Aqeedah

Contents:

CREED OF HAMAWIYYAH BY SHAIKH UL-ISLAM IBN TAYMIYYAH #1

AQEEDAT AHL ASSUNNAH WA-LJAMA’AH

AQIDAH

THE PRINCIPLES OF AHL US-SUNNAH IN DERIVING AQIDAH

THE MUSLIM CREED

THE CORRECT AQEEDAH

18 IMPORTANT LESSONS FOR THE MUSLIM UMMAH

AQEEDAH COMES FIRST!

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

CREED OF HAMAWIYYAH BY SHAIKH UL-ISLAM IBN TAYMIYYAH #1

Author: Shaikh ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah

Source: Aqidatul-Hamawiyyah

Creed of Hamawiyyah – Chapter 1 : What is Obligatory Upon the Slave Concerning His Religion

It is to follow what Allaah and His Messenger have said, and then the Rightly Guided Khaleefah-s and the Companions, and then those who followed them in goodness.

1.1 FOLLOWING ALLAAH AND HIS MESSENGER (saw) 7:158

1.2 FOLLOWING THE MESSENGER (saw) AND THE RIGHTLY GUIDED KHALEEFAH’S. “It is obligatory that you stick to my Sunnah and that of the Rightly Guided haleefah-s after me. Stick to that and bite onto that with your molar teeth. And beware of newly invented matters, for every such matter is an innovation and every innovation leads astray.”

1.3 FOLLOWING THE COMPANIONS. They followed the Prophet(saw) in Beneficial Knowledge and Righteous Actions. They have the greatest right to be followed after the Prophet(saw) as Allaah chose them to accompany the Prophet(saw) knowing them to be: 1) the most complete in Faith. 2) the most superior in intellect. 3) the most upright in actions. 4) the most firm in resolve. 5) the most guided on the correct path they were upon.

1.4 FOLLOWING THOSE WHO FOLLOWED THEM IN GOODNESS. And the Imaams of the Religion who followed this way who were known for being upon guidance and correctness.

1.5 TO BELIEVE THAT ALLAAH SENT HIS MESSENGER WITH CLEAR PROOFS. And the guidance to obligate all to have faith in him and to follow him.

Chapter 2 : What the Message Comprised of In Terms of Explanation of the Principles and Details of the Religion. The message of the Prophet (saw) comprised of [see 61:9] Beneficial Knowledge = Guidance [al-Hudaa] and Righteous Actions = Religion of Truth [Deen-ul-Haqq]

2.1 BENEFICIAL KNOWLEDGE [AL ‘ILM-UN-NAFI’] That which results in good for the Ummah in this world and next. The most beneficial is that of Allaah, His Names, Attributes, Actions a). It is the essence of Tawheed-ul-Ulooheeyah. b). It is the essence of the Prophetic call. c). By it, is the Religion supported. It’s impossible that the Prophet (saw) left it unclearly explained because:

2.1.1 THE MESSAGE OF THE PROPHET (saw) CONTAINED LIGHT AND GUIDANCE. And Allaah dispatched him as a bringer of glad tidings, a warner and a bright lamp.

– And greatest most lasting light is that which enlightens the heart as a result of recognising Allaah, His Names and Attributes. Hence he must have explained it clearly.

2.1.2 THE PROPHET (saw) TAUGHT THE UMMAH ALL IT NEEDED TO KNOW. He even gave some knowledge of the birds [cf. narration of Aboo Dharr]. Then surely he taught the knowledge of Allaah, His Names and Attributes.

2.1.3 EEMAAN IN THIS KNOWLEDGE IS: 1) The basis of the Religion. 2) The essence of what the Messenger called to. 3) The most obligatory of knowledge. 4) The most excellent of things that the minds should grasp. So how could he not teach it when he taught lesser matters?

2.1.4 THE PROPHET (saw) WAS: 1) The most knowledgeable about his Lord. 2) The most sincere to the creation. 3) The most eloquent in speech. Hence he could not have left this matter of Eemaan in Allaah, His Names and Attributes unclear and doubtful, while this knowledge needed clarification.

2.1.5 AND THE COMPANIONS MUST HAVE CLEARLY CONVEYED THIS KNOWLEDGE. Or else they were silent or spoke falsely – both are impossible.

2.1.5.1 It’s Impossible That They Were Silent. If so, it meant that they were ignorant of what is obligatory to know with respect to Allaah, His Names and Attributes, or else they concealed this knowledge purposely.

2.1.5.1.1 It’s Impossible That They Were Ignorant. For all hearts with life, consciousness, a desire for knowledge and to worship, would have its most important issue as studying Eemaan in Allaah, His Names and Attributes, and to realise this in terms of knowledge and belief. And the Companions – the best of people – had most life in their hearts, and greatest love for goodness, and the most desire to realise beneficial knowledge. He (saw) said: “The best of the people is my generation, then those who followed them, then those who followed them.” And this goodness encompasses their excellence in everything done to bring one closer to Allaah, via words, actions and beliefs. And if they were ignorant, then those after them would be more so, as the Messenger(saw) used them to convey the religion. Hence the saying they were ignorant implies that no one now has this knowledge, and this is clearly impossible.

2.1.5.1.2 It’s Impossible That They Concealed the Truth. For every rational person knows the Companions to have been eager to convey beneficial knowledge to the Ummah. Hence it’s impossible – especially concerning the most obligatory of things to know.

2.1.5.2 It’s Impossible That They Spoke Falsely – i.e. with No Authentic Evidence. They were the least likely to speak without knowledge of an authentic proof. They were the first to obey Allaah’s commands: (17):36 and (7):33. And the source of false speech is either ignorance or a desire to misguide – both are impossible.

2.1.5.2.1 As for Ignorance then that is impossible – see 2.1.5.1.1

2.1.5.2.2 As for Misguiding the Creation then this is an evil desire which could not come from the Companions for the Ummah. And if true it implies all what they said about the Religion is false and so the whole Sharee’ah is in doubt – And this saying is futile.

2.1.5.3 Hence Once It’s Clear That They did Speak the Truth Concerning This they did so either via their Minds or via the Revelation

2.1.5.3.1 As for the Mind then it can’t reach the details of what is obligatory to know of Allaah, His Names and Attributes.

2.1.5.3.2 And that leaves the only source of their knowledge as the Revelation Brought by Muhammad (saw)

2.2 RIGHTEOUS ACTIONS [AL ‘AMAL-US-SAALIH] Those done: Solely for Allaah’s sake [al-Ikhlaas] and in accordance with the Sunnah of His Messenger (sas) [al-Mutaaba’ah]

Chapter 3 : The Way of Ahl us-Sunnah Concerning Allaah’s Attributes. Ahl-us-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah are those who gather upon adherence to the Prophet’s Sunnah (saw) – outwardly and inwardly; in speech, action and belief. Their way with respect to Allaah’s Names and Attributes is:

3.1 CONCERNING AFFIRMATION. They affirm that which Allaah has affirmed for Himself in His Book or via His Messenger () without Tahreef, Ta’teel, Takyeef or Tamtheel.

3.2 CONCERNING DENIAL. They deny that which Allaah has denied for Himself in His Book or via His Messenger (saw). At the same time they affirm the opposite in the most perfect sense.

3.3 CONCERNING WHERE AFFIRMATION OR DENIAL IS NOT SPECIFICALLY MENTIONED e.g. al-Jism (body), al-Hayyiz (realm), al-Jihah (direction). Then their way is: 1) To halt at the words and neither affirm or deny them. 2) Then to look into the meaning of those words if the meaning is false then they deny this meaning and if the meaning is correct and not prohibited for Allaah then they accept this meaning.

3.4 THIS WAY (3.1-3.3) IS ESTABLISHED VIA TWO WAYS: The Mind and The Revelation

3.4.1 THE MIND. It’s clear to the mind, that the details of what is obligatory, permitted or prohibited for Allaah can not be reached by the mind. Hence one must follow the Revelation – affirming or denying what it affirms or denies, and staying silent where it is silent.

3.4.2 THE REVELATION

3.4.2.1 (7):180 – Proof of Affirmation without Tahreef or Ta’teel for both of these are from Ilhaad.

3.4.2.2 (42):111 – Proof to reject Tamtheel.

3.4.2.3 (17):36 – Proof to reject Takyeef and to obligate us to halt at those terms where affirmation or denial is not mentioned.

3.5 ATTRIBUTES WHICH ARE AFFIRMED OR DENIED FOR ALLAAH

3.5.1 THOSE WHICH ARE AFFIRMED FOR HIM. These are Attributes of Perfection in the most perfect sense without there being any aspect of deficiency.

3.5.2 THOSE WHICH ARE DENIED FOR HIM are attributes of deficiency which contradict perfection. Hence they are prohibited for Him.

3.5.2.1 And when Denying These, We Must Affirm the Opposite of it in the Most Perfect Sense because only denying it may be due to a deficiency. e.g. The poetry the Shaykh quotes. e.g. to say “The wall does not oppress” – this is not a praise of the wall because it can’t oppress! Examples concerning Allaah:

3.5.2.1.1 Allaah has denied Dhulm – Oppression from Himself, so we deny it from Him, and also affirm its opposite – Justice [al ‘Adl] – in the most perfect sense.

3.5.2.1.2 Allaah has denied Lughoob – Fatigue from Himself, so we deny it from Him, and also affirm its opposite – Power [al Qoowah] – in the most perfect sense.

3.6 DEFINITIONS

3.6.1 AT-TAHREEF

3.6.1.1 In the Language – to change or alter.

3.6.1.2 Technically here – to change the texts in wording or meaning. This is of 3 kinds.

3.6.1.2.1 Altering the words so the meaning changes: e.g. What some innovators do to the Saying of Allaah in (4):164 – changing the Dammah on the last letter of “Allaah” with a Fathah, in order to change the meaning to “Moosaa spoke to Allaah…”

3.6.1.2.2 Altering the words with no change of meaning: e.g. changing the Dammah on the last letter of “al Hamd” in (1):2, to a Fathah. This usually occurs out of ignorance.

3.6.1.2.3 Altering the Meaning: taking the meaning of the words away from their most apparent meaning without any proof. e.g. Saying Allaah’s Two Hands means “His Power” or “His Blessing”.

3.6.2 AL-TA’TEEL

3.6.2.1 In the Language – to discharge and to make empty.

3.6.2.2 Technically here – to reject or deny all or some of that which is obligatory for Allaah regarding His Names and Attributes. This is of 2 types.

3.6.2.2.1 Complete Ta’teel – like the Jahmeeyah who deny the Attributes and some of them deny the Names.

3.6.2.2.2 Partial Ta’teel – like the Ash’areeyah who deny some of the Attributes. The first of this Ummah to do this was Ja’d ibn Dirham.

3.6.3 AT-TAKYEEF. To try to describe “how” an Attribute is. e.g. To say: How Allaah’s Hand is, is like this and that, or How His Descending is, is like this and that. Takyeef differs to Tamtheel and Tashbeeh in two ways:

3.6.3.1 Takyeef is to Relate How Something is, with Restriction or Not by way of resembling. While Tamtheel and Tashbeeh indicate how something is in a restricted sense, by way of a likeness or resemblance respectively. Takyeef is more general. All who do Tamtheel, are doing Takyeef. But vice versa is NOT the case.

