The Sublime and the Lofty; the One Who is clear of the attributes of the creatures Surah Ash-Shu’ara 26:12
The Knower and the Knowledgeable; the One for Whom nothing is hidden from His Knowledge. Surah Baqarah 2:115
The Mighty; the One deserving the attributes of Exaltment, Glory, Extolement, and Purity from all imperfection. Surah Baqara 2:255
The Mighty; the Defeater Who is not defeated. Surah Hashr 59:23
Al-‘Awwal The First; the One whose Existence is without a beginning. Surah Hadid 57:3
The Enduring; the One Who created the creation and formed it without any preceding example. Surah Baqarah 2:117
The Resurrector; the One Who resurrects His slaves after death for reward and/or punishment. Surah Hajj 22:7
The Maker; the Creator Who has the Power to turn the entities from one state to another. Surah Hashr 59:24
The Benefactor; the One Who is kind to His creatures, Who covered them with His sustenance and specified whomever He willed among them by His support, protection, and special mercy. Surah Tur 52:28
The Seer, the One Who Sees all things that are seen by His eternal Sight without a pupil or any other instrument. Surah Imran 3:15
The Expander; the One Who constricts the sustenance by His Wisdom and expands and widens it with His Generosity and Mercy.
The Hidden; the One above Whom nothing exists and underneath Whom nothing exists; hence He exists without a place. His Existence is obvious by proofs. He is clear of the delusions of bodily attributes. Surah Hadid 57:3
The Everlasting; the One for Whom the state of non-existence is impossible. Surah Rahman 55:27
Lord of Generosity and Majesty; the One Who deserves to be Exalted and not denied.
The Creator. Surah Shura 42:11
The Opener; the One Who opens for His slaves the closed worldly and religious matters. Surah Saba 34:26
The One Who forgives the sins of His slaves time and time again. Surah Nuh 71:10
The Forgiver. Surah Mu’minun 23:3
The Predominant. Surah Yusuf 12:21
The Forgiving; the One Who forgives a lot. Surah Mala’ikah :28
The Self-Sufficient; the One Who does not need the creation. Surah Mala’ikah :15
The Guide; the One with Whose Guidance His believers were guided, and with Whose Guidance the living beings have been guided to what is beneficial for them and protected from what is harmful to them. Surah Furqan 25:31
The Wise; the One Who is correct in His doings. Surah Baqara 2:129
The Praiseworthy; the praised One Who deserves to be praised. Surah Hajj 22:64
The Reckoner; the One Who gives the satisfaction. Surah An-Nisa 4:6
The Guardian and the Preserver; the One Who protects whatever and whomever He willed to protect. Surah Yusuf 12:64 and Surah Hud 11:57
The Gracious. Surah Maryam 19:47
The Judge; He is the Ruler, and His judgment is His Word.
The Gentle; the One Who delays the punishment for those who deserve it and then He might forgive them. Surah Bani Isra’il 17:44
The Truth; the One Who truly exists, i.e., the One Whose Existence is confirmed. Surah Hajj 22:6
The Living; the One Who is attributed with a life that is unlike our life and is not that of a combination of soul, flesh, and blood. Surah Imran 3:2
God. Surah Anbiyaa 21:108
The Compeller; the One for Whom nothing happens in His dominion except what He willed. Surah Hashr 59:23
The Majestic; the One Who is attributed with greatness of Power and Glory of status. Surah Rahman 55:78
The Gatherer; the One Who gathers the creatures on a day there is no doubt about, that is, the Day of Judgment. Surah Imran 3:9
The Great; the One Who is greater in status than everything. Surah Saba 34:23
The Sufficient One. Surah Zumar 39:36
The Surety. Surah Nahl 16:91
The Generous; the One Who is clear of abjectness.
The Aware; the One Who knows the truth of things. Surah Saba 34:1
The Creator. Surah Hijr 15:86
The Creator; the One Who brings everything from non-existence to existence. Surah Hashr 59:24
The Subtle; the One Who is kind to His slaves and endows upon them. Surah An’am 6:104
The Glorious and the Noble; the One Who is with perfect Power, High Status, Compassion, Generosity, and Kindness. Surah Hud 11:73
The King; the One with absolute Dominion, and the One Whose Dominion is clear of imperfection. Surah Taha 20:114 Surah Qamar 54:55
The Gracious. Surah Imran 3:164
The Preventer; the Supporter Who protects and gives victory to His pious believers.
The Firm; the One with extreme Power which is un-interrupted, and Who does not get tired. Surah Zariyat 51:58
The Patron. Surah Anfal 8:40
The Deferrer; the One Who puts things in their right places. He makes ahead whatever He wills and delays whatever He wills.
The Originator; the One Who started the human being, that is, He created him.
The Manifest. Surah Nur 24:25
The Abaser; the One Who gives esteem to whomever He willed; hence there is no one to degrade him. The One Who degrades whomever He willed; hence there is no one to give him esteem.
The Protector; the One Who witnesses the saying and deeds of His creatures. Surah 59:23
The All-Pervading. Surah Fussilat :54
The Counter; the One Who knows the count of things.
The Life-Giver; the One Who took out a living human from seminal fluid that does not have a soul. He quickens the dead by giving the souls back to the decayed bodies on the Resurrection Day and He makes the hearts alive by the light of knowledge. Surah Rum 30:50
The Restorer; the One Who brings back the creatures after death.
The Responder; the One Who answers the one in need if he asks Him and rescues the yearner if he calls upon Him. Surah Hud 11:61
The One with Faith; the One Who witnessed for Himself that no one is God but Him; and Who witnessed for His believers that they are truthful in their belief that no one is God but Him. Surah Hashr 59:23
The Death-Giver; the One Who renders the living dead. Surah A’raf 7:28
The Avenger; the One Who victoriously prevails over His enemies and punishes them for their sins. It may mean the One Who destroys them.
The Fashioner; the One Who forms His creatures in different pictures. Surah Hashr 59:24
One who is called upon for help. Surah Anbiya 21:112
The Exalted; the One Who is clear of the attributes of the creation. Surah Ra’ad 13:11
The Ruler of Kingdom; the One Who controls the dominion and gives dominion to whomever He willed.
The Imperious; the One Who is clear of the attributes of the creatures and of resembling them. Surah Hashr 59:23
The Powerful; the One with the perfect Power from Whom nothing is withheld. Surah Qamar 54:42
The Nourisher; the One Who has the Power. Surah An-Nisa 4:85
The Benefactor; the One Who makes harm reach to whomever He willed and benefit to whomever He willed.
The Helper. Surah An-Nisa 4:45
The Light; the One Who guides. Surah Nur 24:35
The Able; the One Who is attributed with Power. Surah An’nam 6:65
The Mighty. Surah Nahl 16:70
The Forgiver and the Dominant; the Subduer Who has the perfect Power and is not powerless over anything. Surah Ra’ad 13:16
The Omnipotent. Surah An-am 6:18
The Nigh (Near). Surah Hud 11:61
The Strong; the One with the complete Power. Surah Hajj 22:74
The Self-Subsistent; the One Who remains and does not end. Surah Imran 2:2
The Holy; the One Who is pure from any imperfection and clear of children and adversaries. Surah Hashr 59:23
The Sustainer. Surah Imran 3:51
The Exalter and the Sublime, the One Who lowers whomever He willed by His Destruction and raises whomever He willed by His Endowment. Surah Mu’minun 23:15
The Compassionate; the One Who has an abundance of mercy for the believers and the blasphemers in this world and exclusively for the believers in the Hereafter. Surah Baqara 2:163
The Merciful; the One Who has an abundance of mercy for the believers. Surah Fatiha 1:1-2
The Rightly Guided; the One Who guides.
The Watcher; the One from Whom nothing is absent. Hence its meaning is related to the attribute of Knowledge. Surah An-Nisa 4:7
The Provider; the One Who makes the Sustenance reach His slaves. Sustenance is everything that benefits, whether halal or haram. Surah Zariyat 51:58
The Pardoner; the One with extreme Mercy. The Mercy of Allah is His Will to endow upon whomever He willed among His creatures. Surah Nur 24:20
The Patient; the One Who does not quickly punish the sinners.
The Peace; the One Who is clear of every imperfection. Surah Hashr 59:23
The Eternal; the Master Who is relied upon in matters and is resorted to in one’s needs. Surah Ikhlas 112:2
The Hearer; the One Who Hears all things that are heard by His Eternal Hearing without an ear, instrument, or organ. Surah Imran 3:38
The Witness; the One from Whom nothing is absent. Surah An-Nisa 4:79
The Appreciative. Surah Baqara 2:158
The Grateful; the One Who gives ample reward for a little obedience. Surah Mala’ikah :34
The Acceptor of Repentence; the One Who grants repentance to whomever He willed among His creatures and accepts his repentance. Surah Mu’minun 23:3
The Loving; the One Who loves His believing slaves and His believing slaves love Him. His love to His slaves is His Will to be merciful to them and praise them: Hence its meaning is related to the attributes of the Will and Kalam (His attribute with which He orders and forbids and with which He spoke to Muhammad and Musa. It is not a sound, nor a language, nor a letter.) Surah Hud 11:90
The Bestower; the One Who is Generous in giving plenty without any return. Surah Imran 3:18
The One; the One without a partner. Surah Mu’minun 23:16
The Finder; the Rich Who is never poor. AlWajd is Richness.
The Trustee; the One Who gives the satisfaction and is relied upon. Surah An-Nisa 4:81
The Governor; the One Who owns things and manages them. Surah Baqarah 2:257
The Governor. Surah Ra’ad 13:11
The Supporter; the Friend. Surah Baqara 2:257
The Inheritor; the One Whose Existence remains. Surah Hijr 15:23
The All-Embracing. Surah Baqara 2:247
The Manifest. Surah Hadid 57:3
Action Items for the Muttaqun:
1) Memorize the Names/Attributes of Allah, subhana watala
2) Do dhikr (remembrance of Allah) For example, say “ya” (“Oh”) before any of the above Names of Allah, swt, i.e. say “Ya-Rahman” or “Ya-Raheem”, etc. It is recommended to repeat names an odd number of times such as eleven times. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: There are two qualities or characteristics which will not be returned by any Muslim without his entering Paradise. While they are easy, those who act upon them are few. One should say: “Glory be to Allah” (SubnahAllah) ten times after every prayer, “Praise be to Allah” (Alhamdulilah) ten times and “Allah is Most Great” (Allahu Akbar) ten times. That is a hundred and fifty on the tongue, but one thousand and five hundred on the scale. When he goes to bed, he should say: “Allah is Most Great” thirty-four times, “Praise be to Allah” thirty-three times, and Glory be to Allah thirty-three times, for that is a hundred on the tongue and a thousand on the scale. (He said:) I saw the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) counting them on his hand. The people asked: Apostle of Allah! How is it that while they are easy, those who act upon them are few? He replied: The Devil comes to one of you when he goes to bed and he makes him sleep, before he utters them, and he comes to him while he is engaged in prayer and calls a need to his mind before he utters them. [Dawud 5047]
3) Do not use what is marketed as “dhikr beads”… use your right hand and count on the inside joints.
4) Each time you are calling upon Allah’s intervention in your life in regard to that attribute (name). Dhikr is a very integral part of a Muslim/Muslimah’s life. Remember… Allah, subhana watala, sees everything we do!
WHO AND WHERE IS ALLAH?
This discourse has been based mainly on two books: Ithbat Uluwil-Lah, by Usamah bin Yusuf al-Qassas, may Allah grant him His mercy, and Ar-Rahman alal Arsh Istawa, by Dr. Awad Mansoor.
- The chapters below are:
- Who is Allah ?
- Where is He ?
- Proof from the Qur’an
- Proof from the Hadiths
- View of the Companions
- View of the 4 renowned Imams
- Dubious Proofs
Who is Allah, Where is He? By Sheikh Mahmud Murrad
1) WHO IS ALLAH?
Allah is the proper name applied to the true God who exists necessarily by Himself comprising all the excellent Divine names and attributes of perfection. Allah is One and Unique. He has no son, no partner, nor equal. He is the sole Creator and Sustainer of the universe. Every creature bears witness to His Oneness, Divinity, and Ruboobiyyah, and to the uniqueness of His attributes and names.
His essence does not resemble the essences. He does not inhere in anything, nor does anything inhere in Him. “There is none like unto Him.” He is the One, the Sole, the Indivisible. He is the Rubb who accomplishes all affairs, Allah is the Omnipotent and the Omniscient.
His knowledge comprehends in perfect manner all things, hidden or manifest. He is greater than can be encompassed by the knowledge of His creatures. He knows everything, and He is aware of all that takes place in the earth and the heavens. Allah, the Supreme, is the Rubb of everything and has a free hand in disposal of all affairs. His mercy encompasses everything. He is far removed from injustice or tyranny. He is wise in all His actions, just in all His decrees. His justice ensures order in the universe in which nothing is out of order.
There is no one to share His dominion, nor does He take an aide or supporter from His creatures. He is nearer to man than man’s own jugular vein. Whenever a believer is in need or distress calls on Him, He responds. Allah has revealed His final Scripture, the Qur’an, to that last of His Messengers, Muhammed (SAW) who was responsible for conveying the Message of Islam to mankind. He is the Exalted Allah. Glory is due to Him.
-  Ruboobiyyah, inf. of Rubb
-  Some translate the term ‘Rubb’ into ‘Lord’, the meaning of ‘Rubb’ is far more comprehensive than to be restricted to a single word such as ‘Lord’. Rubb, means, among other things, the Creator, the Sustainer, the Provider, and the One in whose hands is the disposal of all affairs.
-  Q 50:16
2) WHERE IS ALLAH?
Allah, the Exalted, has described Himself in His Book, and by the tongue of His Messenger (SAW) as Sublime, Supreme, and Lofty. The Qur’an is full of proofs relevant to the Loftiness of Allah.
Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah believe in and confirm all of the attributes of Allah without distorting their meaning, and that Allah is above His seven heavens, above His ‘Arsh, and separated from His creatures, and His creatures are separated from Him.
This discourse will provide the Scriptural proofs of the Loftiness of Allah is an indivisible part of the inherent faculty of knowing Allah with which Allah has created mankind. Although the aqeedah of Loftiness of Allah is part of man’s innate knowledge and cannot be subjected to hypothetical of philosophical argumentation, there are some deviated sects who follow their whims and deny this intuitive and self-evident fact. For this reason, they have twisted Scriptural proofs and distorted them, and manipulated the texts to conform with their deviant argument.
All of the divine attributes are intrinsically related to the attribute of divine Loftiness. Therefore, accepting or rejecting them must be based on accepting or rejecting the Loftiness of Allah. Whoever believes that Allah is above His ‘Arsh and separated from His creatures, also believes in the rest of the attributes of Allah, and believes as well that the heaves and the earth submit to His will, and that He is the Great Rubb of the worlds. Allah does whatever He wills and rules according to His Own wishes. Glory be to Him.
Denial of the divine Loftiness is one of the basic doctrinal heresy promoted by the Jahmites and their off-shoots of today in order to confuse the Muslims’ minds. Denying this divine attribute also leads by necessity to the denial of the attribute of the istiwaa of Allah above His Arsh. There is no doubt that the denial of the attributes of Allah clashes with the clear Qur’anic verses in which the unique essential attributes and beautiful names of Allah confirmed. These attributes must be affirmed as identical with Allah.
The essential divine attributes of Allah constitute an integral part of His essence and are not superadded to it. They are accepted literally by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama’h without questioning the ‘how’ of these attributes. To deny them is clear unbelief and heresy.
It is for this reason this discourse has been prepared to deal with the creed of Loftiness of Allah, or the question, ‘Where is Allah?’ with the Scriptural evidences from the Qur’an and the authentic prophetic traditions, as well as the traditions of those early Muslims, the pious predecessors.
- FOOTNOTES :
-  Arsh, the Throne of Allah.
-  Jahmites are the followers of Jahm bin Safan (d. 128-745), a radical heretic. Among other things, they deny that Allah, the Exalted, is above His Arsh, and they allege that He is everywhere.
3) THE QURANIC PROOFS
Allah, the Exalted, commands the believers to refer their disputes and differences to His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (SAW) saying: “And when you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day.”
Therefore, the words of Allah, the Exalted, as well as the words of His Messenger (SAW) must be held as the ultimate and decisive judgment. No judgment or decision should take precedence over theirs whether in issues related to the divine attributes, or any other religious issue.
By their emphasis on reason in establishing religious truth, the rationalists, the modernists, and the Jahmites assert the preeminence of reason over the divine revelations. Whereas the Loftiness of Allah which is clearly enunciated in the Qur’an and the Sunnah, is beyond the reach of reason.
The true believers, contrary to the rationalists, believe that the ‘Arsh of Allah is above the seven heavens. They also believe that having created the seven heavens and the earth and what is in them, Allah, the Exalted, has mounted His great ‘Arsh. Allah says: “Declare your Rubb, the Supreme, to be far removed from every imperfection or impurity.”
The “Supreme”, linguistically, is in the superlative signifying that Allah is higher than everything and is above all things in essence, power, and invincibility. Commenting on this verse, Ibnul-Qayyim, may Allah grant him His mercy, said:
All Muslims in the past and in the present, when supplicating Allah or imploring His help, they always raise their hands with palms towards the heaven. They do not lower their hands with palms towards the earth, nor do they turn them right or left, nor towards any other direction. They raise their hands up, knowing that Allah is above them. The Muslims also say in prayer while prostrating, “I declare my Rubb, the Supreme, to be far removed from every imperfection or impurity.”
If Allah is everywhere, as the deviated sects allege, why then the above verse does not read, ‘Declare your Rubb, (around you), (below you), or (everywhere)?’ Allah says:”They fear their Rubb above them.”
This verse refers to the angels who are above us, and above them is our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted. Lest anyone be confused, Allah confirms in this verse that He is above the angels who are the residents of the heavens:”The Compassionate has mounted the ‘Arsh.
And:”And verily, your Rubb is Allah who created the heaven and earth in six days, and then mounted the ‘Arsh.
Allah also says:”Are you sure that He Who is Above the heaven will not cleave the earth beneath you? Or are you sure that He Who is above the heaven will not send against you a stone-charged hurricane.”
The renowned exegetes and commentators are agreed that the One Who is above the heaven is none but Allah Who has mounted His Arsh and is above it in the manner which suits His Majesty.
Those who believe that Allah is everywhere base their argument on verses such as:”And He is Ilaah in the Heavens and He is Ilaah on the Earth!”
The term, ‘Ilaah’ is classical Arabic means, ‘the worshipped’; thus the meaning of the above verse is, “It is He Who is worshipped in the heaven and worshipped on the earth”. It would have been redundant were the verse to speak about the existence of Allah in the heaven and on the earth, for the term Illah’ is an adjective of Allah, while the pronouns, ‘He’ in the verse is used in lieu of the name ‘Allah’, therefor, when the name ‘Allah’ replaces the pronoun ‘He’, we get the proper meaning of the verse: ‘And it is Allah Who is worshipped in the heaven and on the earth’. But according to the deviated sect who consider the term, ‘Ilaah’ as ‘Allah’, we get the redundant meaning, ‘And Allah is Allah in the heaven and Allah is on the earth,’ a sentence which is grammatically, linguistically and logically incorrect.
Qatadah, a renowned exegete, interpreted this verse as: ‘He is worshipped in the heaven and on the earth’.
Imam al-Aajurri said: ‘al-Ilaah, is the worshipped. He is worshipped in the heaven as He is worshipped on the earth’.
The Omnipresence of the Divine Knowledge
And He is Allah above the heaven and on the earth He knows your private and public affairs. And He knows what you achieve.
Those who deny that Allah is above His ‘Arsh, dubiously argue that this verse supports their argument. Their argument is refuted by realizing that this verse refers to the knowledge of Allah, according to the renowned exegetes, not His essence. They further assert that this verse signifies that the knowledge of Allah encompasses all things in the heavens and on the earth. The reference to the divine knowledge is made clearly by repeating the clause, ‘He knows’ twice in this verse, that is to say: “Allah, the Exalted, knows the hidden and the open, and He knows what you achieve”.
Had the verse ended with the word, ‘earth’, one might take their dubious argument into consideration, but Allah, the Exalted, makes it abundantly clear that it is His knowledge, not His essence that encompasses all things.
Another dubious argument is presented by those who deny the fact that Allah, the Exalted, is above His ‘Arsh, by alleging that the following verse supports their argument.
“Do you not see that Allah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth? There is no secret counsel of three, but He is their fourth, nor of five, but He is their sixth, nor of fewer than that, nor of more, but He is with them wherever they may be. Then on the Day of Resurrection He will inform them of what they did. Surely, Allah knows all things full well.”
The above verse, they contend, signifies that Allah is essentially everywhere. This argument is refuted by the prominent exegete, Ibn Kathir who says: “This means that Allah is well acquainted with their utterances and private talks and thoughts.”
Al-Qurtubi commented on this verse saying: “He knows and hears their private counsel. This is evidenced by the fact that the opening and concluding clauses of this verse confirm the knowledge of Allah.”
Al-Qasimi says: “The scholars among the Prophet’s companions, who transmitted the meaning of the Qur’an to their successors, held this verse to mean that Allah is above His ‘Arsh, but His knowledge is everywhere.”
The linguistic analysis of this verse proves the following points:
1) The opening words of the above verse speak of Allah’s knowledge, not His location.
2) Private counsel, or secret talk, is the theme of this verse. Allah says, ‘ There is no secret counsel of three, but He is their fourth’. He does not say, ‘There are not three, but He is their fourth’. Thus the meaning becomes quite clear that it is the knowledge of Allah what encompasses all His creatures.
3) Allah confirms that He will inform them of their secret talk on the Day of Resurrection.
4) The verse ends, therefore, confirming Allah’s knowledge.
5) Allah begins the surah of al-Mujadilah (Chapter 58), of which the verse in question is part, with the following verse:@ Allah has indeed heard the speech of the woman who pleads with you concerning her husband and complains to Allah. And Allah has heard your dialogue. Verily, Allah is All-Hearing and All-Seeing. Allah, the Exalted, states that He has heard the woman who was complaining to the Prophet (SAW), and has certainly heard her arguing with her husband, but He did not state in the verse that He was their third.
6) In the subsequent verse, Allah emphasizes that He is well acquainted with the deeds of His slaves. If one were to believe that Allah is essentially everywhere, it would follow then that He also dwells in filthy places. Only an insane person would dare to impute to Allah such an attribute. Far removed is Allah of what they ascribe to Him.
It would also follow that Allah is mingling with His creatures in the heavens and on the earth. Such belief has paved the way for panatheism, and promoted the myth of god incarnate. Allah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. It should be clear in the minds of the true believers that there is nothing to surround Allah, the Exalted, nor is there a place to contain Him. Things and places are creatures, and Allah is above all His creatures. All creatures need Him, while He is separated from His creatures, and stands in need of none of them.
The Heaven is the Qiblah of the Du’a
Muslims supplicate Allah with their palms upheld because they believe Allah is above the heaven. When confronted with this fact, those who deny the Loftiness of Allah allege that Muslims supplicate in this manner only because heaven is the qiblah of du’aa or supplication.
7) The above allegation, to begin with, has no proof in the Qur’an or the Sunnah, and it cannot be related to any of the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) nor to any of the Tabi’een, who succeeded them. There is no mention of this statement in the Book of Allah or the Sunnah of the Messenger (SAW). The issue of the qiblah is central to the religion of Islam, so every Muslim must be aware of it and especially the scholars of the Muslim ummah should have known it.