3.6.3.2 Takyeef is Particular to Allaah’s Attributes, while Tamtheel is concerned with His Decree, Description and Self.

3.6.4 AT-TAMTHEEL. To affirm something is alike another in every way.

3.6.5 AT-TASHBEEH. To affirm a resemblance in most attributes. Note: The terms Tamtheel and Tashbeeh are sometimes interchangeable. Tashbeeh is of two kinds:

3.6.5.1 Tashbeeh of the creation with the Creator – to affirm for the creation that which is particular to the Creator 1) Tashbeeh concerning His Rights – e.g. to say that others have the right to be worshipped alongside Allaah. 2) Tashbeeh concerning His Lordship – e.g. to say that there are other creators alongside Allaah. 3) Tashbeeh concerning His Attributes – to give others His Attributes that are particular to Him – e.g. see quoted poetry.

3.6.5.2 Tashbeeh of the Creator with the creation – to affirm for Allaah, concerning His Self and Attributes which are particular to Him, the likes of attributes of the creation. e.g. to say that Allaah’s Two Hands are like the creation’s hands. The first of this Ummah to introduce this was Hishaam ibn al-Hakam ar-Raafidee.

3.6.6 AL-ILHAAD [SEE (7):180; 3.4.2.1]

3.6.6.1 In the Language – to deviate, to turn aside.

3.6.6.2 Technically here – to deviate from that which is obligatory to believe in and act upon. This is of 2 kinds.

3.6.6.2.1 Al-Ilhaad in the Names of Allaah. To abandon the obligatory truth concerning them, and this is of 4 kinds: 1) to deny anything from them or from what is proven of the Attributes – as done by the people of Ta’teel. 2) to make His Names an indication of resembling the creation – as done by the people of Tashbeeh. 3) to name Allaah with names that He has not given Himself – as done by the Christians who call him “Father” and the philosophers who call Him “The Prime Mover.” 4) to derive from His Names, names for the idols – as done by the Mushriks who derived al-Laat from His Name al Ilaah and who derived al’Uzzah from His Name al ‘Azeez.

3.6.6.2.2 Al-Ilhaad concerning His Verses. This is of two types: 1) Relating to the Law-Related Verses – to distort them or deny the reports that must be believed in, or to disobey its rulings. 2) Relating to the Decree-Related Verses – to attribute these things to other than Allaah or to believe He has a partner in His acts of Creation and Decreeing.

Chapter 4 : The Correctness of the Way of the Salaf and a Refutation of the Claim that the Way of the Khalaf is Better in Knowledge and Wisdom

4.1 THE WAY OF THE SALAF IS INDEED THE ONLY CORRECT WAY. This is proven from two angles:

4.1.1 THE BOOK AND THE SUNNAH INDICATE THE WAY OF THE SALAF. Hence their way does conform to the Book and Sunnah. They had the best understanding of them, and were the strongest in believing in them and acting upon them. After all, they came in their language and in their era.

4.1.2 EITHER THE TRUTH LIES WITH THE SALAF, OR ELSE IT LIES WITH THE KHALAF. The later statement is false because it implies that Allaah, His Messenger, the Companions all spoke falsely concerning the truth which is obligatory to believe in. Hence the presence of the Book and the Sunnah is a pure detriment. Hence the people were left with no Book or Sunnah that offered them any good. All of this is clearly false. Hence the truth lies with the Salaf.

4.2 SOME OF THE IGNORANT HAVE SAID: “The way of the Salaf is safer, but the way of the khalaf is more knowledgeable and more wise.”

4.2.1 THERE WERE 2 CAUSES FOR THIS SAYING:

4.2.1.1 That the One Who Said it [Falsely] Believed that Allaah had no Real Attributes that Could be Proven from the Texts

4.2.1.2 That the One Who Said it [Falsely] Believed that the Way of the Salaf was: To believe merely the words of the Attributes offered by the text, without believing any meaning for them. So he felt that the way of the khalaf – to assign meanings that differed from the most apparent meanings that indicate affirmation of the Attributes – was deeper in knowledge and wisdom than that of the Salaf.

4.2.2 THIS FOOL’S SAYING COMPRISES OF SOME TRUTH AND SOME FALSEHOOD. The truth – is to say the way of the Salaf is safer. The falsehood – the rest of the statement. And it’s false for many reasons:

4.2.2.1 It Contradicts His Saying that the Way of the Salaf is Safer. Knowledge is a cause of safety and wisdom is how to use it. There is no safety without knowledge and wisdom. The way of the Salaf is safer, more knowledgeable and more wise.

4.2.2.2 His belief that the Texts Do Not Prove any Real Attributes for Allaah is False, being based on evil doubts, and the opposite is proved by the intellect, the Fitrah, and the Sharee’ah. 1) The intellect – All that exists have attributes of either perfection or deficiency. The second possibility is false for the Perfect Lord who indeed points out the deficiencies in the false gods in order to show that it’s futile to worship them. Hence the first is only possible – that Allaah has affirmed for Himself Attributes of perfection. And indeed we see the completeness of His creation. Hence the One who gave these complete attributes is all the more Complete and Perfect. 2) The Fitrah – All pure souls love, honour and worship Allaah because all pure souls naturally love, honour and worship that which possesses Attributes of Perfection. 3) The Sharee’ah – There are many proofs: The Qur’aan (59):22-24; (30):27; (2):255. Hadeeth “O people … indeed you are calling upon the Hearer, the See-er …”

4.2.2.3 His Belief that the Salaf Believed in Hollow Words with No Meaning is also False. They were the most learned of the Ummah, regarding the words and meanings of the texts. They were the first to affirm meanings that befit Allaah in accordance to what He and His Messenger wanted.

4.2.2.4 The Salaf were Inheritors of the Prophets and Messengers, learning from the Message of Tawheed-ul-Ulooheeyah, and from the true realities of Faith. But the khalaf learned from the Magians, Polytheists, Jews and Greeks and their offspring. So how can the khalaf be more knowledgeable and wise than the Salaf bearing in mind their respective sources of knowledge?

4.2.2.5 The Leaders of Khalaf Admitted that They Themselves were Confused about this Matter. Refer to the poetry and quote from ar-Raazee. So how can those who were in a state of misguidance and confusion [i.e. the leaders of the khalaf] be more knowledgeable and wise than the followers of the Prophets who knew the true realities of Faith and knowledge [i.e. the Salaf]?

4.2.3 HENCE: The way of the Salaf is safer, more knowledgeable and more wise.

Chapter 5 : What Some of the Later People Quote to be the Position of the Salaf

5.1 SOME OF THE PEOPLE SAY: “The way of the Salaf regarding Allaah’s Attributes is to leave the texts as reported, while believing that the most apparent meaning is not the intended meaning.” This statement hinges on what is meant by “most apparent” [Dhaahir].

5.1.1 IF WHAT IS MEANT BY THIS IS THE MOST APPARENT MEANING, BEFITTING HIS MAJESTY, WITHOUT MAKING ANY RESEMBLANCES, THEN THIS IS WHAT IS MEANT. Hence the above statement is a lie against the Salaf.

5.1.2 IF WHAT IS MEANT BY THIS – AS IS THOUGHT BY SOME – IS TO RESEMBLE ALLAAH TO HIS CREATION, THEN THIS IS NOT WHAT IS MEANT. Hence with this meaning, the above statement is correct. But this possibility is impossible as resembling the Creator to the creation is prohibited so how can “the most apparent” meaning be something impossible?

5.1.3 HENCE THE MEANING OF 5.1.1 IS THE ONLY VALID ONE AND HENCE THIS STATEMENT IS A LIE AGAINST THE SALAF.

Chapter 6 : What Some of the Later People Say to Cover Truth with Falsehood

6.1 SOME OF THE PEOPLE SAY: “There is no difference between the way of the Salaf and of the people of Ta’teel [i.e. the people of Tahreef], for all of them agree that the verses and hadeeths do not indicate Attributes for Allaah, but then the people of Ta’teel thought there would be some benefit in giving an explanation, because of the pressing need for it, and so they specified the intended meaning, while the Salaf held back from specifying anything in case they specified the wrong meaning.” This is a clear lie upon the Salaf for the following reasons:

6.1.1 THE SALAF CLEARLY SPECIFIED ATTRIBUTES FOR ALLAAH. They never denied texts proving Attributes for Him, befitting His Majesty, and instead they rejected anyone who would deny the Attributes. e.g. the statement of Nu’aym bin Hammaad al-Khuzaa’ee.

6.1.2 THE PEOPLE OF TA’WEEL WERE THE ADVERSARIES OF THE SALAF. They accused the Salaf of Tashbeeh and Tajseem. So how could they have been in agreement when they were adversaries? Indeed the people of Ta’teel opposed the Salaf because the Salaf believed in the Attributes, with meanings befitting Allaah, without Tashbeeh or Tajseem.

Chapter 7 : Some Sayings of the Salaf Concerning Allaah’s Attributes

7.1 “LEAVE THEM ALONE AS THEY WERE REPORTED, WITHOUT [RELATING] HOW” Related from Makhool, az-Zuhree, Maalik bin Anas, Sufyaan ath-Thawree, al-Layth bin Sa’d and al-Awzaa’ee.

7.1.1 IT REFUTES THE PEOPLE OF TA’TEEL. i.e. the part saying “Leave them alone as they were reported”

7.1.2 IT REFUTES THE PEOPLE OF TASHBEEH. i.e. the part saying “without [relating] how”

7.1.3 IT PROVES THAT THE SALAF DID CONFIRM THE CORRECT MEANINGS BEFITTING ALLAAH. For the texts dealing with the Attributes, from two angles:

7.1.3.1 The Part Saying “Leave them Alone as they were Reported” Means: to leave alone the meanings. And if they believed there was no meaning to the words, they would have said: “Leave the words alone and don’t delve into the meaning”

7.1.3.2 The Part Saying “Without [relating] How” clearly shows affirmation of the real meaning. Otherwise they would not need to deny asking or relating how.

7.2 “WE BELIEVE IN THEM AND AFFIRM THEM, WITHOUT [RELATING] HOW AND WITHOUT MEANING”. Related by al Imaam Ahmad concerning the hadeeth of Allaah’s descending and the like.

7.2.1 SO WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THE PART: “WITHOUT HOW?” There is a “how” concerning Allaah – but it is unknown to us. It can only be known by way of: 1) Seeing directly or 2) A report of someone truthful 3) And none of these exist concerning how Allaah’s Attributes are.

7.2.2 SO THE MEANING OF “WITHOUT HOW” IS “WITHOUT RELATING HOW” And it does not mean to deny any “how” for Allaah’s Attributes, for that would be pure Ta’teel. So what’s the meaning of the part “without meaning”? Ahmad is talking about the twisted meanings of the people of Ta’teel who adopted non-apparent meanings. This is also shown by what Ibn Taymeeyah says: “All the scholars … are agreed upon having Faith in … without giving explanation…” He means the explanation of the people of Ta’teel. Hence the word “meaning” or “explanation” is of two kinds:

7.2.2.1 The Acceptable Meaning/Explanation – which the Companions and their followers were upon i.e. the most apparent meanings which befit Allaah’s Greatness.

7.2.2.2 The Unacceptable Meaning/Explanation – which the Companions and their followers were not upon.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

AQEEDAT AHL ASSUNNAH WA-LJAMA’AH

By: Shaikh Mohammad Ibn Salih Al-Uthaimeen

Our creed is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgement, and Fate whether good or bad. Belief in Allah’s Lordship, Oneness, and Attributes. We believe in Allah’s Divinity, that is He is the Lord, the Creator, the Sovereign, and the Manager of all affairs. We believe in Allah’s Godship; that is, He is the True God and every other deity is false. We believe in His Names and Attributes, that is He has the most magnificent Names and the sublime perfect Attributes. We believe in His Oneness in all this, that is, He has no associate in His Divinity, His Godship, His Names, or His Attributes. Allah says in the Qur’an what means: “He is the Lord of the Heavens and the Earth and all that is in between them, so worship Him and be patient in His worship, do you know any equal to Him.” (19:65)

We believe that He is “Allah there is no God but He, the Living the Everlasting. Slumber does not seize Him, neither sleep; to Him beiongs all that is in the Heavens and the Earth. Who is there that shall intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not encompass anything of His knowledge except what He wills. His Throne extends over the Heavens and the Earth; the preservation of them does not burden Him; He is the High, the Great.” (2:255)

We believe that “He is Allah, there is no god but He–the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible, He is the Most Gracious, Most Merciful. He is Allah, there is no God but He, the King, the Holy One, the Source of Peace, the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Almighly, the Subduer, the Sublime. Glory be to Allah above what they associate with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, the Shaper, His are the most beautiful Names. All that is in the Heavens and the Earth glorfies Him. He is the Almighty, the Wise.(59:22-4)

We believe that to Him belongs the kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth: “He creates what He pleases. He gives, to whom He wills, females, and He gives, to whom He wills, males, or He couples them, males and females; and He makes whom He wills barren. Surely, He is the Knowing, the Powerful.” (42:49-50).

We believe that “There is nothing whatever like unto Him, He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing. To Him belongs the keys of the Heavens and the Earth. He enlarges and restricts provisions to whom He wills. Surely He has knowledge of everything.” (42:11-12).

We believe that “There is no creature that moves in the Earth but its provision depends on Allah. He knows its dwelling and its resting place. All is recorded in a clear Book.” (11:6)

We believe that “With Him are the keys of the Unseen; none knows them but He. He knows what is in land and sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. Not a grain in the deep darkness of the Earth, not a thing green or dry but it is in a clear Book.” (6:59).

We believe that “Allah alone has the knowledge of the Hour, sends down rain, and knows what is in the wombs. No soul knows what it shall earn tomorrow, and no soul knows in what land it shall die. Surely, Allah is All-knowing, All-aware.” (31:34)

We believe that Allah speaks whatever He pleases whenever He pleases “And Allah spoke to Moses directly.” (4:164)

“And when Moses came at Our appointed place, and his Lord spoke to him.” (7:143)

“We called to him from the right side of the Mount (Sinai), and We brought him near in communion.” (19-52)

We believe that “If the ocean became ink for the words of my Lord, the ocean would be finished before the words of my Lord came to an end.” (18:109)

“And if all the trees that are in the earth were pens, and the ocean (were ink), with seven oceans swelling it therefore, the words of Allah would not be exhausted. Surely, Allah is Mighty, Wise.” (31:27).

We believe that Allah’s words are the most truthful in conveying information, the most just in ruling, and the fairest in conversation. He said what means, “The word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and justice.” (6:115)

“And who is more truthful in his word than Allah?” (4:74).

We believe that the Qur’an is Allah’s words. He literally spoke it to Gabriel who conveyed it to the Prophet, peace be upon him: “Say (O Muhammad) the Holy Spirit has brought it down from your Lord in truth.” (16:102)

“Truly it is the revelation of the Lord of the worlds brought down upon your heart by the Faithful Spirit so that you may be one of the warners, in a clear Arabic tongue.”(26: 192-5)

We believe that Allah is well above his creatures in His person and His Attributes, because He says what means, “He is the High, the Great.” (2:255)

“He is Supreme over His servants, and He is the Wise, the All-aware.” (6:18).

We believe that He “created the Heavens and the Earth in six days, then He settled Himself on the Throne; He manages everything.” (10:3)

His “settling on the Throne” means that He is (3ala) above His Throne in a way that is becoming to His Majesty and greatness. NOBODY EXCEPT HE KNOWS EXACTLY HOW HE IS SETTLING.

We believe that He is with His creatures while He is still on His Throne. He knows their conditions, hears their sayings, sees their deeds and manages their affairs. He provides for the poor and the broken. He gives sovereignty to whom He pleases and takes away sovereignty from whom He pleases; He exalts whom He wills and He abases whom He wills. In His hand is all good and He is powerful over everything. Whoever possesses these qualities is literally with His creatures even if He is literally above them on His Throne.

“There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him; He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing.” (42:11)

We do not say as the Incarnationists among the Jahomites and others say, that is, Allah is living with His creatures on Earth. We consider whoever says this a non-believer or straying away because he attributed to Allah that does not become Him of defects.

We believe in what His Messenger told us that He descends to the near sky before the last third of every night and says what means: “Who prays to Me and I will answer his prayers? Who asks Me and I will give him? Who asks my forgiveness and I will forgive him? (Bukhari & Muslim).

We believe that He will come at the Day of Judgment to judge among His people because He said what means, “No indeed! when the Earth is crushed to powder, and your Lord comes down with the angels in rows after rows, and Hell is brought out that day. On that day man will remember, but what will remembrance avail him?” (89:21-23)

We believe that He is the Doer of what He wills.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

AQIDAH

By Naasir al-‘Aql

Aqidah linguistically is derived from the term aqada. In Arabic, one states, “Aqada the rope” when the rope is tied firmly. And, “Aqada the sale” or “He settled the sale” when the person ratifies and contracts a sale or agreement. And Allah says in the Quran, “And as for those whom your right hands have made a covenant (Ar., aqadat)” [Al-Nisa 33]. And Allah also says, “But He will take you to task for the oaths which you swear in earnest (Ar., aqadtum) [Al-Maida, 89] which means asserted and adhered to, as proven in the verse, “And break not oaths after the assertion of them” [An-Nahl, 91]. If one says, “Aqadtu such and such,” it means his heart is firm upon such and such.

Therefore, Aqidah or I’tiqad according to the scholars of Islam is: The firm creed that one’s heart is fixed upon without any wavering or doubt. It excludes any supposition, doubt or suspicion.

The Following Is a Some of The Classical Works On ‘Aqeedah written by the scholars. The dates at the end show us how many yrs ago died and The Islamic Year we are in Know is 1421H

1) Kitaabul-Eemaan by the Imaam and mujtahid, Abu ‘Ubayd al-Qaasim ibn Salaam (d.224H)

2) Kitaabul-Eemaan by the Imaam Ib Abee Shaybah (d.235H)

3) Usoolus -Sunnah and Ar-Radd ‘alal Jahmiyyah waz-Zanaadaqah by the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jammah Ahmad bin Hanbal (d.241H)

5) As-Sunnah by the student of Imaam Ahmad, Abu Bakr al-Athram (d.273H)

6) Kitaabus-Sunnah (being part of the Sunan) by the faqeeh and Imaam Ibn Abu Dawood as -Sijistaanee (d.275H)

7) Al-Ikhtilaaf fee Ladfh war-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah by imaam Ibn Qutaybah (d.276H)

8) Ar-Radd ‘alal Jayhmiyyah by Imaam ad-Daarimee (d.280H)

9) As-Sunnah by the qaadee and haafidh, Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (d.287H)

10) As-Sunnah by the haafidh ,Abdullah ibn Imaam Ahmad (d.290H)

11) As-Sunnah by the qaadee and muhaddith AbuBakr al-Maroozee (d.292H)

12) As-Sunnah by the student of Imaam Ahmad, al-Marwaazee (d.292H)

13) Sareehus-Sunnah by the mujtahid, mufassir and Imaam , Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree (d.310H)

14) Kitaabut-Tawheed wa Ithbaat Sifaatur-Rabb by the faqeeh and Imaam, Ibn Khuzaymah (d.311H)

15) Aqeedatut-Tahaawiyyah by the Imaam Abu Jafar at-Tahaawee (d.321H)

16) Al-Maqaalatul-Islamiyeen, Ar-Risaalah ilaa Ahlth-Thaghr and Al-Ibaanah ‘an Usoolid-Diyaanah by Imaam Abdul-Hasan al-Asharee (d.324H)

17) Asl us-Sunnah by the haafidh and Imaam, Abu Haatim ar-Raazee (d.327H)

18) Sharhus-Sunnah by the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jammah in his time, Imaam al-Barbaaharee (d.329H)

(19) Kitaab us-Sunnah by the qaadee, Abu Ahmad al-Asaal(d.349H)

(20) Ash-Shareeah by the faqeeh and Imaam, Abu Bakr al-Aajuree(d.360H)

(21) Itiqaad Aimmatul-Hadeeth by the faqeeh and Imaam, Abu Bakr al-Ismaeelee(d.371H)

(22) Kitaabus-Sifaat and Kitaabun-Nuzool by the haafidh, the Imaam, ad-Daaraqutnee(d.385H)

(23) Al-Ibaanah ‘an Sharee’atil Firqatin -Naajiyah and Sharhul-Ibaanah ‘an Usoolis-Sunnah wad-Diyaanah by the haafidh,the faqeeh, Imaam Battah al-Akbaree (d.387H)

(24) Kitaabut-Tawheed and ar-Radd’alal-Jahmiyyah both by the haafidh and Imaam, Ibn Mandah (d.395H)

(25) Sharh Usool Itiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah Wal Jamaah by the haafidh and faqeeh, Imaam al-Laalilkaa’ee (d.428H)

(26) Al-Wusool ilaa Maarifatil-Istiwaa by Imaam Abu ‘Amr at-Talamankee al-Andalusee (d.429H)

(27) Al-Itiqaad by Abu Nuaym al-Ashbaanee (d.430H)

(28) Risaalah fee Ithbaatil-Istiwaa by Imaam Abu Muhammad al-Juwaynee (d.438H)

(29) Aqeedatus-Salaf Ashaabul-Hadeeth by the haafidh and Imaam, Abu Uthmaan as-Saboonee (d.449H)

(30) Al-I’tqaad alaa Madhabis-Salaf Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaah by Imaam al-Bayhaaqee (d.457H)

(31) Dhammul-Kalaam by the haafidh and faqeeh, Shaykh ul-Islaam Abu Ismaeel al-Harawee (d.481H)

Sources for the Aqeedah (1)

The aqeedah has two fundamental sources, they are:

1. The Book of Allah -the Most high (the noble Quraan)

2. What is authentic from Allaah’s Messenger(saw). Since the Messenger(saw) does not speak from desires ,rather his words are Revelation sent down.

And the Ijmaa (concensus) of the Salafus-Saalih (Pious Predecessors): A source based upon the Book and Sunnah (2)

As regards the uncorrupted fitrah (natural state) and the sound and correct aql (intellect) then they will agree with and conform to the Book and the Sunnah and will be able to arrive at the general principles of aqeedah, but not its details.So the sound and correct aql and fitrah affirm Allahs existence and that He is Most great and that it is essential to obey and to worship Him; and that He has the Attributes of Greatness and Majesty. Likewise, the sound aql and the uncorrupted fitrah realize the necessity of here being Prophets and the sending of Messengers; and that there has to be Resurrection and requital of actions; etc-in general, but without the specifics and details.