8) It is an established fact, that the Ka’bah is the qiblah of formal prayer as well as the du’aa or supplication. To declare the heaven or anywhere else to be the qiblah of du’aa is a gross bid’ah (innovation) and a clear breach of the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and the consensus of the ummah, because the Muslims have one single qiblah, the Ka’bah.
9)The qiblah is the direction to which Muslims turn or face in prayer, and to face something is to look toward it. If the heavens were the qiblah, the Messenger (SAW) would have commanded his companions, with whom Allah is pleased, to face the heavens in their prayer. On the contrary, the Muslims are forbidden to uphold their eyes while praying, but are to concentrate on the spot upon which their faces rest during prostration. The Messenger of Allah (SAW) warned: “Let those who uphold their eyes while praying stop doing so, lest they become blind.”
The Qur’anic verses allow no room for such opinions. Allah, the Exalted, specifically commanded His Messenger (SAW) and his ummah to face the direction of the Ka’bah in their prayers, saying: “And from wherever you come forth, turn your face toward the Sacred Mosque.”
Then Allah addresses the Muslims: “And wherever you may be, turn your faces toward it.”
The Loftiness of Allah is also proven by the following verse:”To Him ascend the good words, and He exalts the righteous deeds.”
This verse contains the clear words of Allah, in which the verb “ascend” is used to indicate that Allah is above and separated from His creatures. The ascendance of deeds is also proven by the words of the Prophet (SAW) describing the excellence of the period of time that falls after zawal of zenith. He said, “This is a time when the gates of the heavens are opened, and I hope that a good deed of mine would ascend to Allah.” The verb “ascend” in the text signifies that the good deeds are raised up to reach Allah, the Exalted. And Allah says:”The angels and ar-Rooh21 ascend to Allah in a day which is fifth thousand years long.”
The Loftiness of the Creator is made clear by the great distance that separates the angels who inhabit the heavens from their Rubb above them. And Allah says:”He manages all affairs from the heaven unto the earth.”
It should be borne in mind that this verse is preceded by the words of Allah:”He mounted the Throne.”
And Allah also says:”O, Issa (Jesus)! I shall cause you to die, and raise you up to Me.”
Since Allah addressed Issa saying: “I will raise you up to Me”, what would those who believe that Allah is everywhere answer when they are asked: “Where is Issa now?” They would say either Issa is everywhere, or he is in heaven. If they claim that Issa is everywhere, they would apostatize as a result of their equating Issa with Allah in accordance with their claim that Allah is everywhere. A claim which resembles the Christians’ myth of god incarnate. But if they say, “Issa is in the heaven,” they would admit that Allah did raise Issa up to the heaven, and that Allah is above the heavens.
Allah says:”Surely, your Rubb is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days; then He istawa on the Throne.”
This is one of the seven Qur’anic verses in which Allah, the Exalted, refers to His istiwa’ on His ‘Arsh. Ahlus-Sunnah are certain that the great ‘Arsh of Allah is above the seven heavens. They also believe that Allah, having created the earth and apportioned its provisions, ascended above His great ‘Arsh. Only those who believe otherwise hold these verses to be allegorical. Allah, they say, “is everywhere”, denying that He is above the ‘Arsh. Exalted is Allah, and far is He removed from their ascription. Quoting all or even most of the verses signifying Allah’s attribute of Loftiness would only enlarge the volume of this issue. There are about 215 verses in the Qur’an containing the verb sent down with reference to either the Qur’an, the previous Scriptures, or the angels.
- FOOTNOTES :
-  Q 4:59
-  Q 87:1
-  Q 87:1
-  Q 16:50
-  Q 20:2
-  Q 7:54
-  Q 67:17.18
-  Q 6:3
-  Q 58:7
-  Q 58:1
-  Pantheism is the belief that Allah and the universe constitute one being, as opposed to the fundamental belief of the Oneness of Allah and the separateness of His creations, as stressed by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah.
-  Imam al-Bukhari, Imam Muslim and others.
-  Q 2:150
-  Ibid.
-  Q 35:10
-  Ar-Rooh is Jibreel, peace be upon him.
-  Q 70:4
-  Q 32:5
-  Q 3:55
-  ‘Istawa’ p.t. is derived from the verb sawiya and its derivative form istiwaa’ to mount on the Throne. The Ash’arites, the Mu’tazilites, the Jahmites, and those who uphold their belief, hold the attribute of Istiwaa’ to be only symbolic, whereas Ahlus-Sunnah accept this and the other essential attributes of Allah literally without drawing parallels.
-  Q 7:54
PROOFS FROM AUTHENTIC PROPHETIC TRADITIONS
Authentic Prophetic traditions, as well as traditions of the Prophet’s companions, with whom Allah is pleased, and works of the Four Imama and of the rest of the pious predecessors contain many textual as well as inferential proofs of Allah’s Loftiness. Allah, the Exalted, praises His Messenger (SAW) and confirms his veracity and truthfulness by saying: “Nor does he speak of his own desire. It is only revelation revealed (to him.)”
And Allah says: “And whatsoever the Messenger commands you, adhere to it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain from it.”
1) And the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “I have been given the Qur’an and similar to it therewith.”
2) The purified Sunnah is what the Prophet (SAW) meant by saying: “and similar to it therewith”. The Sunnah is the second source of the Shari’ah of Islamic laws. Many traditions deal with the attribute of Allah’s Loftiness. The following are selected authentic traditions to whose authenticity all scholars of the hadith at all times have testified.
3) The Prophet (SAW) reported his eventful journey from Makkah to Jerusalem (al-Mi’raj) and from there up to the heavens as follows:
Jibreel took me up to the lowest heaven and requested its guards to open its gate. He was asked, ‘Who is this?’ He answered, ‘Jibreel.’ ‘Who is with you?’ They inquired. ‘Muhammed (SAW)’ He answered. They inquired. ‘Has he been invited?’ ‘Yes’. Jibreel replied. Then someone greeted saying, ‘He is most welcome’. The Prophet (SAW) continued, when the gate was opened, I entered and met Adam there. Jibreel said to me, ‘This is your father, greet him’. Adam greeted me back, saying: ‘Welcome, pious son and pious Prophet’. Then Jibreel ascended to the second heaven and requested its guards to open its gate.
The questioning that took place in the lowest heaven was repeated before the gate was opened. The Prophet (SAW) described what he saw in every heaven, until finally he was taken up to the seventh heaven where obligatory prayers were prescribed to him. This authentic mutawatir hadith speaks clearly in plain words and straightforward manner which is not liable to misconstruction or farfetched interpretations. The Prophet (SAW) was taken up to his Rubb from one heaven above the other. The Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah believe that the Mi’raj was neither an illusion nor a vision, rather real and essential. Had Allah been everywhere, why would the Prophet (SAW) be taken all the way up to the seventh heaven? Allah would have prescribed to him the Salaah on earth rather than in the seventh heaven.
4) Adullah bin Amr reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: “Be merciful to those on earth, so that the One above the heavens will be merciful to you.”
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: “The angels of death usually attend the dying person. If he is pious, they would address his soul saying, ‘O good soul! Come out of the good body, and rejoice in the annunciation of mercy and provision from the Rubb Who is well pleased with you’. The angels would keep coaxing it with these words until the soul emerges from the body. Then it would be taken up to the heaven where permission to open the gates of the heaven would be sought. The guards would inquire, ‘Who is this?’ ‘So and so’, the angels would answer. The guards would say: ‘O good soul! You are welcome’. The soul would be flattered by such words and finally be taken up to heaven above which is Allah.”
It is quite evident that Allah, the Exalted, is above the seven heavens. Otherwise, why would the souls and the believers deeds be taken up to the heavens to reach Allah?
5) Au Hurairah reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: “The angel of death used to appear to people whose souls he would collect. When he came to the Prophet of Allah, Musa (AS) to collect his soul, Musa punched out his eye. The angel of death ascended to his Rubb, the Glorious, and said to Him, My Rubb! You have sent me down to Musa who punched out my eye. Had he not been honored by You, I would have given him hard time…”
The angel of death descended to Musa from the heaven to collect his soul. He did not come to him from east, west, north, or south, nor did he emerge from the earth, and then he ascended to His Rubb Who is above the heavens.
6) Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: “There are hundred levels in Jannah which Allah has prepared for the Mujahideen who fight in His cause. Between on level and another is a distance which is equal to that between the earth and the heaven. When you ask Allah, azza wajull, ask Him for Firdaws, because it is situated in the midst and Highest point of Jannah from where the rivers of Jannah spring, and above it is the ‘Arsh of the Most Merciful.”
7) Mu’awiyah as-Sahmi reported: “I had some sheep which I kept between Uhud and Juwaniyyah with a slave-girl to look after them. One day, I went out to check on my sheep and discovered that a wolf had devoured one of them. Since I am just a human, (I became angry) and struck the girl. Later on, I came to the Prophet (SAW) and reported to him the incident. He terrified me with the gravity of my action. I said, ‘Messenger of Allah’! Shall I free her (as an expiation of my sin.) He said ‘Call her over’. When I did, he asked her, ‘Where is Allah?’ She said, ‘Above the heavens’. Then he asked her, ‘Who am I?’ She said, ‘The Messenger of Allah (SAW)’. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (SAW) ordered me, ‘Free her. She is a believer’.”
The above hadith, according to Shaikh Kahlil al-Harras, is a luminous proof of the Loftiness of Allah, the Exalted. Here is a man who wronged his female slave by striking her, and wanted to expiate his sin by giving her freedom in return. The Prophet (SAW) chose one particular question, ‘Where is Allah?’ Then the slave girl gave him the correct answer, ‘Above the heaven’. The Prophet (SAW) declared her to be a believer.
Does not the above the hadith stand as a solid proof that Allah is above the heaven? Doubtlessly, that slave girl, the shepherdess, knew her Rubb more than those ignorantly claim that Allah is everywhere!
8) Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: “Our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven every night, during the last third of the night, and says: ‘Anyone calls Me, I will respond to him? Is there anyone asking for anything? I will give it to him? Is there anyone seeking My forgiveness, I will forgive him?'”
The words of the Prophet (SAW): ‘Our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven’, clearly indicate the essential Highness or Loftiness of Allah, the Exalted. Were Allah to exist everywhere, there would be no need for the Prophet (SAW) who knew Allah best, to say, ‘Allah descends’, nor would there be a reason to distinguish one portion of the night from another. There is only one answer to this: Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, is above the seven heavens, and above the great ‘Arsh.
9) Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: “Allah will descend to His slaves on the Day of Resurrection.” It is the Day when Allah will come down to pass His judgment.
10) In another tradition, the Prophet (SAW) said: “Allah will gather the first and the last of His slaves for an appointed certain Day, when they will remain for forty years with their eyes uplifted towards heaven waiting for the decisive judgment. Allah will then descend in coverings of clouds from His ‘Arsh to the Kursi.”
-  Q 53:4.527 Q 53:4.5
-  Abu Dawood.
-  Imam al-Bukhari, Imam Muslim and others.
-  This is the strongest category of the authentic ahadith.
-  Imam al-Bukhari, Imam Muslim, and others.
-  Imam Ahmad, al-Hakim, and others.
-  Imam al-Bukhari, Ahmad, and others.
-  Imam Muslim, Abu Dawood, and others.
-  Imam Malik, Imam al-Bukhari, Imam Muslim, and others.
-  At-Tirmidthi and others.
THE STANDPOINT OF THE COMPANIONS (RA)
1) Zainab, the wife of the Prophet (SAW), used to claim excellence over the rest of his wives by telling them, ‘It is only your parents who gave you in marriage to the Prophet (SAW), while it is Allah Who gave me in marriage to him from above the seven heavens.'
2) In another narration, she said to the Prophet (SAW), ‘It is the Rahmaan, the Merciful, Who married me to you from above His ‘Arsh.’
3) Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said to Aa’ishah, the wife of the Messenger of Allah (SAW) when she was on her death bed: “Of all his wives you were the most beloved to the Messenger of Allah (SAW), and he used to live only the pure. Allah, the Exalted sent down your exoneration from above the seven heavens which was brought down by Jibreel. There is not a single masjid of the masajid of Allah but the verses of your exoneration are recited in it day and night.”
Aa’ishah, the wife of the Prophet (SAW) in this world and in the world to come, Mother of the Believers, whom the pervasive-minded sect tried to dishonor, but Allah, the Exalted, exonerated her honor and condemned those who spread the lies against her.
4) In his speech subsequent to the death of the Prophet (SAW), Abu Bakr as-Saddiq said: “He who was worshipping Muhammed (SAW), (let him know that) Muhammed is dead, and he who was worshipping Allah, (let him know that) Allah is above the heaven Ever-Living, never dies’.”
5) Ibn Umar passed by a shepherd and asked him, ‘Do you have a sheep fit for slaughter? ‘Its owner is around’, the shepherd answered. ‘Tell him that the wolf devoured it’. Ibn Umar said to him. Thereupon, the shepherd uplifted his head towards the heaven and said, ‘Then where is Allah?’ Ibn Umar responded, ‘By Allah. It is I who should have said, ‘Where is Allah.’ He later on bought off the sheep and the shepherd and freed the latter and gave him the sheep.
6) Abdurrahman al-Mahdi said: “There is no one more evil among the people of whims than the followers of Jahm. All their deviant beliefs revolve around one theme; ‘There is no one above the heaven.’ I believe, by Allah, that they should not be married from, nor to inherit Muslims nor to be inherited by Muslims.” This opinion of Ibn Mahdi is shared by many among the pious predecessors.
7) Wahab b. Jareer said: “Beware of the opinions of Jahm’s followers, for they try to convince people that there is nothing above the heavens. Their statements are only from Iblees’s revelation, and it is only infidelity”.
- FOOTNOTES :
-  Al-Bukhari.
-  The verses in question are in surat An-noor #24:11 thru 20.
-  Imam al-Bukhari and others.
-  Adth-Thahabi.
-  He was a great scholar and a leading authority in the Prophetic traditions, and a contemporary of Imam ash-Shafi’ee, (135-198H.)
-  Al-Bukhari, adth-Thahabi and others.
THE STANDPOINT OF THE FOUR RENOWNED IMAMS
Imam Abu Hanifah
Abu Muti’ Al-Balkhi reported:”I asked Imam Abu Hanifah about a person who says, ‘I do not know whether my Rubb is, above the heavens or on earth?’ Abu Hanifah, may Allah grant him His mercy, said: ‘A person who makes such a statement becomes an apostate because Allah, the Exalted says, ‘The Merciful has ascended above the ‘Arsh, and the ‘Arsh of Allah is above His heavens’. I further asked Abu Hanifah, ‘What if such a person admits, Allah is above His ‘Arsh, but exclaims, I do not know whether His ‘Arsh is above the heavens or on earth’. Abu Hanifah responded: ‘If he denies that the ‘Arsh is above the heavens, he is an apostate.” If the person apostatizes by saying that he did not know where is the ‘Arsh of Allah, then by right a person who denies the Loftiness of Allah altogether is definitely worse than an apostate.
Abdullah bin Nafi’ reported: Malik bin Anas said:’Allah is above the heavens, but His knowledge encompasses everything. Nothing escapes His knowledge.'
Imam ash-Shafi’ee said:”The creed which I hold is the same creed the Muslims before me were holding, namely, the Testimony of Faith: “There is no god worthy of being worshipped except Allah, that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah, and that Allah is above His ‘Arsh, above the heavens. He descends to the lowest heaven whenever He wishes.”
Imam ibn Khuzaimah, a Shafi’ite himself, said: “Whoever disacknowledges that Allah is above His ‘Arsh, above His seven heavens, and that He is separated from His creatures, is a Kafir, (unbeliever). Such person must be ordered to repent and disavow his belief, or else he must be beheaded and thrown on a garbage dump so that neither Ahlul-Qiblah nor Ahludth-dthimmah be annoyed by the foul odor of his carcass.”
Abu Bakr Muhammad at-Tamimi, a Shafi’ite imam of Naisaboor, said:”I do not pray behind a person who denies the attributes of Allah and does not recognize that Allah is above His ‘Arsh.”
He was asked: “Is Allah above His ‘Arsh, above the seventh heaven, separate from His creatures, and is His knowledge and power encompassing everything everywhere? He replied: ‘Certainly, He is above His ‘Arsh and nothing escapes His knowledge.”
All of the above show that the entire Muslim ummah, in the past and present, is in unison regarding the belief in the Loftiness and Supremacy of Allah, the Exalted.
- FOOTNOTES :
-  Abu Hanifah, one of the four Imam was prominent jurist living from 80 to 150 AH.
-  Sharhut-Tahawiyyah, p.288
-  Malik bin Anas, one of the four Imams, was prominent jurist and traditionist (93-179 H).
-  Abdullah bin Ahmad, as-Sunnah, and others.
-  Abdullah Muhammad bin Idris ash-Shafi’ee one of the prominent four Imams. Prominent jusrit (150-204 H).
-  Al-Juyoosh al-Islamiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, p.93
-  The Muslims in general.
-  Christian or Jewish subjects of a Muslim country.
-  Ibid.
-  Ibid.
-  Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal, the great Imam, was nicknamed the Imam of Ahlus-Sunnah. This name was to become in Islam the watchword for uncompromising belief. Imam Ahmad, may Allah be pleased with him, was a hero and victim of the violent inquisition during the reign of the Caliph al-Ma’moon, who ordered his subjects, under pain of severe punishment, to adopt the belief that the words of Allah of which the Qur’an is composed are created, thus resembling the belief of the Christians. Imam Ahmad, who refuted to endorse this belief was subjected to harassment, imprisonment, and torture.
-  Al-Juyoosh al-Islamiyyag, Ibn al-Qayyim, p.123.
Adherents of certain deviant sects promote a false belief that Allah is omnipresent Who inheres in His creation. Rational arguments are deadly available to refute the blasphemy of the Jahmites and those who try to revive their belief today. To prove that Allah is above His ‘Arsh, and above the seventh heaven in a manner that suits His Majesty, the Imam of Ahlus-Sunnah, Ahmad bin Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, refuted their belief more than one thousand years ago, when he wrote: “Where Allah is and Where He is not – An exposition of the denial of the Jahmites that Allah is above the ‘Arsh.”
We asked them “Why do you deny that Allah is above the ‘Arsh when He has said: ‘The Merciful has mounted the ‘Arsh? And again,’ ‘Who in six days created the Heavens and the earth then mounted the ‘Arsh,' They replied: “He is under the seven earths as He is on the ‘Arsh; He is in heaven, on earth and in every place; there is no place where He is not, nor is He is one place to the exclusion of any other.” And they quoted the verse: “And He is Ilaah in the heavens and He is Ilaah on the Earth!” If you wish to prove the falsehood of the Jahmites who claim that Allah exists everywhere, not in one particular place, ask them, ‘Is it not true that Allah was existent when there was nothing in existence?’ The Jahmites’ answer would be: “Certainly, there was nothing before Allah.” Then ask them, “Did Allah create the creation within Himself or outside of Himself?” The Jahmites would be compelled to choose on of the following three answers:
1) If the Jahmites assert that Allah created the creation within Himself, they would then become apostate instantly by claiming that the Jinn, humans and Satans are all dwelling within Allah.
2) If the Jahmites assert that Allah created the creation outside Himself but dwelled in them afterwards, they would also become apostate instantly by claiming that Allah dwells in His creatures.
3) But if the Jahmites say that Allah created the creation outside Himself and has never dwelled in them, they would by giving this answer, join the folds of Ahl-As Sunnah, for by giving this answer they denounce their own deviant beliefs.
Allah, the Exalted, described Himself in the Torah too that He is above His creatures. Ka’bul-Ahbaar said: “Allah, azza wajall, said in the Torah, ‘I, Allah Am above My salves, and My ‘Arsh ia above My creatures, and I am upon My ‘Arsh running the affairs of My slaves. Nothing is hidden from Me neither in heaven nor on the earth.”
Finally, it may be worthwhile to say that even the enemy of Allah, Fir’awn (Pharoah), who flagrantly claimed to be a god of his people, knew where Allah is more than the followers of Jahm today. Allah says:
And Fir’awn said, ‘O, Haman, build for me a tower that I may reach the ways; the ways to heavens so that I may have a look at the Ilaah of Musa.
Now consider the words of Fir’awn who wanted Haman to build a tower for him that he might climb all the way to the heavens to see the Rubb of Musa, for Musa already told him that Allah to Whom he is inviting him is above the heavens, and compare this with the groundless argument of the Jahmite off-shoots of today.
A Muslim wonders how could those who believe that Allah is Omnipresent rationalize such assertion knowing that Allah, the Omnipotent, will collect the earth in His hand and fold the heavens in His right hand, as evidenced by the following divine stern warning.
And they have not venerated Allah with the veneration that is due Him, for on the Day of Resurrection, the earth will be collected in His hand and the heavens will be folded up in His right hand.
Were the above verse to be the only proof of Allah’s Loftiness, it would have been more than sufficient. It is certainly sufficient to those who fear Allah and give Him the true veneration that is due to Him.
- FOOTNOTES :
-  Q 20:4
-  Q 25:60
-  Azza wajall, Allah is the Powerful, the Glorious.
-  Adth-Thahabi and others.
-  Q 40:36,37
The first three Muslim generations whose righteousness the Messenger of Allah (SAW) testified for, and whose merits surpassed the merits of all succeeding generation. They are the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) and the two generations that followed them. They all believed in the apparent meaning of the Qur’anic ayaat that deal with the divine attributes without giving them farfetched interpretations based on Greek philosophies.
The Believer must believe that there is none like unto Allah, the Exalted, in His essence, attributes, nor His actions. He must also believe that Allah stands in need of none of His creatures. Neither a thing nor a place encompasses Him. He is above His ‘Arsh, above the seventh heaven, and above all His creature essentially and realistically not allegorically. There is none of His creatures that touches Him.
Based on this it is not permissible to say that Allah is everywhere, or He inheres in any of His creatures, for Allah was when there was nothing. He who asserts that Allah is not outside the universe, not only denies the existence of Allah, but he worships a non-existent god.
We ask Allah to keep us on the straight path of His Messenger (SAW) and his Companions and to make us join their company on the Day when neither wealth nor offspring would avail. Walhamdu lillahi Rabbil-aalameen.
SPEAKING ABOUT ALLAH (SWT) WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE
Speaking about Allah, the Most High, without knowledge, is the foremost aspect of shirk, which incurs the most severe punishment from Allah. For this reason, this is not allowed under any circumstances. This is clearly communicated by Allah in Surah A’araaf, which highlights the severity of this sin, by comparing it with other major sins. He, the Mighty said: “Say: The things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are, Al-Fawaahish (every kind of illegal sexual intercourse) whether committed openly or secretly
He, the Most High then moved on to describe a more severe
“sin, unjust oppression”
Then to that sin which is even more severe:
“joining partners (in worship) with Allah (shirk), for which He gave no authority”
And then He, the All-Knowing punctuated it with that sin which most severe: “and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge. ” [Al-A’araaf 7: 331
In the Tafseer of this Aayah, the scholars of Islam have said that: “If speaking about Islam (Allah, the Most High) is not the greatest crime, then Allah certainly intended to emphasize it that way. Zinaa (fornication and adultery), the first mentioned (sin in the Aayah) is an act of one committing a sin on his/her own soul. Secondly: (Allah mentions) oppression, a sin committed against others. This is definitely a greater evil. Then He, the Most High mentions shirk (i.e. joining partners in worship with Allah), obviously a greater evil than the first two, and finally, speaking without knowledge in Islam; Every sin that followed was always greater than the previous one. Thus, if it (speaking about Allah without knowledge) is not the greatest of sins, as it was mentioned last, it was certainly intended (by Allah) to be understood that way.”