However, as for other matters and the rest of the matters of the Ghayb (Unseen) ,then their is no way to find them out in detail, except by way of the Book and the Sunnah (the revelation) otherwise it would not be from the Unseen. And contradiction between a clear text of the Book and the Sunnah and sound and correct ‘aql cannot be imagined and is infact an impossibilty. So if there appears to be a contradiction between the two then the Revelation is given precedence and is decisive (3) since it comes from the one who is infallible (saw), whereas the aql (intellect) of a person is not infallible. Indeed,the aql is the deficient perception of humans, and it is open to misconception, error, forgetfulness, desires, ignorance and inability—thus it is certainly deficient.

Its Principles and Methodology

1. The source for aqeedah is the Book of Allah ,the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger (saw)and the Ijmaa (concensus) of the Salaf(pious predecessors).

2. Everything that we have with us authentically reported from Allaah’s Messenger (saw),then we have to accept it – whether it has been related in mutaawatir or ahaad form.(5)

3. That which we refer back in order to understand the Book and the Sunnah are those texts which explain others;and the understanding of the Salafus-Saalih (the pious Predecessors(6) and those scholars who followed their minhaj (methodology) and then what is correct from the language point of view. However,we do not reject something established due to a language meaning.

4. All the fundamental principles of the Deen were explained by the Prophet(saw) .That which which was not considered part of the deen at that time can not be considered part of the Deen later.

5. Submission to Allah and His Messenger(saw) both inwardly and outwardly.So we do not oppose anything from the Book,nor from the authentic Sunnah with qiyaas(analogy), personal views, kashf(intuition), nor the saying of any Shaykh or Imaam,etc.

6. Correct and sound ‘aql (reasoning or intellect) agrees with authentic naql(text)-thes e two agree with each other – and what is qat’ee (definite) fom either of them can not contradict the other.If there is an apparent contradiction, then the text is given precedence.

7. It is imperative and obligatory to adhere to the textual and Sharee’ah wordings in matters of aqeedah and to avoid innovated terms and wordings. As regards wordings which contain more than one meaning and may be correct or incorrect, then the meaning should be ascertained; so if the meaning is correct then it is affirmed with a Sharee’ah wording. However ,if the meaning is incorrect, then it is rejected.

8. Infalliblity(ie being masoom) is established for Allaah’s Messenger(saw).The Ummah as a whole is also masoom (infallible) and protected fro uniting upon error and misguidance. However, as for the individuals of this Ummah, then they are not masoom( ie they err and make mistakes). So whenever there is a difference amongst the scholars, then we refer it back to the Book and the Sunnah along with making an excuse for the one who has erred and is mistaken; since he is from mujtahidoon (those Scholars who are qualified to extract rulings from the Book and the Sunnah) of this Ummah.

9. In this Ummah there are some who are muhaddath (addressed) with ilhaam (inspiration (i.e. inspired without receiving revelation, since that has ended with the Messenger(saws)). Good dreams are true and are a part of Prophethood. Likewise, truthful intuition is a true fact and is considered as being one of the karaamat (miraculous occurences) with the condition that it conforms to and agrees with the Revelation. However,such dreams and intuitions are neither a source for deriving matters of aqeedah nor Sharee’ah.

10. Argumentation about the Deen is something censured, whilst debating in a good manner is something prescribed. However,there are certain matters which it is not permissible to debate and argue about. It is obligatory to withhold from speaking about those matters which one has no knowledge of and to refer knowledge of it back to Allah.

11. It is essential and obligatory to adhere to the same methodology of the Revelation when refuting. So an innovation is not refuted with another innovations, negligence and falling short is not refuted with extremity, nor is extremity refuted with negligence.

12. Every newly invented matter in the Deen is a bidah (innovation). Every bidah is going astray and misguidance, and every misguidance is in the Fire.

Notes

(1) From Mubaahith fee Aqeedah Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah(p.28)

(2) Refer to Al-Itisaam (2/252) of ash-Shatibee.

(3) Refer to Sharhul-Aqeedat-Tahaawiyah (pp.140-141) of Ibn Abil-‘Izz al-Hanafee.And refer also to Dar’Taarudil-Aqlmaan-Naql(1/88-280)of Ibn Taymiyyah and indeed ,refer to the whole book as it is very beneficial in this matter.

(4) Mujmal Usool Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaah fil -Aqeedah (pp.7-9)

(5) Shaykh Mahmood at-Tahhaan said in tayseer Mustahlil-Hadeeth (pp.20-21) about the definition of mutaawatir: Technically: “That which is related by such a larg number of people, that it is impossible that they have invented a lie.Its conditions: i) That it be narrated by a large number of people, Scholars differ about the actual number required, ii) that this number found in every level of the chain, iii) that it is impossible that they could have gathered together upon a lie”

Refer to Nuzhatun-Nadhr fee Tawdeehi Nukhbatil-Fikr(p.57) of al-Haafidh Ibn Hajjar and Tadreebur-Raawee(2/177) of as-Suyotee. Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar says in Nuzhatun-NaNadhr(p.71) about the definition of the aahad hadeeth:”It is that which does not fulfil the conditions of the mutaawatir.” And the aahaad narrations constitute the majority of narrations, whether in the collections of al-Bukhareee and Muslim, or in the collections of other than them.

(6) From the clearest sign and greatest testimony of a persons truly following the path of the Salafus-Saalih is clinging firmly to their sayings and their judgements with regards to aqeedah, which have been preserved in the earliest books of aqeedah and manjah and from these twelve principles have been derived. So from the earliest of these books are:

1) Kitaabul-Eemaan by the Imaam and mujtahid,Abu ‘Ubayd al-Qaasim ibn Salaam(d.224H)

2) Kitaabul-Eemaan by the Imaam Ib Abee Shaybah(d.235H)

3) Usoolus -Sunnah and Ar-Radd ‘alal Jahmiyyah waz-Zanaadaqah by the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jammah Ahmad bin Hanbal(d.241H)

4) Khalq Afaalul-Ibaad ,Kitaabul-Eeemaan and Kitabut-Tawheed (the last two being part of al-Jamius-Saheeh ) by Imaam al-Bukharee(d.256H).

5) As-Sunnah by the student of Imaam Ahmad, Abu Bakr al-Athram(d.273H)

6) Kitaabus-Sunnah (being part of the sunan) by the faqeeh and Imaam Ibn Abu Dawood as -Sijistaanee(d.275H)

7) Al-Ikhtilaaf fee Ladfh war-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah by imaam Ibn Qutaybah(d.276H)

8) Ar-Radd ‘alal Jayhmiyyah by Imaam ad-Daarimee(d.280H)

9) As-Sunnah by the qaadee and haafidh,Ibn Abee ‘Aasim(d.287H)

10) As-Sunnah by the haafidh, Abdullah ibn Imaam Ahmad(d.290H)

5. They do not contradict the Qur’aan or the Sunnah with their ‘Aql (Intellect) or opinions or analogies. And (therefore) the Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah do not rely upon, follow or cling except to the knowledge and the practise of the Salaf us-Saalih and whoever takes from them, sticks to their jamaa’ah and travels upon their trail and binds (and restricts) himself to their principles/foundations. And this is because the Companions (ra) learnt the tafseer (explanation) of the Qur’an and the Hadeeth from the Messenger (sas), then taught it to the Taabi’een but did not put themselves before Allaah and His Messenger with an opinion, ones taste, ones intellect, sudden enlightenment (like that of the soofees) or other such things.

6. The Jamaa’ah (The Group that is united upon the Truth, which the Messenger (saws) came with, in terms of speech and action) is the means of Deliverance in this life and in the Hereafter.

The Ahl us-Sunnah therefore, hold fast to the Jamaa’ah of the Messenger (sas) turning away from the places of separation and difference, clinging tightly to the totality of the Book, the Sunnah and Ijmaa (unanimous agreement of the companions), whilst being far from the places of obscurity and unclarity (in the Book and the Sunnah) which separates and divides the united. And (this is because) the Jamaa’ah in (their estimation) is the means of Deliverance in this life and the Hereafter.

7. They do not make obligatory the acquaintance with a particular type of knowledge upon he who is incapable and which is befitting for the capable person only.

And the Ahl us-Sunnah believe in what the Prophet (sas) came with in its entirety, however, they differentiate between the one who is capable and the one who is not with regards to knowing what the Messenger (sas) came with in a detailed way. And this is a mighty principle: many trials have befallen (the Ummah) due to absence of its understanding.

Peace and Blessings upon the Messenger of Allaah, upon his Companions

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

THE PRINCIPLES OF AHL US-SUNNAH IN DERIVING AQIDAH

By Naasir al-‘Aql

Sources for the Aqeedah

The aqeedah has two fundamental sources,they are:

1. The Book of Allah -the Most high (the noble Quraan)

2. What is authentic from Allaah’s Messenger (saws). Since the Messenger (saws) does not speak from desires, rather his words are Revelation sent down.

And the Ijmaa (concensus) of the Salafus-Saalih (Pious Predecessors): A source based upon the Book and Sunnah (2)

As regards the uncorrupted fitrah (natural state) and the sound and correct aql (intellect) then they will agree with and conform to the Book and the Sunnah and will be able to arrive at the general principles of aqeedah, but not its details. So the sound and correct aql and fitrah affirm Allahs existence and that He is Most great and that it is essential to obey and to worship Him; and that He has the Attributes of Greatness and Majesty. Likewise, the sound aql and the uncorrupted fitrah realize the necessity of there being Prophets and the sending of Messengers; and that there has to be Resurrection and requital of actions; etc-in general, but without the specifics and details.

However, as for other matters and the rest of the matters of the Ghayb (Unseen) then there is no way to find them out in detail, except by way of the Book and the Sunnah (the revelation) otherwise it would not be from the Unseen.

And contradiction between a clear text of the Book and the Sunnah and sound and correct ‘aql cannot be imagined and is in fact an impossibility. So if there appears to be a contradiction between the two then the Revelation is given precedence and is decisive (3) since it comes from the one who is infallible (saws), whereas the aql (intellect) of a person is not infallible. Indeed, the aql is the deficient perception of humans, and it is open to misconception, error, forgetfulness, desires, ignorance and inability–thus it is certainly deficient.

Its Principles and Methodology

1. The source for aqeedah is the Book of Allah ,the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger (saws) and the Ijmaa (concensus) of the Salaf (pious predecessors).

2. Everything that we have with us authentically reported from Allaahs Messenger (saws), then we have to accept it – whether it has been related in mutaawatir or ahaad form.(5)

3. That which we refer back in order to understand the Book and the Sunnah are those texts which explain others; and the understanding of the Salafus-Saalih (the pious Predecessors(6) and those scholars who followed their minhaj (methodology) and then what is correct from the language point of view. However, we do not reject something established due to a language meaning.

4. All the fundamental principles of the Deen were explained by the Prophet (saws). That which which was not considered part of the deen at that time can not be considered part of the Deen later.