It should be seriously noted that this very grave sin is only because of Satan’s encouragement of the ignorant and sometimes arrogant seekers of name and fame.
Allah, the Most High said: “Verily, it is indeed Satan that makes you do evil and say things about Allah (or His deen) of which you have no proper knowledge.” [Al-Baqarah 2:169]
Therefore, based upon the above aayah, we find that this is the most serious prohibition with Allah Himself. The following categories of sins are incorporated in “Speaking of Allah without knowledge”:
- a) Lying upon Allah, the Almighty.
- b) Attributing to Allah, the Most High, what is not suitable for Him
- c) Bid’ah (innovation) or modifying and altering Allah’s Deen
- d) Negating what He, the Most High, has affirmed
- e) Affirming what He, the Most High, negated
- f) Hostility to those who champion His cause
- g) Supporting His enemies
- h) Loving those whom He hates and hating those He loves
- i) Describing Him with what does not befit Him in His Essence, His Attributes, His Statements or His Actions.
Therefore, because of the amount of sins included in this category, there can be no greater prohibition. It is from this sin that Shirk (associating partners with Allah) and all forms of Kufr (disbelief) originate. All forms of Bid’ah (innovations) are also founded upon “speaking about Allah without knowledge.”
Some aspects of “Speaking about Allah without knowledge” are explained in details below:
1. Lying upon Allah and/or His Messenger (peace be upon him)
Allah informs us that it is not allowed to follow anything without knowledge, He, the Most High, said: “And follow not, (O man i.e. do not say, act or witness) that of which you have no knowledge. Verily! The hearing, and the sight and the heart for each of those will you be questioned ” [Al-Israa 17: 36]
And He, the Mighty also warns us not to speak about Him without knowledge: “Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)): indeed the things that my Lord has forbidden are: (and from them is) saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge”. [Al – A’ araaf 7:33]
In the above aayah, Allah, the Most High, is telling us that He has forbidden Muslims to speak about Him without knowledge, and lying upon Allah, the Most High, is one way of doing this. The one who lies about Allah, the Most High, is not only guilty of speaking about Him without knowledge, but also he is amongst the most oppressive of people as Allah Himself describes: “And who is more oppressive than he who lies against Allah, or who denies His signs …..” [Al – A’ araaf 7:37]
Besides that, He, the Wise, also describes the punishment, on the Day of Judgment, for anyone who involves themselves in this dangerous practice, thus: “And you will see on the day of judgment, those who lie upon Allah, their faces blackened.” [Al- Zumr: 60]
Ibn Al-Jawzee, in his Tafseer said: “Many scholars of Islam are of the opinion, that lying upon Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) is disbelief, and that it takes one out of Islam (i.e. it makes him a disbeliever). Lying upon the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) is similarly serious, since indirectly it is lying upon Allah. The Messenger (peace be upon him), emphasizing the severity of lying upon himself (peace be upon him), said: “Whoever knowingly upon me, then let him occupy his seat in the Fire”. [Bukhari, Muslim & others]
Many Muslims would tell you that stealing, bribery, killing, adultery etc. are all prohibited (Haraam) acts. However, when it come to lying upon Allah, the Most High, and/or His Messenger (peace be upon him), they are not even aware that such a sin exist, and so they would indulge in it freely without worry. This complacency among Muslims regarding this sin comes about because of the great ignorance that prevails concerning (i) The rights of Allah and His Messenger and (ii) the serious punishment that results from indulging in sin.
This complacent attitude, coupled with ignorance, have been the main factors for the majority of the deviances and differences found in Islam. Various ways in which lying upon Allah, the Most High and His Messenger (peace be upon him) are manifested.
(a) Describing Allah without proof from the Quran or authentic sunnah.
For example, describing Allah as being everywhere is a serious misconception of which many Muslims are guilty. The Quraan and authentic sunnah are both replete with proofs which show that Allah, the Most High, is above and beyond His creation, and not a part of it, as the statement that ‘He, is everywhere’ necessitates. The following Hadeeth clearly indicate this. Ma’aaiyah Ibn Al- Hakim said:
‘I had a servant girl who used to tend to my sheep in the area of Mount Uhud, near a place called Al-Jawwaareeyah. One day I came to see them only to find that a wolf had made off with a sheep from her flock. Since, I, like the rest of Adam’s descendants, am prone to do regrettable acts, I gave her a terrible slap in her face. When I came to Allah ‘s Messenger (peace be upon him) with the story, he considered it a grave thing for me to have done. I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) couldn’t I free her? He (peace be upon him) replied: “Bring her to me.” So I brought her. He (peace be upon him) then asked her, “Where is Allah?” And she replied: “Above the sky.” Then He (peace be upon him) asked her: “Who am I?” She replied “You are Allah’s Messenger”. So he (peace be upon him) said: “Free her; for she is a believer. ” [Muslim Vol. 1 Pg. 271-2 #1094]
It must be noted that one of the duties of the Messenger (peace be upon him) was to correct any mistakes anyone committed in this religion (Deen). His (peace be upon him) silence after asking her, “Where is Allah”, and she replied “Above the sky”, is an indication that her answer is correct. His (peace be upon him) affirming that she is a believer, at the end of the Hadeeth, is the direct proof that her answers were correct, otherwise He (peace be upon him) would be lying, and we seek refuge with Allah for even thinking that lying is possible from the Messenger (peace be upon him).
What should be noted, is the fact that the first question he (peace be upon him) asked her was: Where is Allah? and not if she believed in Him, the Most High. Since the question was: ‘Where is Allah?’ great importance and attention must be given to the fact that, since he (peace be upon him) accepted that Allah is above the skies as the correct answer, that this is direct proof that this is the correct view on the question.
Additionally, it establishes the importance of the issue in Islam, contrary to the belief and attitude of many Muslims, even so-called Shaiks, who claim that the issue is either trivial or too advanced. After all, this was the first question the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked of a slave girl to determine if she was a Muslim or not!
(b) Explaining the Aayaat of the Quran, or the Hadeeth of die Prophet (peace be upon him) with meanings other than their apparent ones, is also another way of lying upon Allah.
Allah, the Most High said: “O Iblees (Satan)! What prevent you from prostrating yourself to one I have created with My Two Hands… ” [Saad 38:75]
In the above Aayah, Allah, the Most High, is saying that He created Aadam with His Two Hands. Yet some Muslims try to explain “Allah’s two Hands” to mean His power Who knows Allah better, Himself or these people? As Muslims, we have to believe in Allah as He describes Himself or as His Messenger (peace be upon him) described Him. Therefore, if He, the Mighty, says he has Two Hands, we must believe that. However, we must also believe, that they are not hands like our: He, the Sublime said: “There is nothing like Him; and He is the Hearer; the Seer of all.” [Shooraa 42:11]
(c) Making Haraam things Halaal
This is another form of lying upon Allah. An example of this is telling Muslims to get out of the Masjid. Since some of our brothers pray according to the way demonstrated by the Prophet (peace be upon him), (i.e. according to the sunnah), some administrators order them out of the Masjid just because of that. These arrogant leaders should remember, that amongst the greatest of oppressors, are those who prevent a Muslim from praying in the Masjid of Allah. This is because they are making Haraam the most halaal of deeds, purely out of their unlawful dictatorship. Allah, the Glorious said: “And who is more unjust than those who forbid that Allah’s Name should be remembered in His Mosques, and strive after its destruction…” [Al-Baqarah 2: 114]
(d) Making Halaal things Haraam
This is also another way in which Muslims lie upon Allah, the Glorious. An example of this, is that Allah permits a Muslim man to marry and have up to four wives, at any given time. However, if anyone attaches conditions, and throws doubt on this, he/she is in fact making something which is Halaal, Haraam. This is done by Muslims saying that a man can only marry once, and if the circumstances of necessity presents itself, then the law of polygyny (i.e. a man marrying more than one wife) becomes applicable. Allah, the All-Knowing said: “…then many (other) women of your choice, two or three or four, but if you shall not be able to deal justly (with them) then many only one, (or the captives) that your right hands possess… ” [An-Nisaa 4:3]
In the above Aayah, Allah, the Wise has legislated that a man should marry 2, 3 or 4 wives, but if he was afraid of treating them unjustly, that is, he would not be able to upkeep a balanced scale of equal treatment, then the alternative is to marry only one. This, and only this, is the condition set down by the Shareeah. Anyone trying to say that there are other conditions, is inventing his own law. Those who propagate that the first wife must be barren or sick, or that she has to approve of the second marriage, etc., have no evidence at all to support their false claims.
Even worst, are those who have adopted the orientalists’ opinion, that polygyny is a lustful act. Thus, anyone whose wife is otherwise perfect, but he still takes a second wife, is, in the orientalists’ view doing this only out of evil lust and desires. This category is worst, because their statement is blasphemy against the Quraan, since Allah, the Wise, promotes and encourages therein, that a man can be married to more than one woman at any given time. It is also blasphemy to the Prophet (peace be upon him), his companions, and the scholars of Islam, as they practiced it during their lifetime.
However, even if it was done purely for lust or desire, it would still be according to the sunnah, since the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) informs us, that when someone satisfies his sexual cravings or lust in a Halaal way, he will be blessed for it. He (peace be upon him) states: “…and even when one of you cohabits (engage in sexual intercourse), he is rewarded for it.”
We (the companions said: “O Messenger of Allah! Would one of us earn blessings and rewards for satisfying his (sexual) lusts and desires?
He (peace be upon him) said: “Yes, don’t you see that if he was to satisfy it in the Haraam way (by adultery and fornication) that he would be sinned? Similarly, when he satisfies it in the Halaal way, he is rewarded.”
(e) Using fabricated and unauthentic Aa-hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) is another way of lying on Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him).
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Whoever knowingly lie upon me, then let him occupy his seat in the Fire (of Hell)”. [Bukhari, Muslim & others]
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) also said: “Whoever relates a Hadeeth about me, knowingly it to be un-authentic, is himself a liar. ” [Ibn Maiah]
2. Another aspect of speaking about Allah without knowledge is: Making legal decisions (giving fatwas) in Allah’s religion without knowledge.
Allah, the Most High said: “Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him): Indeed the things that my Lord has forbidden are: (and from them is) saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge”. [Al – A’ araaf 7:33]
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Indeed Allah, the All-Mighty will not take away knowledge by snatching it away from the people but by taking the lives of the knowledgeable people, until when not one scholar remains. The people will then take ignorant people as their leaders, who they will ask to give judgments (in Allah’s religion). This they will do without knowledge. This will result in their going astray, and leading others astray.” [Bukhari and Muslim].
How many Muslims are not in this sad state today? Furthermore, how many rulings and legal decisions are given without knowledge? May Allah save us from this dangerous situation in which we find ourselves.
It is strange that when it comes to secular knowledge, we are so respectful. How many of us would dare speak of medicine in front of a doctor, or dentistry in front of a dentist? Yet we speak about Allah’s laws, and make rulings in His religion ignorantly. Are we not aware that He hears us? – What! Have we no sense?
What should scare people who involve in this great sin is the following statement of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him):
“Among the people who will receive the most severe punishment on the Day of judgment is a person who killed a prophet, or who was killed by a prophet, or a person who because of his ignorance, misguides people and lead them astray…” [Ahmad and At-Tabaranee]
What is even more severe and should discourage them even more is the fact that they will carry the burden of everyone who is misguided because of them. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “…whoever introduces a bad way which others follow, he will have its burden and the burden of every one who acts upon it…” [Sahih At-tagheeb wat Tarheeb- Al Mudhiree]
3. Another aspect of speaking about Allah without knowledge is: Ruling by other than what was revealed by Allah.
Allah said: “And whoever rules by other than by what Allah revealed, those are disbelievers”. [Al-Maaida 5:44)
Allah, the Sublime, further states in the Quraan: “…by your Lord (Allah), they can have no faith until they make you (Muhammad (peace be upon him) the judge in all their dispute amongst themselves, and thereafter find no resistance against your decisions, but accept with full submission.” [An-Nisaa 4:65]
Allah, the Most High says: “The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger to judge between them, is that they say “We hear and we obey” – and such ate the successful. ” [An Noor 24:51]
Ruling by other than what Allah, the Almighty has revealed is indeed one of the most severe types of disbelief to which the tongue can fall prey. So, we should be very careful about this. Be aware that ruling by other than Allah’s law is not only for the people who are in governmental positions, although it is easiest for them to fall prey to this, but each person is liable, based upon his responsibility, as is explained in the following hadeeth: “Each one of you is a guardian, and each person is answerable for his flock (those under his charge); so the Imaam is guardian and he is answerable for his flock (his people), the man is guardian of his family and he is answerable for his flock (his family), and the woman is guardian in the house of her husband and she is answerable for her flock (in his house) …, and each one of you is a guardian and ( responsible for his flock). ” [Bukhari and Muslim]
Since most decisions and rulings are generally communicated through speaking, then making Haraam rulings would constitute misuse of the tongue.
So know, that making Halaal what Allah has made Haraam and making Haraam what Allah has made Halaal, or accepting the ruling and following someone who is involved in it, is a type of kufr (disbelief). This is clearly understood from the following Hadeeth: ‘Adi Ibn Haatim came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and heard him (peace be upon him) recite the following aayah: “They took their rabbis and monks as Lord besides Allah” So he said: “Messenger of Allah! They never used to worship them. He (peace be upon him) said: “Verily, they have made Haraam (unlawful) what was halaal (lawful), and they made halaal (lawful) what was haraam (prohibited) and (the people) followed them – so that was their (the people) worship of them (the rabbis and monks). [At-Tirmidhee]
This Hadeeth is also applicable to the so-called Islamic countries, as well as every constitution, or rules and regulations, set up by Organizations and Mastoids, etc., which legislate laws that are not in accordance with those that Allah has revealed.
4. Another aspect of speaking about Allah without knowledge is: Bida’s (innovations)
Bid’ah is changing any aspect of worship in Allah’s Deen by either adding to it, subtracting from it or altering it in way. It is for this reason that the noble scholars of this Deen expended so much time to warn this Ummah about the great fitnah (trial) of innovation. This is because the dangers of Bid`ah, and its destructive effects upon this Deen, are much greater than that of the other major sins, as is explained from the following Aayaat and Aa-Hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah:-
Allah, the Most High said: “Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him) to the people) if you love Allah then follow me, Allah will love you and He will forgive your sins”. [Aali-‘Imraan 3: 31]
The Messenger (peace be upon him) said: “Who ever innovates in this matter of ours (Al-Islam), that which is not from it , will have it rejected”. [Bukhari & Muslim]
And He (peace be upon him) said: “…And hold fast to my sunnah and the sunnah of the rightly guided caliphs, and beware of newly invented matters (bid’ah); for every newly invented matter is misguidance which leads to the fire.” [Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi & others]
So, based upon the above Aa-Hadeeth, Muslims must be aware of all matters that are not established from the Sharee’ah.
The following saying of the Messenger (peace be upon him) is even more frightening. He (peace be upon him) said: “Allah does not accept the repentance of anyone involved in Bid’ah, until he leaves it off completely. ” [Authentic from At-Tabaraanee]
Brothers and sisters, let us not close off the doors of Repentance with our own hands, by indulging in and/or propogating Bid’ah. However, we must know that, even worse for the practitioner of Bid’ah, is what the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Allah refuses to accept the deeds of the practitioner of Bid’ah (innovations in the deen) until he leaves his innovation (bid’ah).” [Ibn Majah & Ibn Abi ‘Aasim]
Bid’ah is one of the most dangerous sins that send whoever practices it into the fire (of Hell). Such action from a Muslim is most loved by Shaitaan. This is because the Muslim involved in Bid’ah feels that he is doing something good, but, in effect, it causes Allah’s wrath to descend upon him. A few examples of Innovation (Bid’ah) of the tongue are as follows:
a) Bid’ah in Belief: The statement that Allah, the Most High, is everywhere, as was discussed before. (Refer to page 12)
b) Bid’ah in Zikr: Doing zikr in congregation behind one person, which is a common practise of the Sufis. The following narration beautifully clarifies the evil of such a practise.
Amr Ibn Salmah said: We used to sit at the door of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’oud before the morning prayer, so that when he came our, we would walk with him to the mosque. One day Abu Moosaa al-Ash’aree came to us and said: “Has Abu ‘Abdur Rahmaan (Ibn Mas`oud) come out yet?” We replied: “No” So he sat down with us until he came out. When he came out we all stood along with him, so Abu Moosaa said to him: “O Aba `Abdir Rahmaan! I have just seen something in the mosque which I deemed to be evil, but all Praise is for Allah, I did not see anything except good.” He (Ibn Mas’oud) inquired: “Then what is it?” (Abu Moosaa) replied: ” If you live you will see it. I saw in the mosque people sitting in circles awaiting the prayer. In each circle they had pebbles in their hands and a man would say: repeat Allahu Akbar a hundred times. Then So they would repeat it a hundred. Then he would say: Say Laa illaha illallaah a hundred times. So they would say it a hundred times. Then he would say: Say Subhaanallaah a hundred times. So they would say it a hundred times. (Ibn Mas’oud) asked: “What did you say to to them?” (Abu Moosaa) said: “I did not say anything to them. Instead I waited to hear your view or what you declared.”
(Ibn Mas`oud) replied: “Would that you had ordered them to count up the evil deeds they acquired and assured them that their good deeds would not be lost!” Then we went along with him (Ibn Mas`oud) until he came to one of these circles and stood and said: “What is this that I see you doing?” They replied: “O Aba `Abdur Rahmaan! These are pebbles upon which we are counting, takbeer, tahleel and tasbeeh.” He (Ibn Mas’oud) said: “Count up your evil deeds! I assure you that none of your good deeds will be lost. Woe to you, O Ummah of Muhammad (peace be upon him)! How quickly you go to destruction! These are the companions of the prophet (peace be upon him) who are widespread. These are his clothes that have not yet decayed and his bowl which is unbroken. By Him in Whose Hand is my soul! Either you are upon a religion better guided than the religion of Muhammad (peace be upon him) or you are opening the door of misguidance.” They said: “O Aba `Abdir Rahmman! By Allah, we only intended good.” He (Ibn Mas`oud) said: “How many are there who intend good but do not achieve it. Indeed Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said to us: “A people will recite the Quran but it will not pass beyond their throats. “Then he left them.
‘Umar ibn Salamah (the sub-narrator) said: “We saw most of these people fighting against us on the day of Nahrawaan, along with the Khawaarij. [Ad-Darimee Vol. 1#79]
It should be observed from the above incident involving Ibn Mas’oud and the people who were making their congregational (Soofie like) Zikr, that they were:
- (i) In the right place (i.e. the Masjid),
- (ii) Saying the right and prescribed zikr -Tasbeeh, Takbeer, etc
- (iii) Doing it at the right time, that is before, or according to some narrations, after the Salaah.
However, it was only one difference that caused Ibn Mas’oud to reject and rebuke what they were doing -HOW they did it, that is, in congregation. This emphasizes the importance of following the Sunnah with precision in every possible way.
The following example further highlight the importance of doing any act of worship, especially zikr or du’aa exactly and precisely as was demonstrated by the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).
Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated the Hadeeth that the Prophet (peace be upon him) taught Al-Baraa ibn`Aazib a du’aa to use before sleeping, part of which was: “…Aa-man-tu bi ki-taa-bi-kal la-zhee an-zalt, wa bi na-biy-yi-kal la-zhee ar-salt..”. However, when Al-Baraa repeated it to the Prophet (peace be upon him) he said: “,..wa bi ra-soo-li-kal la-zhee arsalt…” The Prophet (peace be upon him) immediately corrected him saying: “No! bi na-biy-yikal la-zhee ar-salt”
This shows the importance of adhering to the sunnah, and not even changing a single word, which in essence has the same meaning as the substituted word (i.e. Nabee means prophet and Rasool means Messenger and both are titles given to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) by Allah, the Most High).
c) Bid’ah of Du’aa in congregation.
A widespread practise amongst Muslims is making Du`aa in congregation after the Fardh (compulsory) Salaah. This practice, in fact, does not have any proof from the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) or the companions who led Salaah all their lives but never once made a congregational du’aa after the Salaah.
Of the many innovations of the tongue, these few examples will suffice.
The majority of Muslims are deeply involved in many innovations. However, we must realize that Allah can only be worshipped with what He, the Most High legislated, and that it must be performed as precisely as possible as was explained or shown to us by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and as it was understood by the pious predecessors (the companions). Therefore, before doing anything in this Deen, a Muslim must esquire about the proof for that action from Quraan and authentic Sunnah, or whether it was something practiced by our pious predecessors from among the companions, the Taabi’een and the Tabi Tabi’een If there is no precedent from them, then It is compulsory for us to leave it. May Allah guide us an to practise Islam in its pristine purity. Ameen.
ALLAH’S (SWT) ATTRIBUTES AND THE MISTAKE OF CHANGING THEIR MEANINGS
By Br. Abdul Wahid Abdul Muntaqim
In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful
Ibn al-Qayyim once wrote that love for a beloved originates in the beauty and perfection of the beloved. Hence, by knowing and becoming familiar with Allah’s names, attributes and actions, one will love Him more and his iman (faith and acceptance) will become stronger. When Ibn Taymiyyah explained what the most precious and beneficial knowledge is, the first matter he mentioned was the knowledge of Allah’s Names, attributes, and Actions, which plants in the heart the love, hope, fear and glorification of Him (swt). No one would deny that knowing the One we worship improves our `ibaadah and that not knowing who Allah is makes our `Ibaadah almost meaningless. Allah (swt) said Himself: “So know that Laa ilaaha ill Allah (there is nothing worthy of worship but Allah)…” Qur’an 47:19
To understand Tawheed correctly, we need to have an understanding of Allah’s Names and Attributes. The question is, how are we to understand these? Should we rely on our minds and speculative theology, or should we refer to the Qur’an, Sunnah and the understanding of the early predecessors? Many have strayed based on this point and, if Allah permits, we shall try to clarify some misconceptions related to tahreef (interpretation and changing the meanings) of Allah’s Attributes in particular. The scholars of say that the correct Faith in Allah’s attributes means believing in them without denying them or their meanings (ta`teel), without interpreting them and changing their meanings (tahreef), without explaining how they are (takyeef) or likening Allah’s attributes to those of the creation (tamtheel). Although a few scholars had slightly differed on this point, it is known that the consensus of the predecessors and leaders of this Ummah is as stated above. There is an overwhelming amount of evidence in support of this, but we shall, by Allah’s will, quote few renowned scholars who wrote about the matter.
Often, the best way to say what Islam is (or should be) is by pointing up its contradistinction to what Islam is not (or should not become.) Therefore, if we study beliefs of the misguided sects, our understanding of the Truth will be, by Allah’s permission, improved, just like our understanding of Tawheed is greater when accompanied with an understanding of Shirk.
This issue is also a matter of manhaj (program, way) and who we take our knowledge from. A student of knowledge has recently commented that today’s Ash`arites are in fact Jahmees, because they still interpret some of Allah’s Attributes, which, in fact, leads them to negating the meaning of these Attributes [such as Allah’s Istawaa above the `Arsh, His Face, His Hand, His Hearing, His Seeing etc]. We have been warned of the great sin of speaking about Allah that which we do not know.
“Say (O Muhammad): My Lord has only forbidden indecencies, those of them that are apparent as well as those that are concealed, and sin and rebellion without justice, and that you associate with Allah in worship that which He has sent down no authority, and that you say about Allah that which you do not know.” Qur’an 7:33
So it is indeed a dangerous matter to explain an Attribute of Allah based on no proof from the Sources.