5. Submission to Allah and His Messenger (saws) both inwardly and outwardly. So we do not oppose anything from the Book, nor from the authentic Sunnah with qiyaas (analogy), personal views, kashf(intuition), nor the saying of any Shaykh or Imaam,etc.

6. Correct and sound ‘aql (reasoning or intellect) agrees with authentic naql (text)-these two agree with each other – and what is qat’ee (definite) fom either of them can not contradict the other. If there is an apparent contradiction, then the text is given precedence.

7. It is imperative and obligatory to adhere to the textual and Sharee’ah wordings in matters of aqeedah and to avoid innovated terms and wordings. As regards wordings which contain more than one meaning and may be correct or incorrect, then the meaning should be ascertained; so if the meaning is correct then it is affirmed with a Sharee’ah wording. However, if the meaning is incorrect, then it is rejected.

8. Infalliblity (i.e., being masoom) is established for Allaah’s Messenger (saws).The Ummah as a whole is also masoom (infallible) and protected from uniting upon error and misguidance. However, as for the individuals of this Ummah, then they are not masoom ( i.e., they err and make mistakes). So whenever there is a difference amongst the scholars, then we refer it back to the Book and the Sunnah along with making an excuse for the one who has erred and is mistaken; since he is from mujtahidoon (those Scholars who are qualified to extract rulings from the Book and the Sunnah) of this Ummah.

9. In this Ummah there are some who are muhaddath (addressed) with ilhaam (inspiration (i.e. inspired without receiving revelation, since that has ended with the Messenger(saws)). Good dreams are true and are a part of Prophethood. Likewise, truthful intuition is a true fact and is considered as being one of the karaamat (miraculous occurences) with the condition that it conforms to and agrees with the Revelation. However,such dreams and intuitions are neither a source for deriving matters of aqeedah nor Sharee’ah.

10. Argumentation about the Deen is something censured, whilst debating in a good manner is something prescribed. However, there are certain matters which it is not permissible to debate and argue about. It is obligatory to withhold from speaking about those matters which one has no knowledge of and to refer knowledge of it back to Allah.

11. It is essential and obligatory to adhere to the same methodology of the Revelation when refuting. So an innovation is not refuted with another innovations, negligence and falling short is not refuted with extremity, nor is extremity refuted with negligence.

12. Every newly invented matter in the Deen is a bidah (innovation). Every bidah is going astray and misguidance, and every misguidance is in the Fire. Footnotes

(1) From Mubaahith fee Aqeedah Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah(p.28)

(2) Refer to Al-Itisaam (2/252) of ash-Shatibee.

(3) Refer to Sharhul-Aqeedat-Tahaawiyah (pp.140-141) of Ibn Abil-‘Izz al-Hanafee. And refer also to Dar’Taarudil-Aqlmaan-Naql(1/88-280)of Ibn taymiyyah and indeed, refer to the whole book as it is very beneficial in this matter.

(4) Mujmal Usool Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaah fil -Aqeedah (pp.7-9)

(5) Shaykh Mahmood at-Tahhaan said in tayseer Mustahlil-Hadeeth (pp.20-21) about the definition of mutaawatir:

Technically: “That which is related by such a large number of people, that it is impossible that they have invented a lie. Its conditions: i) That it be narrated by a large number of people, Scholars differ about the actual number required, ii) that this number found in every level of the chain, iii) that it is impossible that they could have gathered together upon a lie”

Refer to Nuzhatun-Nadhr fee Tawdeehi Nukhbatil-Fikr(p.57) of al-Haafidh Ibn Hajjar and Tadreebur-Raawee(2/177) of as-Suyotee.

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar says in Nuzhatun-NaNadhr(p.71) about the definition of the aahad hadeeth:”It is that which does not fulfil the conditions of the mutaawatir.”

And the aahaad narrations constitute the majority of narrations, whether in the collections of al-Bukhareee and Muslim, or in the collections of other than them.

(6) From the clearest sign and greatest testimony of a persons truly following the path of the Salafus-Saalih is clinging firmly to their sayings and their judgments with regards to aqeedah, which have been preserved in the earliest books of aqeedah and manjah and from these twelve principles have been derived. So from the earliest of these books are:

1) Kitaabul-Eemaan by the Imaam and mujtahid,Abu ‘Ubayd al-Qaasim ibn Salaam(d.224H)

2) Kitaabul-Eemaan by the Imaam Ib Abee Shaybah(d.235H)

3) Usoolus -Sunnah and Ar-Radd ‘alal Jahmiyyah waz-Zanaadaqah by the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jammah Ahmad bin Hanbal (d.241H)

4) Khalq Afaalul-Ibaad ,Kitaabul-Eeemaan and Kitabut-Tawheed (the last two being part of al-Jamius-Saheeh ) by Imaam al-Bukharee(d.256H).

5) As-Sunnah by the student of Imaam Ahmad, Abu Bakr al-Athram(d.273H)

6) Kitaabus-Sunnah (being part of the sunan) by the faqeeh and Imaam Ibn Abu Dawood as -Sijistaanee(d.275H)

7) Al-Ikhtilaaf fee Ladfh war-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah by imaam Ibn Qutaybah(d.276H)

8) Ar-Radd ‘alal Jayhmiyyah by Imaam ad-Daarimee(d.280H)

9) As-Sunnah by the qaadee and haafidh,Ibn Abee ‘Aasim(d.287H)

10) As-Sunnah by the haafidh, Abdullah ibn Imaam Ahmad(d.290H)

11) As-Sunnah by the qaadee and muhaaddith AbuBakr al-Maroozee (d.292H)

12) As-Sunnah by the student of Imaam Ahmad al-Marwaazee(d.292H)

13) Sareehus-Sunnah by the mujtahid, mufassir and Imaam Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree(d.310H)

14) Kitaabut-Tawheed wa Ithbaat Sifaatur-Rabb by the faqeeh and Imaam, Ibn Khuzaymah(d.311H)

15) Aqeedatut-Tahaawiyyah by the Imaam Abu Jafar at-Tahaawee (d.321H)

16) Al-Maqaalatul-Islamiyeen, Ar-Risaalah ilaa Ahlth-Thaghr and Al-Ibaanah ‘an Usoolid-Diyaanah by Imaam Abdul-Hasan al-Asharee(d.324H)

17) Aslus-Sunnah by the haafidh and Imaam ,Abu Haatim ar-Raazee(d.327H)

18) Sharhus-Sunnah by the Imaam of Ahlus-sunnah wal-Jammah in his time Imaam al-Barbaaharee(d.329H)

(19) Kitaab us-Sunnah by the qaadee,Abu Ahmad al-Asaal(d.349H)

(20) Ash-Shareeah by the faqeeh and Imaam, Abu Bakr al-Aajuree(d.360H)

(21) Itiqaad Aimmatul-Hadeeth by the faqeeh and Imaam , Abu Bakr al-Ismaeelee(d.371H)

(22) Kitaabus-Sifaat and Kitaabun-Nuzool by the haafidh,the Imaam ad-Daaraqutnee(d.385H)

(23) Al-Ibaanah ‘an Sharee’atil Firqatin -Naajiyah and Sharhul-Ibaanah ‘an Usoolis-Sunnah wad-Diyaanah by the haafidh,the faqeeh,Imaam Battah al-Akbaree(d.387H)

(24) Kitaabut-Tawheed and ar-Radd’alal-Jahmiyyah both by the haafidh and Imaam ,Ibn Mandah(d.395H)

(25) Al-Usool Itiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah Wal Jamaah by the haafidh and faqeeh ,Imaam al-Laalilkaee(d.395H)

(26) Al-Wusool ilaa Maarifatil-Istiwaa by Imaam Abu ‘Amr at-Talamankee al-Andalusee(d.429H)

(27) Al-Itiqaad by Abu Nuaym al-Ashbaanee(d.430H)

(28) Rissaalah fee Ithbaatil-Istiwaa by Imaam Abu Muhammad al-Juwaynee(d.438H)

(29) Aqeedatus-Salaf Ashaabul-hadeeth by the haafidh and Imaam ,Abu Uthmaan as-Saboonee(d.449H)

(30) Al-I’tqaad alaa Madhabis-Salaf Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaah by Imaam al-Bayhaaqee(d.457H)

(31) Dhammul-Kalaam by the haafidh and faqeeh, Shaykh ul-Islaam Abu Ismaeel al-Harawee(d.481H)

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

THE MUSLIM CREED

Known as (AI-Aqeeda Al-Tahawiya ) by Imam Abu Ja’far Al-Warraq AI-Tahawi and Translated by Shaykh Suhayb Hasan ‘Abdul Ghaffaar with notes by AI- Shaikh Abdul-Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baaz.

All Praise be to Allah, the Creator of the worlds. The learned authority on Islam, Abu Ja’far AI- Warraq AI-Tahawi of Egypt (May Allah have mercy upon him) said: This is an exposition of the beliefs Of Ahl us Sunnah wal Jama’h in accordance with the way of the jurists Of Islam: Abu Hanifa al-Nu’man bin thabit Al-kufi, Abu Yusuf Ya’qub bin Ibrahim AI-Ansari, Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin AI-Hasan Al-Shaibani (May Allah be pleased with them all) and this is what they believe about the fundamentals of the religion and the belief they profess about the Creator of the worlds.

By the grace of Allah, this what we say about the Tawheed( 1 ) (unity) of Allah:

ON TAWHEED (Oneness of Allah)

1- Allah is one and has no partners at all.

2- Nothing in the whole universe is similar to Him.

3- Nothing can surpass or outreach Him.

4- No one is worthy to be worshipped except Him.

5- He is Qadeem(2) with no beginning and Eternal with no end.

6.- He will never die nor perish.

7.- Nothing happens in this universe except with His will.

8.- No conjecture or thinking can perceive His real essence.

9.-He does not resemble any of His creatures.

10.- He is alive; death will not overtake Him. He is the protector; in no need of sleep at all.

11.- He is the Creator of the whole universe but He is in no need of it. He feeds all without difficulty.

12.- He makes all taste death with no fear. He will resurrect them all without any difficulty.

13.- Since eternity He has been there with all His attributes. He has always had these attributes and will always have these attributes. They did not increase after He brought His creatures into existence because they have always been there.

14.- He was not the Creator (Khaliq) after He had created His creatures and neither was He the Designer (Al-Bari) after He had designed the universe.

15.- He was The Nourisher (Rabb) before there was anyone to nourish and The Creator (Khaliq) before He had created anyone.

16.- Although He is entitled to be called The Resurrector after giving life to the dead, He deserves this title even before the resurrection. Similarly, He deserves to be called The Creator even before He gave life to anyone.

17.- He has power over everyone; everyone is in complete need of Him. He can do whatever He likes easily and is in no need of anything.

18.- Allah Almighty created all consciously.

19.- He estimated for each of His creatures what it needed (Known as Taqdir or predestination).

20.- He planned the end of every creature.

21.- Nothing was hidden from Him even before He brought His creatures into existence. He knew beforehand whatever His creatures would do in their lives.

22.- Allah Almighty commands His people to obey Him and forbids them from disobeying.

23.- Everything in this universe is bound to His will. What He wills occurs; what He does not will, could never happen.

24.- Allah Almighty guides whom He likes. He protects everyone out of His kindness. On the firm ground of justice and equity He disgraces or withholds His guidance or places in trials whoever He likes.