There is no doubt that all sects have deviated because they did not understand Usool (basic principles of) ud Deen. Therefore, the best way to safeguard one’s faith is to gain a solid understanding of the basics, before proceeding to study things that are not of the greatest importance, especially us who are not scholars. Let us all realise the fact that we need to understand Aqeedah, and Tawheed in particular, before we proceed to study other matters, such as Fiqh. Verily, man has been created impatient, but we need to realise what the priorities are. If we consider the fact that (good) deeds of those who disbelieve are not accepted (see Qur’an 24:39, for example), we can see the importance of having correct belief. Furthermore, the lack of understanding of the true Aqeedah among Muslims has led to great divisions and it would probably not be untrue to say that ignorance of the Aqeedah is the primary cause of our division today (at least indirectly, because if we knew the correct Aqeedah we would put most differences to the end).
Shall we not stick to the Rope of Allah (ie. the Qur’an) and be united? Nowadays, different groups are separating and those that have deviated or gone astray have even started cursing those who speak the truth. Let it be clear that there is no compromise in the matters of Aqeedah as that is taken from the Qur’an and Sunnah, as understood by the `ijmaa, and let it also be clear that the consensus among scholars on this issue is very clear. Indeed, those who are close to the tradition (ie. the Book and Sunnah) differ much less among themselves than those who are far from it. For this reason, it can be seen that the sincere ones who have slight differences in manhaj, but share the same authentic creed are one big step closer to unity (which should be very clear to those who follow the Ummah’s affairs). On the other hand, those whose very foundation is not firm will differ in a great number of issues. Moreover, they are an easy prey for Shaytaan who seeks to misguide such people even further.
To reiterate how Sifaat Allah are to be understood, we shall consider what Ibn Taymeeyah said in his Al-Ikleel Fee Al-Mutashbaabih Wa al-Ta’weel: “God may be characterized by how He characterizes Himself and by how His Prophet characterized him. The course to be followed (in understanding this doctrine) is that of the predecessors, the people of faith and knowledge, and of the meanings understood from the Book and the Sunnah. Response (to revelation) ought not to confuse it for such would be a distortion, a disbelief, an abandonment of the Book…”
And at-Tahaawee said in al-Aqeedah at-Tahaaweeyah: “To imagine Allah in a certain form is not correct. The safest way for a Muslim is to believe in all the attributes of Allah without adding any interpretation. To negate the attributes of Allah altogether or to compare Him to someone, is a deviation from the right path. Our Lord is unique and without any equal at all.”
What is highly ironic is that most of those who call themselves Ash`arites today contradict their own teacher. For, Al-Ash`aree refuted many deviant claims of those who commit tahreef or ta’teel. He wrote in al-Ibaanah `an Usool ad-Diyaanah an arsenal of arguments against different heretics, and here is an example from this book, which represents the Aqeedah on which he finally settled: “Whosoever questions us and says, ‘Do you believe God has a face?’, the answer is: ‘We believe it contrarily to the belief of the innovators; and His words ‘And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honour will abide forever’ (Qur’an 55:27) are a proof of it.'”
He also stated: “If anybody says, ‘You do not deny that God’s words ‘from what Our hands have made’ and His words, ‘before him whom I have created with My two hands’ are metaphorical”, the answer is: The rule of the Word of God is that it is to be interpreted literally and truly, and a thing is not transferred from its literal meaning to a metaphorical one, except by proof.”
We therefore affirm these attributes of Allah (swt) and realise that “There is nothing like unto Him” (Qur’an 42:11), that “There is none comparable to Him” (Qur’an 112:4) and that “No vision can grasp Him, but His Grasp is over all vision.” (6:103). Can we Muslims settle on these issues and finally move on and do that which Allah has ordered us to do? Or are we (some of us) still going to wonder blindly in following deviations? Are pantheist Sufis going to realise the fallacy of wahdat ul wujood and are some of them going to stop hiding the fact that they approve of it? Are Ash`arites going to stick to their creed inspite of what Al-Ash`aree actually said? Are the proponents of the Ash`arite theology in the Shaafi`iyy madh-hab going to stop picking bits and parts from their scholars’ books and start taking their teachings as a whole? Will they, for instance, realise how an-Nawawi regarded al-Ibaanah by Al-Ash`aree? Or how ash-Shaafi`ee, Abu Haneefa, Maalik and Ibn Hanbal understood Sifaat Allah? Are they going to realise the words of Al-Juwaynee, al-Ghazaalee’s teacher, who also changed his view towards the end of his life and accepted the truth in this matter?
He said in Ar-Rasaa’il al-Muniriah: “I used to fear confirming al-Istiwaa’ and that Allah descends (if He will) to avoid limiting Allah, or assimilating Him (with the creation).
However, when I read the evidence from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (saws), I find that these evidences confirm these meanings (al-Istiwaa’ and descending). I find that the Prophet (saws), unequivocally confirms them, when talking about His Lord and describing Him. I know for sure that his audience contained the knowledgeable and the ignorant, the smart and the slow and the Bedouin and the hard hearted. Yet, I find no quotations, clear or implied, from him, after describing Allah, that explain these meanings with what is not apparent, or what distorts these meanings as some of those philosophers did.”
Many had strayed by committing a small innovation, but Shaytan later led them to further deviation from the truth. Interpreting Allah’s Attributes such as His Istawaa (rising over al-`Arsh in a manner that suits His Majesty), or His Face, has led people to deny them and to explain them in what suited their minds, based on no proof. If they only pondered over the words of Naa’im ibn Hammad, al-Bukhari teacher, who was quoted by ibn Katheer in his Tafseer:
“Whoever assimilates Allah with His creation has committed kufr (disbelief). Whoever denies Allah’s description of Himself has committed Kufr. Assimilation to (the creation) cannot be understood from the description of Allah by Allah, or His Messenger (saws). Whoever confirms the Attributes, mentioned in the clear Aayat (verses of the Qur’an) and authentic Hadiths, believing that these Attributes are in a manner befitting to Allah’s Majesty, and denying all ill descriptions of Allah; he has followed the way of guidance.”
Ibn Katheer, in his tafseer of the verse Qur’an 20:5, clearly stated that we should follow the understanding of the predecessors and not commit takyeef, tahreef, tashbeeh, ta`teel and tamtheel.
Imaam Al-Barbahaaree said, “Whatever Allah says is just as He says. There is nothing to contradict what He says. He is as He says.”
And Allah (swt) states in the Qur’an: “Whose word can be truer than Allah’s?” Qur’an 4:122
Ibn Taymeeyah said, “The early generations of Muslims and their Imams were in complete unanimous agreement that the Lord is separate and distinct from his creation. He is to be described only with that with which He described Himself (ie. in the Qur’an) or with which His Prophet (saws) described Him, without distorting, negating, delving into the exact nature of, or believing them to be the same as something known such as human characteristics of the same names. Allah is described with all characteristics of perfection and no characteristics of weakness or imperfection . He knows that there is nothing comparable to Him, nor to His words in any of His characteristics of perfection.”
“Say: He is Allah, One. Allah, The Self-Sufficient. He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none equal or comparable to Him.” Qur’an 112:1-4
Ibn Mas`ood and others said: “He is the one who has no cavity. The attribute of One (al-Ahad) means the one to whom there is no one comparable. Thus, the name as-Samad entails all of Allah’s attributes of perfection, and negation of any lacks or imperfections, and the name al-Ahad denotes the complete lack of anybody or anything comparable to Allah in His names and characteristics.”
Finally, to those who perform interpreting Allah’s Names according to their desires and based on no proof, and propagate it to others, we reply with the response given by Shaikh as-Sabt in his book “Ar-Rahmaanu `Alaa-l `Arshi Istawaa”: “This type of writers studied Tawheed and made their own minds as the judge and authority in this matter. They confirmed, of Allah’s Names and Attributes, what they thought appropriate, and rejected what they thought wrong. They subjected their worshipped Lord’s Names and Attributes to their own logic and understanding. Some of them approved of only seven Attributes and others were more generous to add six more.
This led to their believing in Attributes of Allah that are not the same as in the Qur’an. To those we say: ‘Do you know Allah more than Himself?’ This type of writers subjected the verses of the Qur’an and the ahaadeeth of the Prophet (saws), to their own minds, changing their meanings. They made their thoughts as the base and changed meanings of the Qur’an to accommodate their own minds. They ignored the most basic rule of Tawheed, that is, to shape our thoughts and minds to accommodate the Nass (text of the Qur’an and Sunnah), confirming what the Nass confirms and rejecting what it rejects. These writers did the opposite, they shaped the Nass to accommodate their minds and thoughts. They made their minds as the god they worship. They fell in what they sought to escape from. They worshipped themselves, when they claimed immunity from error for their minds. Worshipping is following and obeying (Allah and His Messenger), is it not?”
AHADITH ON LOVE FOR THE SAKE OF ALLAH
Al-Tirmidhi. Hadith 5017. Narrated byAnas ibn Malik: A man passed the Prophet (peace be upon him) when some people were with him, and one of those who were with him said, “I love this man for Allah’s sake.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked if he had informed him, and when he replied that he had not he said, “stand up and go to him and inform him.” He stand up, went to him and informed him, and he replied, “May He for Whose sake you love me love you!” He then returned, and when the Prophet had asked him and he had told him what he had replied, he said, “You will be with him whom you love and you will have the reward you sought from Allah.” Bayhaqi transmitted it in Shu’ab al-Iman. In Tirmidhi’s version the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “A man will be with him whom he loves and he will get what he has earned.”
Al-Tirmidhi Hadith 4990. Narrated byAbdurRahman ibn AbuQurad: The Prophet (peace be upon him) performed ablution one day and his companion began to wipe themselves with the water he had used. The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked them what induced them to do that, and when they replied that it was love for Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) he said, “If anyone is pleased to love Allah and His Messenger, (peace be upon him) or rather to have Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) love him, he should speak the truth when he tells anything, fulfil his trust when he is put in a position of trust, and be a good neighbour.” Bayhaqi transmitted it in Shu’ab al-Iman.
Al-Tirmidhi Hadith 381. Narrated byMu’adh ibn Jabal: Mu’adh heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say: Allah, the master of honour, says: For those who love one another for the sake of fear of My majesty and magnificence, there will be high seats of light that will be the envy of prophets and martyrs. Transmitted by Tirmidhi.
Al-Tirmidhi Hadith 48. Narrated byMu’adh ibn Jabal: Mu’adh asked Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) as to which faith is excellent. He said: That you love (any person or thing) for the sake of Allah, hate for the sake of Allah, and that you keep your tongue busy in the remembrance of Allah. He said: Allah’s Messenger, is there anything besides this? He said: You like for the people what you like for yourself, and you dislike for them what you dislike his companion began to wipe themselves with the water he had used. The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked them what induced them to do that, and when they replied that it was love for Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) he said, “If anyone is pleased to love Allah and His Messenger, (peace be upon him) or rather to have Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) love him, he should speak the truth when he tells anything, fulfil his trust when he is put in a position of trust, and be a good neighbour.” Bayhaqi transmitted it in Shu’ab al-Iman.
Al-Tirmidhi Hadith 381. Narrated byMu’adh ibn Jabal: Mu’adh heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say: Allah, the master of honour, says: For those who love one another for the sake of fear of My majesty and magnificence, there will be high seats of light that will be the envy of prophets and martyrs. Transmitted by Tirmidhi.
Al-Tirmidhi Hadith 48. Narrated byMu’adh ibn Jabal: Mu’adh asked Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) as to which faith is excellent. He said: That you love (any person or thing) for the sake of Allah, hate for the sake of Allah, and that you keep your tongue busy in the remembrance of Allah. He said: Allah’s Messenger, is there anything besides this? He said: You like for the people what you like for yourself, and you dislike for them what you dislikedislike for yourself. Transmitted by Ahmad.
Sunan of Abu-Dawood – Hadith 4582. Narrated by Abu Dharr: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The best of the actions is to love for the sake of Allah and to hate for the sake of Allah.
PROOFS OF ALLAH’S EXISTENCE
Khaled Mustafa Abdul Kader
A-úthu billáhi minash shaytánir rajeem. Bisilláhir rahmánir raheem. My Dear Brothers and Sisters in Islam,
“Do they not look at the sky above them, how We have made it and adorned it and there are no flaws in it? And the earth, We have spread it out and set thereon mountains standing firm, and produced therein every kind of beautiful growth in pairs.
For an insight and reminder to every servant turning to Allah. And We sent down from the sky rain charged with blessing, and We produce therewith gardens and grain for harvest. And tall (and stately) palm trees, with shoots of fruit stalks, piled one over another; as sustenance for (Allah’s) servants. And We give new life therewith to land that is dead: thus will be the resurrection.”
“Bethink of him who had an argument with Ibraheem about his Lord, because Allah had given him the kingdom; how when Ibraheem said ‘My Lord is He Who gives life and causes death’, he answered: ‘I give life and cause death.’ Ibraheem said: ‘Allah causes the sun to rise in the East, so do you cause it to come up from the West’.
Thus was the disbeliever confounded (abashed).’
A confirmation and a reminder to the believers and a challenge, a huge and impossible challenge to the unbelievers and those who associate partners with Alláh. And that is how the closing chapters of Surat Al-Waqia’a can be described. In the same vein, Ali bin Abi Taalib, raa, was asked: ‘ Have you seen your Lord (Allah)? His short but concise answer confounded his questioner:’ How could I worship what I do not see?’ He went on to explain that what the eyes fail to see is seen by the intellect, the heart of man.
Although the existence of Allah requires no proof simply because the existence of everything else is proved in reference to Him, The Most High, to make matters easy for the human intellect to comprehend, man is asked to contemplate his own creation and all that is in the Universe. Indeed the Ayaat recited at the opening of this khutbah from Surat Qaaf is just one example.
Coming back to Surat Al Waqia’a we recite: “We created you; will you then admit the truth? Have you seen that which you emit? Do you create it or are We the Creator? We mete out death among you and We are not to be outrun. That We may transfigure you and make you what you know not. And verily you know the first creation, why, then, do you not reflect?”
Allah, The Exalted, is reminding mankind that He (Subhaaneh) created them from nothing. Is not He who created in the first instance able to re-create? Why cannot you believe in the Resurrection? He Who created you is indeed able to re-create you in any shape or form. Reflect on your hearing, eye-sight or your hearts and remind yourselves of the Creator.
“He it is Who produces creation, then reproduces it and it is easier for Him”.
“And he had coined for Us a similitude, and had forgotten the fact of his creation saying: ‘Who will revive these bones when they have rotted away?’ Say: ‘He will revive them who created them first for He is Knower of every creation’.
“Have you seen that which you cultivate? Is it you who foster it, or are We the Fosterer? If We willed, We verily could make it chaff, then would you cease not to exclaim: Lo! We are laden with debt! No, but we are deprived’.
Indeed man may saw the seeds, whether that seed grows into a plant and bears fruit is not in the hands of man. Only Allah, Tabaraka wa Ta’ala, decides which seed will develop into a plant and which shall not germinate.
Before closing let us remind ourselves of the two men mentioned in Surat Al-Kahf and see what happened to the one who committed kufr having prided himself of his wealth and offspring:
“And his fruit was beset (with destruction). Then began he to wring his hands for all that he had spent upon it, when (now) it was all ruined on its trellises and to say: ‘Would that I had ascribed no partner to my Lord’. ”
Arabic dua to close
Bismillahi Ar-Rahmaani Ar-Raheem
Arabic introduction Dear Brothers and Sisters in Islam,
“Or (take) the similitude of one who passed by a hamlet, all in ruins to its roots. He said: ‘Oh! How shall Allah bring it (ever) to life, after (this) its death?’ But Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again). He said: ‘how long did you tarry (thus)?’ He said: ‘(perhaps) a day or part of day.’ He said: ‘Nay, you have tarried thus a hundred years: but look at your food and your drink, they show no sign of age: and look at your donkey: and that We may make you a Sign unto the people. Look further at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh.’ When this was shown clearly to him, he said: ‘I know that Allah has power over all things.”
“Have you observed the water which you drink? Is it you who shed it from the rain clouds, or are We the Shedder? If We willed, We verily could make it bitter.
Why, then, give you no thanks?”
It has been related from Abi Ja’afer that whenever the Prophet, saws, drank water, he used to say: ‘Praise be to Allah who by His Grace provided us with palatable, sweet water to drink and did not make it saltish, bitter because of our sins’.
“Have you observed the fire which you kindle (strike-out)? Was it you who made the tree thereof to grow or were We the Grower? We, even We, appointed it a memorial and a comfort for the dwellers in the wilderness. Therefore, O Muhammad, praise the name of your Lord, the Magnificent’
It is indeed a reminder of the greater Fire of Hell, for the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “This fire that you kindle, O people, is one seventieth of Hell Fire” Then he added “It has been struck in the sea twice to make it beneficial to the Sons of Adam” meaning its heat has been reduced.
SIGNS OF ALLAH’S EXISTENCE
By Imam Ibn Kathir
Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged), Volume 1
© 2000 Darussalam
O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may acquire taqwa (piety). Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He alone has the right to be worshipped.” Qurân, 2:21-22
Several scholars of Tafsir, like Ar-Razi and others, used this Ayat (verse) as an argument for the existence of the Creator, and it is a most worthy method of argument. Indeed, whoever ponders over the things that exist, the higher and lower creatures, their various shapes, colors, behavior, benefits and ecological roles, then he will realize the ability, wisdom, knowledge, perfection and majesty of the Creator. Once a Bedouin was asked about the evidence to Allah’s existence, he responded: “All praise is due to Allah! The camel’s dung testifies to the existence of the camel, and the track testifies to the fact that someone was walking. A sky that holds the giant stars, a land that has fairways and a sea that has waves, does not all of this testify that the Most Kind, Most Knowledgeable exists?” [Ar-Razi 2:91]
Hence, whoever gazes at the sky in its immensity, its expanse, and the various kinds of planets in it, some of which appear stationary in the sky whoever gazes at the seas that surround the land from all sides, and the mountains that were placed on the earth to stabilize it, so that whoever lives on land, whatever their shape and color, are able to live and thrive whoever reads Allah’s statement: “And among the mountains are streaks white and red, of varying colors and (others) very black. And likewise, men and ad-Dawwabb (moving, living creatures, beasts) and cattle are of various colors. It is only those who have knowledge among His servants that fear Allah.” (35:27-28)
Whoever thinks about the running rivers that travel from area to area bringing benefit, whoever ponders over what Allah has created on earth; various animals and plants of different tastes, scents, shapes and colors that are a result of unity between land and water, whoever thinks about all of this then he will realize that these facts testify to the existence of the Creator, His perfect ability, wisdom, mercy, kindness, generosity and His overall compassion for His creation. There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, nor is there a Lord besides Him, upon Him we rely and to Him we turn in repentance. There are numerous Ayat in the Qurân on this subject.
Fear Allah Subhana watala
Hadith – Qudsi 22 Let not any one of you belittle himself. They said: O Messenger of Allah, how can any one of us belittle himself? He said: He finds a matter concerning Allah about which he should say something, and he does not say [it], so Allah (mighty and sublime be He) says to him on the Day of Resurrection: What prevented you from saying something about such-and-such and such-and-such? He say: [It was] out of fear of people. Then He says: Rather it is I whom you should more properly fear.
Hadith – Al-Tirmidhi #5083, Narrated AbuDharr: Allah’s Messenger said to him, “Fear Allah wherever you are; if you follow an evil deed with a good one you will obliterate it; and deal with people with a good disposition.” Ahmad, Tirmidhi and Darimi
Hadith – Al-Tirmidhi #5140, Narrated Hudhayfah: The Prophet said, “By Him in Whose hand my soul is, you must enjoin what is reputable and forbid what is disreputable, or Allah will certainly soon send punishment from Himself to you. Then you will make supplication and not receive an answer.” [Transmitted by Tirmidhi]
Hadith – Al-Tirmidhi #5142, Narrated AbuBakr as-Siddiq: You people recite this verse, “You who believe, care for yourselves; he who goes astray cannot harm you when you are rightly guided.” I heard Allah’s Messenger say, “When people see something objectionable and do not change it, Allah will soon include them all in His punishment.” Ibn Majah and Tirmidhi, who declared it to be sahih, transmitted it.
We must humble ourselves
Hadith – Al-Tirmidhi #5186, Narrated Uthman ibn Affan: The Prophet said, “The son of Adam* has a right only to the following: a house in which he lives, a garment with which he conceals his private parts, dry bread and water.” Tirmidhi transmitted it. *humankind
Health, Wealth and Happiness
Hadith – Al-Tirmidhi #5290, Narrated by one of the companions: When we were sitting together, Allah’s Messenger appeared with a trace of water on his head, and when we told him that he appeared to us to be in a happy frame of mind, he agreed. The people then began to discuss wealth and Allah’s Messenger said, “There is no harm in wealth for him who fears Allah, Who is Great and Glorious, but for him who fears Allah health is better than wealth, and a happy frame of mind is one of Allah’s favors.” [Ahmad transmitted it]
Who do you fear? Mankind? or Allah swt?
The Noble Qur’an At-Taubah 9:13 “Will you not fight a people who have violated their oaths (pagans of Makkah) and intended to expel the Messenger, while they did attack you first? Do you fear them? Allah has more right that you should fear Him, if you are believers.”
Hadith – Al-Tirmidhi #5306, Narrated AbuDharr -Ahmad, Ibn Majah and Darimi transmitted it: Allah’s Messenger said, he knew a verse which would suffice men if they would but apply it, “For him who fears Allah He will appoint a way out and He will give him provision from an unimagined source.'”
Tears of Fear
Hadith – Al-Tirmidhi #5359, Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas’ud: Allah’s Messenger said, “If, through fear of Allah, tears–even to the extent of a fly’s head–fall from any believer’s eyes and drop on some part of his cheek, he will be kept away from Hell by Allah.” Ibn Majah transmitted it.
Must have Knowledge
The Noble Qur’an – Faatir 35:28 “And of men and Ad-Dawab (moving living creatures, beasts, etc.), and cattle, in like manner of various colors. It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allah. Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, Oft-Forgiving.
Sayings of the Salaf
`Umar ibn `Abdul `Aziz (rahimahullah) used to say, “None can reach the station of taqwa until he possesses neither action nor words that can be exposed to his embarrassment either in this world or the Hereafter.” He was once asked, “When does the worshipper reach the peak of taqwa? He replied, “If he put all his thoughts and desires in his heart on a plate and then wandered around in the market, he should not feel ashamed of anything there.” He would frequently say, “The sign of the muttaqun (pious person who fears Allah swt much) is to bridle oneself from speaking just like one in ihram bridles himself from speaking. The muttaqun need to be a scholar of the Shari`ah, all of it, otherwise he leaves taqwa without realizing.”
Action Items for the Muttaqun:
Run from sin and questionable matters (i.e. potential temptations or sins)
Run to Allah (i.e. repentence, with sincerity, in ibadah [worship], etc.)
Realize that it is out of love that a parent corrects a child. It is a lack of love that neglects or shows little concern regarding a child. So lovingly accept correction from Allah and abstain from evil because of fear of punishment.
There is no fear where there is not obedience.
Stop fearing mankind. If you’re worried more about what Joe or Hasan down the street thinks then you’re not fearing your Lord. Stop fearing or worrying about the unknown and things you cannot control. “Fix yourself” (i.e. stop trying to fix things you can’t control and stop making excuses that will not stand up to scrutiny on Judgment Day) Accept the Qadar of Allah, swt. Remember… Allah, subhana watala, sees everything we do!