25.- All people are under His rule in this world; their lives are governed by His generosity and kindness at one one end and His justice at the other.

26.- He is above all partners and equals.

27.- No one can change His preordained decisions and neither can His orders be delayed. No one can overshadow His decisions.

28.- We have complete faith in Him. We believe that everything happens due to Him.

ON MUHAMMAD (SAW)

29.- Muhammad (saw) is undoubtedly His most exalted creature, His most beloved Messenger and a chosen Prophet.

30.- He is the last of the Prophets, Imam of all pious people, the Master of all the Messengers and the most beloved to the Creator of this universe.

31.- Any claim to prophethood after Him is ignorance and infidelity.

32.- He is commissioned to both jinns and human beings and to the entire universe with a message of truth, guidance and light.

ON THE GLORIOUS QURAN

33- The Quran, undoubtedly, is the word of Allah. It reveals the sayings of Allah. Allah Almighty revealed this Book to His Messenger. The believers testify to it as the whole truth with a firm faith that it is the word of Allah and that it is not a created thing like the words of the creatures themselves. Whoever listens to this Book and thinks that it is a word of a human being, commits infidelity. Allah Almighty condemns such a person and threatens him with chastisement in the Hell- fire.

He said: “Soon will I cast him into Hell-Fire. ” (74:26) in reply to the one who said about the Book of Allah: “This is nothing but the word of a mortal.” (74:25)

We believe that the Quran is the word of the Creator of the human beings. It does not resemble the words of human beings.

34.- Whoever compares the attributes of Allah to those of human beings, commits infidelity. Anyone who thinks deeply and escapes the onslaught of the thinking of the infidels, will certainly realise that the attributes of Allah have no resemblance at all to those of a human being.

35.- The dwellers of Paradise will see their Lord in accordance with the Quranic saying:

‘Some faces that day will beam (in brightness an beauty) Looking towards their Lord’ (75:22-23). ‘How this will happen is known to Allah Almighty. The above verse should be understood in a manner akin to Allah’s will and knowledge. The best explanation in this regard is that of the Prophet (saw) himself as narrated in some authentic Ahadith. We must have no consideration for our own will or desire in this issue. A man is safe as long as he refers back to Allah and His Messenger. Whenever in doubt he should try to consult a man of learning.

36.- Whoever does not concede to the evidences produced by the Book and the Sunnah is no longer a Muslim. A man who indulges in the fundamentals of faith without proper knowledge and does not submit himself to these two sources, will remain deprived of true faith, of understanding of the religion and of pure belief in the Oneness of Allah. Instead he will find himself swinging between faith and infidelity, belief and unbelief, submission and denial. He will always be confused and doubtful. He will neither be a believer who has a strong faith, nor a disbeliever who rejects wholeheartedly.

37.- To imagine Allah in a certain form is not correct. The safest way for a Muslim is to believe in all the attributes of Allah without adding any interpretation. To negate the attributes of Allah altogether or to compare Him to someone, is a deviation from the right path. Our Lord is unique and without any equal at all.

38.- Allah Almighty is above all limits and anthropomorphic descriptions. Unlike other things He is not bound by the six directions.(3)

ON MI’RAJ

39- Mi’raj (The Prophet’s night journey to heaven) is true. Allah Almighty took His Prophet while he was awake on a splendid journey. Then his ascension took place in flesh. Allah took him as high as He wanted him in all respect and glory.

‘So did Allah convey the inspiration to His servant (conveyed) what He (meant) to convey’. ‘The (Prophet’s) (mind and) heart in no way falsified that which he saw’. (53: 10-11) May Allah shower His blessing and mercy upon him in this world and in the Hereafter.

ON KAUTHAR

40.- The pool of Kauthar is true. Allah Almighty will let the Ummah quench its thirst from this exalted pool.

ON INTERCESSION

41.- The intercession (Shafa’a) for this Ummah by the Prophet is true in accordance with a number of Ahadith.

ON THE COVENANT

42.- The pledge that Allah took from Syyedina Adam (A.S.) and his descendants is true. Note.. Refer to verse No. 172 of Sura A’raf which is as follows:

When thy Lord drew forth from the children of Adam From their loins – their descendants and made the testify concerning themselves saying: “A m I not your Lord (Who cherishes and sustains you)? – They said.. Yea, we do testify” This lest you should say on the Day of Judgement. ‘Of this we were never mindful’or lest you shouldsay: ‘Our fathers before us took false gods but we are (their) descendants after them: will Thou then destroy us because of the deeds of men who followed falsehood. “(7:172-173)

ON TAQDIR

43.- Allah Almighty has known since eternity those who will enter Paradise and those who will go to the Hell-Fire. No increase or decrease in this divine knowledge will occur at all.

44.- Allah Almighty knows all the actions that the people will undertake. The actions that are destined for each individual will be made easier to him. Actions are valued according to their ends. Fortunate is the one whose Taqdir is in his favour and wretched is the on whose Taqdir falls against him.

45.- Taqdir is a secret placed by Allah Almighty among His creatures which is not known even by any close angel or by a Messenger. The more you think about it, the more you will find yourself depressed, deprived and arrogant. This is why a Muslim should abstain from thinking deeply about it. Allah has withdrawn the knowledge of Taqdir from His creatures and forbade them from arguing about it. He says: “He cannot be questioned for His acts, but they will be questioned for theirs”. By asking ‘why did Allah do this?’ a man rejects one of the injuctions of the Quran and whoever does this, enters the rank of the infidels.

46.- Only the friends of Allah whose hearts are lit by a light of Allah, believe in the Shari’a practically and dogmatically as revealed from Allah. People with deep knowledge receive such status. Knowledge is of two kinds: (i)- Knowledge of the present (i.e. that of the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet). (ii) – Knowledge of the absent (i.e. that of Taqdir which is hidden from the creatures).(4) To deny the knowledge of the present and to claim to have knowledge of the absent amount to infidelity. A man’s faith is strengthened by accepting what is present and leaving aside what is absent.

47.-We believe in the pen and the tablets and whatever is associated with the writing Of Taqdir. What Allah has decreed must happen even though all the creatures may try their best to stop it happening. Similarly, if Allah has decreed for anything not to happen, it will never happen though all the creatures will try their utmost to do it. Allah has decreed whatever is going to happen until the Day of Judgement. Allah’s decree will never fail. Whoever does wrong, would never have been able to do otherwise. And Whoever does right, would never have been able to do wrong.

48.- Let all the People know that whatever happens in this universe is known to Allah before it happens. No one can change or Overrule or increase or decrease whatever is decreed by Him. To believe in these facts indicates a firm belief, recognition of truth and well awareness of the oneness of Allah.

Allah says: “It is He who created all things and ordered them in due proportions”. (25:2)

“And the command of Allah is a decree’ determined.” (33:38)

A man subjects himself to destruction by unknowingly disputing on the issue of Taqdir, in a vain pursuit of the hidden knowledge through superstition and conjecture and ends up eventually as a liar and forger.

ON THRONE AND CHAIR

49.- ‘The Divine Throne (‘Arsh) and Chair (Kursi) are true.

50.-Allah Almighty is in no need of the Throne or anything beyond it.

51.-Allah Almighty is above everything. He dominates them all. Nothing can surpass Him.

THE STATUS OF IBRAHIM AND MUSA

52.- We believe wholeheartedly that Allah Almighty declared Sayyidina Ibrahim (A.S.) as His Khalil (friend) and Sayyidina Musa (A.S.) as His Kalim (speaking directly to Him).

ON THE BOOKS OF ALLAH

53.- We believe in all those books which were revealed to the Prophets and the Messengers of Allah and bear witness that all of them spoke the truth.

MUSLIM AND MU’MIN

54.- We hold all those who tum their faces to the Ka’ba as Muslims and Mu’min as long as they accept the Shari’a of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) and all of his sayings with an open heart.

55.- We do not indulge in discussions about the essence of Almightly Allah, nor do we dispute in the matters of religion.

56.- We do not dispute concerning the words and meanings of the Quran. We bear witness that the Quran is the word of Allah Almighty . The Archangel Jibrail brought it to Muhammad (), the master of the messengers, through revelation. There is no doubt that it is the word of Allah. The words of human beings can ,ever equal it, and we do not regard it as a created thing. We do not disgrace with the Muslim Ummah’ in any Of these issues.

57.- We do not declare anyone from among the Muslims as an infidel because of a sin unless the Person believes that it is not a sin. (5)

58.- We do not believe that if a man has faith, his sins will not affect him.

59.- We hope that Allah Almighty will forgive all those who were good in their actions (i.e. Muhsinin) and will them enter Paradise out of his mercy. We are hopeful of this but we do not testify that they will definitely enter Paradise. (6)

We seek forgiveness for all those who do wrong. Although we are scared of their end, we do not allow for despair either.

60.- Being regardless Of the punishment of Allah or despairing of the mercy of Allah forces a person out of the pale of Islam. The people of the Qibla should adopt a middle way betwen those extremes.

61.- A man does not come out of the bond of faith until he denies all that made him enter the faith originally. (7)

62.- Iman(i.e. faith) has to be announced verbally and testified in the heart.(8)

63.- All authentically reported commandments of the Prophet () are true.

64.- The essence of faith is one.(9) All faithful are the same as far as the fundamental of faith is concerned. However, they vary in ranks due to the variation in their fear of Allah and in their rejection of lust and desire and in keeping with the most preferable duties.

65.- All believers are the friends of Rahman (Allah). The most respected among them in the eyes of Allah are those who obey and follow the Quran the most.

66.- Faith includes belief in Allah and His Angels. His Books, His Messengers, The Last Day, Taqdir and that good or bad, sweet or sour, are all from Him.

MESSENGERS

67.- We believe in all the above mentioned. We do not differentiate among the Messengers of Allah. We believe that all that they preached was true.

68.- The people who committed major sins (i.e. Kaba’ir) from among the followers of the Prophet Muhammed() will not remain in Hell-fire forever, provided that they die on Tawheed, although they had not repented. Such people who met their Lord as faithful will be subject to the will of Allah and His decision. If He wills, He will forgive them and pardon them out of His Grace, as He says in His book: “He forgiveth anything else (except Shirk), to who He pleaseth”. (4:48)

But if He wills, He will punish them in the Hell-fire out of His justice and later release them out of mercy and due to the intercessions made by obedient servants. He will then let them enter Paradise. This is because Allah Almighty protects those who recognise Him and does not treat them like those who deny Him, those who miss His guidance and lose His friendship. 0 Allah! Thou who befriends Islam and its followers! Keep us firmly on Islam until we meet Thee with this faith.

69.- We allow prayer behind every pious or sinful pers among the people of the Qibla. Similarly, we deem it permissible to pray the funeral prayer over both of them.

70.- We do not declare anyone of them as a dweller of Paradise or Hell-fire, nor do we label them with infidelity or idolatry or hypocrisy unless any of these characteristics is very apparent in them. We leave their hidden characters to Allah ‘

71.- We do not approve of the killing of anyone from among the followers of Muhammad () except those who deserved it according to the Shari’ia.

IN GENERAL

72.- We do not approve of rebellions against our Imams and rulers, even though they may act unjustly. We do not pray against them, nor do we refuse to obey them. We hold that obedience to them is part of obedience to Allah, as long as they do not command the committing of sins. We pray to Allah that He may guide and forgive them.

73.- We follow the Sunnah and abide by the Jama’at and keep away from dissension, disagreement and partition.

74.- We love the people of justice and trust and despise those of tyranny and betrayal.

75.- We say “Allah knows best” whenever we are in doubt.

76.- We allow the rubbing of moccasins (or boots of soft leather, used as socks) during ablution, both while travelling and when at home, in accordance with the Hadith.

77.- Hajj and Jihad should both be carried out under guidance of the people of authority among Muslims, regardless of their being pious or wrongdoers, until the Day of Judgement. Nothing can suspend or nullify them.

78.- We believe in Kiraman Katibin (i.e. the angels who commissioned to record whatever we utter or do), Allah Almighty also made them protectors over us.

79.- We believe in the angel of death who is commissioned to take away the souls of everyone.

80.- We believe in the chastisement of the grave concerning those who deserve it. We believe that two angels known as Munkar and Nakir question everyone in their graves about the Creator, the religion and the Prophet in accordance with the Ahadith of the Prophet () and sayings of the Companions.

81.- The grave is either a garden from the gardens Paradise, or a ditch from the ditches of Hell.

82.- We believe in the resurrection and the requital of deeds. We believe in the presentation of deeds (to Allah), the account, the reading of everyone’s record, the reward, the punishment, the bridge (over the Hell-fire), and the scale.

83.- Both the Jannah (Paradise) and Hell-fire are created. They will never perish or come to an end. Allah created both of them before the creatures and created those who will dwell therein. He will admit whom He will into Paradise out of His Grace, or into the Hell-fire out of His Justice. Everyone does what he is supposed to do and everyone is heading towards what was created for him.

84.- Both evil and good are destined for mankind.

85.- Ability to do something is of two kinds: (i) Tawfiq: Grace from Allah which enables a person to carry out a command or to abstain from something forbidden. It is always connected with a specific action and does not exist before the action. It cannot be attributed to creatures, as they have no control over it. (ii) Ability due to health, variety of means, access to them, and the use of body organs. This type of ability precedes a pecific action. A person is held responsible for a command if he has this ability, as Allah says in the Quran: “On no soul does Allah place a burden greater than it can bear”. (2:286)

(The passage is translated freely as the original is too complicated.)

86.- People’s actions are created by Allah but earned by themselves.

87.- Allah Almighty has only asked people to do what they can manage. They themselves are not able to do anything except what he has enabled them to do.(10) This is what is meant by: There is no movement or power except by Allah-“We say that no one can turn himself away from sin except with the assistance of Allah. No one has any power at all to carry out an act of obedience to Allah and to remain firm on it, except by the grace of Allah.

88.- Everything happens by the Will of Allah, His Knowledge, His Decree and His Pre- estimation. His will has dominated those of others, and has changed them completely. His Decree has overpowered the planning of all others. He does what He like. He is never unjust. ‘He cannot be questioned about His acts, But they will be questioned (about theirs).” (21:23)

89.- The dead benefit from the deeds of their lives, such as prayer and acts of charity.

90.- Allah Almighty responds to the prayers and fulfils the needs.

91.- He owns everything. None owns Him. No one can be needless of Him, even for one blink of an eye. The one who thinks of himself in no need of Allah, even for the blink of an eye, commits infidelity and perishes.

92.- Allah Almighty becomes angry and is pleased, but His anger and pleasure are not like those of a creature.

93.- We love the companions of the Messenger of Allah(). Our love for any one of them does not exceed that for any others, and neither do we reject any of them. We hate those who despise them or talk of them disrespectfully. We talk of them with repect. Love f or them is a sign of faith, conviction and piety, and hatred for them is nothing but infidelity, hypocrisy and tyranny.

94.- We hold that the first right Khalifa after the Prophet () was Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq as he was the most Preferable person of this Ummah. After him, it was right for Umar ibn Al-Khattab, then Uthman. and finally Ali ibn Abi Talib. They are the rightly-guided Khulafa and Imams.

95.- We testify that those ten Companions who were given the great tidings of Paradise by the Prophet () with their names, are the dwellers of Paradise because of the testimony of the Prophet, who was always true in his saying. They are: Abu Bakr Al-Zubair ibn AI-Awwam Umar ibn Khattab Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas Uthman ibn Affan Sa’id ibn Zaid Ali ibn Abi Talib Abdul Rahman ibn Auf Talha ibn Ubaidullah

Abu Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah who is known as the Amin (trustworthy) among this Ummah. May Allah be pleased with them all.

96.- Absolved from hypocrisy is the one who speaks well of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah and of his wives who were clean from any impurity and of his offspring who were purified from all dirt.

97.- No one among the early scholars and those who followed them, whether in the field of narrating the sayings and events, or in the field of understanding and thinking, should be mentioned except in a proper way. Whoever speaks ill of them is not on the right path.

98.- We do not give preference to any Wali over any of the Prophets (A.S.). We say that a single Prophet is preferable to all Awlia.

99.- We believe in whatever has been reported of their. Karamat (i.e. unusual happenings) and whatever is authentically conveyed of their sayings.

100.- We believed in the signs proceeding the Hour, such as the advent of Dajjal, the descent of Isa ibn Maryam from Heaven, the rising of the sun from the west, the appearance of a subterranean beast from its place.

101.- We do not believe in any soothsayers, sorcerers, or anyone who claims anything contrary to the Book and Sunnah and the consensus of the Ummah.

102.- We hold that to be united as Jamaat is the true and right way, whereas disunity and partition are misleading and destructive.

103.- In the heaven and the earth, the Deen of Allah is one, i.e Islam. Allah says: “Verily, Deen with Allah is Islam” (2:19) And He says: “And I have chosen for you Islam as your Deen” (5:3)

104.- Islam is between the extremes of: * Exceeding the limit or falling short of it (anything or commandment). * Comparing Allah to creatures or stripping him of His attributes. * Human beings as bound to do what is destined or totally free to do what they like. * NOt fearing the Punishment of Allah or totally despairing Of His rnercy.

105.- This is our Deen and belief, in open and in the depths of the heart. We absolve ourselves to Allah from anyone already expounded and explained by us. We pray to Allah Almighty to guide us firmly on the path, to let us die on it, to protect us from the opposing and contradicting views, and from disparaging factions such as:

* Mushabbiha: those who compare Allah to creatures.

* Mu’tazila: those who deviate from the way of early scholars as far as the interpretation Of the attributes of Allah are concerned.

* JahmiYya: those who negate the attributes of Allah.

* Jabriyya: those who believe that Man is bound to do what is destined, with no free will of his own.

* Qadariyya: those who believe that Man is completely free to do what he likes.

All of these went against the people Of Sunnah and Jama’at and so misled themselves. We absolve ourselves from them, as they have deviated from the right path to that of destruction.

And with Allah lies all strength and Taufiq (capability).

Footnotes of Al-Shaikh Abdul Aziz Bin Abdullah Bin Baaz.

1. The Tawheed with which Allah commissioned His Prophets and which He explained in His scriptures is of three kinds; this is in accordance with the Book, the Sunnah and the state of mankind itself.

A) TAWHEED UR RUBUBIYYAH This is to believe in the Oneness of Allah regarding His actions. In other words, Allah is the sole Creator, Nourisher and Maintainer of His creatures affairs, exercising complete freedom in all their matters of this world and of the Hereafter without the aid of any partners.

As He says Himself: ‘Allah is the Creator of all things.” (Zumar 39:62) And He says:

“Verily your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then He established Himself on the Throne.”(Yunus 10:3) Even the polytheists, those who worshipped idols, recognized this form of Tawheed, although they rejected the idea of resurrection. However, they were not regarded as Muslims because they associated gods with Allah, worshipped many deities beside Him, and refused to accept the Messenger Muhammad ().

B)TAWHEED UL ULUHIYYAH This is the type which was totally rejected by the polytheists. Allah Almighty says: “So they wonder that a warner has come to them from among themselves! And the Unbelievers say, ‘This is a sorcerer telling lies! as he made gods (all) into one God? Truly this is a strange thing!’.” (Saad 38:4-5)

The Quran contains a number of other similar verses. Tawheed in this regard requires that a person should direct all forms of worship to Allah alone since Allah alone deserves to be worshipped and hence to worship someone else is totally false. In fact this is what “La Ilaha Illallah” means, i.e. there is none to be truly worshipped except Allah, as He said: “That is because Allah -He is the Reality; and those besides Him whom they invoke, they are but vain Falsehood”. (AI-Hajj 22:62)

C) TAWHEED UL ASMA WAS SIFAAT (Tawheed in names and attributes) This is to believe in all those names and attributes of Allah which occur in the Book of Allah and in the authentic sayings of the Prophet (); to believe in them in a way most appropriate to His Being without altering any of His attributes, negating any of them, understanding any of them in an anthropomorphic way (i.e. by attributing a human shape to Allah), or interpreting His names and attributes figuratively. This is in line with the following ayaat of the Quran: “Say: He is Allah, the One; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor is He begotten. And there is none like unto Him.” (Ikhlas 112:1 – 4)

And He says: “There is nothing whatever like unto Him.” And He is the One, that hears and sees.” (Shura 42:1 1)

And He says: The most beautiful names belong to Allah : so call on Him by them.” (A’raf 7:180)

He says: To Allah applies the highest similitude: for He is the Exalted in power, Full of Wisdom.” (Nahl 16:60)

The Highest Similitude (AI Mathal ul A’la) means the best description of Him, free of any defect. This is what the people of Sunnah and Jama’ah from among the Companions of the Prophet (peace Be Upon Him) and their Successors believed. They understood the attributes of Allah from the Quran and the Sunnah without any attempt to imagine the physical shape of Him, and at the same time absolved Him of any resemblance to any of His creatures. Their mode of expression is in harmony with all the evidence from the Book and the Sunnah and thus shuts the door in the face of their opponents. They are indeed the ones mentioned in the following verse and we pray to Allah to count us among them by His grace and favour, for He alone is the One to be turned to for help:

“The vanguard (of Islam) – the first of the Muhajireen (those who forsook their homes) and of the Ansar (those who gave them aid), also those who follow them in good deeds – Allah is well pleased with them, as they are with Him: for them He has prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever; that is the supreme Triumph.” (Tauba 9:100)

(2) The phrase Qadeem bila lbtida’ (“Old with no beginning”) did not occur among the Best Names of Allah as pointed out by a number of scholars. It was first mentioned by the scholars of Kalam in an effort to prove Allah’s existence before anything else. Let it be known that the Names of Allah are of a divine origin. Only those names for which there is evidence in the Quran and the authentic Sunnah can be used for Allah. They cannot be introduced into the Islamic vocabulary simply at one’s whim, and this has been clearly understood by the Imams of the pious predecessors. In fact, the word Qadeem does not even denote the meaning which the people of Kalam wished to express. In Arabic, it means something preceding another, though it is itself preceded by nothing, such as in the saying of Allah:

“Till she (the moon) returns like the old lower part of a date-stalk. (Ya Sin 36:39)

Although the addition of bila ibtidda’ makes the meaning crystal clear, it is not valid to be counted among the best Names of Allah because there is no proof for it in the Book or the Sunnah. Instead, Allah’s name al-Awwal (the First) expresses this idea better, as shown in His saying: : “He is the First and the Last.” (Hadeed 57:3)

(3) This phrase can be exploited at face value by those who are obsessed with twisting the meaning or who got out of their way to interpret the names and attributes of Allah. Yet they have no argument because the author (may Allah have mercy on him) uses this expression to absolve the Creator from resembling His Creatures. Anyway, this brief statement needs explanation in order to remove all lingering doubts.

By hudood (limits) the author means such as known by humans since no one except Allah Almighty knows his limits. Thus Allah the Exalted has said: “He knows what is before or after or behind them, but they shall comprehend Him not. ” (Ta Ha 20:110)

Those among the pious predecessors who spoke of a limit with regard to His attribute of istawa, meant a limit known to Allah only and not known by people. As for al-ghayaaat wal arkan wal a’da’ wal adawaat (the ends, columns, the organs and the utensils), the author means that Allah is absolved in His divine attributes and wisdom from resembling any of His creatures. Allah has the attributes of face, hand and foot etc., these attributes of His in no way resemble those of His creatures. No one except Allah knows their true nature.

The people of innovation use such expressions in order to negate some of the attributes of Allah. They use words other than those approved by Allah in order to avoid being exposed by the scholars of Islam. The author, al-Tahawi, undoubtedly did not mean this because he holds the same belief as that of Ahl-us-Sunnah as far as the attributes of Allah are concerned. Whatever he says about belief can be better understood by his own sayings which explain what is briefly stated in other places.

Similarly, his saying “The six directions do not surround Him like all other innovations” means the six created directions. He does not means the negation of Allah being above His creation and established on His throne because His position is not covered by the six directions, as He is above this universe and surrounding it. Allah made His servants instinctively believe that He is above them as maintained by the consensus of the Ahl-ul-Sunnah-wal-Jam’ah among the Companions of the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) and their Successors. All the evidence from the Book and the authentic Mutawatir Sunnah prove that He is in the direction above us. Dear reader, be alert to this point which is the sole truth and anything else is falsehood.

4) By al-‘ilm al-mafqood (lost knowledge) he means the knowledge of the Unseen. This is only for Allah Allmighty. Whoever among the human beings claims to possess it is an infidel because Allah Almighty says: ” With Him are the keys of the Unseen, the treasures that none knoweth but He.” (An’am 6:59)

And He says: “Say: None on the heavens or on earth, except Allah, knows what is hidden.”. (Naml 27:65)

Also, the Prophet (saw) said, “The keys of the Unseen are five, not known to anyone except Allah Then he recited the following verse: “Verily the knowledge of the Hour is with Allah (alone). It is He who sends down rain, and He Who knows what is in the wombs. Nor does anyone know what it is that he will earn on the morrow. Nor does anyone know in what land he is to die. Verily with Allah is full knowledge and He is acquainted (with all things).” Luqman (31:34)

There are a number of authentic Ahadith which prove that the Prophet (saw) did not know the Unseen although he was the best of the creatures and master of the Messengers. Other beings can thus only be ignorant of it.

The Prophet (saw) knew only that which Allah made known to him: when some people slandered Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) he did not know that she was totally innocent of their accusations until revelation came to him; Aisha’s necklace was lost during a journey, he sent a party to look for it and was unaware of where it was until they made the camel stand and found it under the animal.

There are a number of other evidences from the Book and the Sunnah on this issue.

(5) Here he means that the Ahl-us-Sunnah-wal-Jama’ah do not label a Muslim as an infidel as long as he believes in Allah and the Last Day, because of a sin he commits such as adultery, drinking, dealing in interest, disobeying the parents, ctc. as long as he does not consider them as lawfull.’Once he regards them as lawful, he is definitely an infidel because he has rejected Allah and his Prophet (Peace be Upon him) and has come out of the pale of Islam. However, if he does not regard them as Halal, he is not an infidel in the eyes of Ahl-us-Sunnah-wal-Jama’ah but will be counted as a person weak in faith. He will be liable for the appropriate punishment given to a fasiq(sinner), as described in the purified Shari’a.

This is the belief of the Ahl-us-Sunnah-wal-Jama’ah unlike the Khawarij and the Mu’tazilah and those who followed their false way. As for, the Khawarij, they declare a Muslim as an infidel because of the sins he commited. As for the Mu’tazilah, they Place such a person in a position between Islam and infidelity in this world but they believe that such a person will abide eternally in the hell-fire, just like the belief of the Khawarij. The sayings Of these two factions is totally false in the light of the Book, the Sunnah and the consensus of the pious predecessors. Some people seem to be confused about them out Of ignorance but it has never been a matter of doubt to the people of truth.

(6) The author means that we do not testify that they are among the people of Paradise except those for whom the Prophet () himself testified, such as the ten and others as explained later in his statement. It should be known that the Ahl-us-Sunnah-wal-Jama’ah believe that the believers and the muttaqeen will in general enter Paradise an that the infidels and polytheists and hypocrites will in general enter the Hell fire. This is proved by a number of verses and mutawatir ahadeeth of the Prophet (), e.g. “As to the Righteous they will be in gardens, and in happiness. “(Tur 52:17)

And He says: “Allah has promised to believers, men and women, gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein … ” (Tauba 9:72)

And about non-believers He says: “But those who reject (Allah). for them will be the fire of Hell; no term shall be determined for them so they should die, nor shall its punishment be lightened for them. Thus do we reward every ungrateful one!” (Fatir 35:36)

And He says: “The Hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire; no helper will you find for them.” (Nisa’ 4:14-5)

(7) Such a narrow definition is not without criticism. An infidel enters into the fold of Islam by pronuuncing two Shahadah if he had not previously said them. If he had said them before but had then committed an offence which caused his infidelity, he can re-enter Islam by repenting.

“To deny what made him enter Islam” is not the only reason for apostasy. The scholars have included other acts under the banner of apostasy such as criticising Islam or the Prophet (), making fun of Allah, His Messenger, His Book, or any part of the Sharia’a, in line with the saying of Allah: “Say: ‘Was it at Allah, and His Signs, and His Messenger, that you were mocking? Make no excuses: you have rejected faith after you had accepted it’.” (Tauba 9:65 – 66)

The case is similar with the people who worship idols or invoke the dead to help them or meet their demands, since all of this contradicts the shahadah ” ” which requires that all forms worship including supplication, asking help, bowing, prostrating, sacrifice, vow, etc. should be directed to Allah. Whoever worships something other than Allah, be it idols or angels or jinn or the dead commits shirk and falls short of maintaining the requirements of ” La ilaha illallah “. All such matters are not necessarily the denial of what a person confirmed on entering Islam, but nevertheless take him/ out of the pale of Islam as proved by the Book and the Sunnah. There are a number of other issues not related to denial which render a Muslim an infidel; these are mostly discussed in detail by the scholars under “apostasy” and the reader may refer to them if wishes.

(8) This definition is inadequate and objectionable; the correct course is the one followed by the Ahl-us-Sunnah-wal-Jama’ah who say that iman (faith) consists of belief, speech and actions collectively, all which increase with obedience, and decrease with disobedience, to Allah. The evidence for this from the Book and the Sunnah is almost too numerous to be counted, but the reader may check some of this evidence which is mentioned by the commentator lbn Abi Al’iz.

Separating action from faith is the important principle of the Murjia. The dispute between them and the Ahl-us-Sunnah-wal-Jama’ah is not merely to do with the choice of words but it also concerned with the concept, to which many issues are related, These issues can be gauged by reflecting on the sayings of the Ahl-us-Sunnah-wal-Jama’ah and of the Murjia.

(9) His statement that faith is one and that all faithful people are basically equal is highly objectionable; indeed, it is completely false. Believers have greatly differing levels of faith; the faith of the Prophets was not the same as the faith of others just as the faith of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and the rest of the Companions (RAA) was not equal to the faith of others. In the same way, the faith of true believers is not the same as that of sinners. The dissimilarity is thus based on the amount of knowledge contained in the heart of each person about Allah, His Names and Attributes, and what He has enjoined on His servants. This is the saying of the Ahl-us-Sunnah-wal-Jama’ah and is thus in conflict with the Murjia.

(10) This is not true; in fact, the people are able to do much more than they have been required to do by Allah because He, out of His grace and kindness, wished to make things easy for his servants and not to make their deen oppressive.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

 

THE CORRECT AQEEDAH

The Permanent Committee Of Major Scholars Of Research And Verdicts

(Fataawaa Al-Lajnah Ad-Daa‘imah Lil Buhooth Al ‘Ilmiyyah Wal Iftaa’, [Question no. (7503) vol:3/246-247] 3rd edition, 1999 CE 1419 H).

Translated by: Abul Qayyim, Ismaa’eel ibn Yusuf

Question: What is obligatory for a muslim to know in the ‘aqeedah (the belief and creed) in order for him to actually be a true Muslim?

Answer: Muslims vary with regards to the level of their intellects, and in the amount of free time that they have, and also in the amount of things that keep them busy in their day-to-day lives. They may also differ with regards to how easy or difficult they find learning. So that which may be obligatory upon one Muslim, may not necessarily be obligatory upon another. But the least that is obligatory upon every Muslim to know is: belief in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Final Day, and also belief in the pre-decree, the good of it and the bad of it, and likewise its sweetness and bitterness. And that he understands that in general.

He must also bear witness to the testimony that ‘none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah’, and the meaning of this testimony should be understood, even if is a general understanding.

One must also establish the prayer, and give the Zakaat (the annual charity to the poor) and the giving of this charity is in relation to those who are rich.

One must fast the month of Ramadan and make The Hajj (Pilgrimage) to ‘The Sacred House’ for whomsoever has the ability to do so.

Then understanding the wisdoms of that with which one may be tested by way of afflictions, thereby acting upon whatsoever is permissible from it and avoiding that which is impermissible while at the same time staying away from everything which Allah has prohibited for his slaves.

One should also frequently recite the noble Quraan and also read some of the books that are upon the methodology of the ‘Salaf’, such as the explanation of ‘Al ‘Aqeedah At-Tahaawiyyah’, by Ibn Abee Al-‘Izz and also the book ‘Zaad Al-Ma’aad’, by Ibnul-Qayyim, and other books similar to these so that one may increase in his knowledge of ‘aqeedah.

And success is with Allaah, and may Allaah send His blessings upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon his family and companions.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

18 IMPORTANT LESSONS FOR THE MUSLIM UMMAH

Lecture by Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Original translation by Khalid A. Al-Awadh

All Praise is due to Allah, we praise Him, and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah, the Most High, from the evils of our own selves and from our wicked deeds. Whomsoever has been guided by Allah, none can misguide him, and whomsoever has been misguided by Allah, none can guide him. I bear witness that there is no true god worthy of being worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner or associate. I further bear witness that Muhammad is His true slave and Messenger. May Allah, the Exalted, bestow His peace and blessings on the final Prophet Muhammad, upon his good and pure family, and upon all of his noble companions.

“O ye who believe! Fear Allah (by doing all that He ordered and abstaining from all that He has forbidden) as He should be feared, and die not except in the state of Islam (as Muslims with complete submission to Allah)” (the Holy Quran 3:102)

“O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam) and from him He created his wife, and from them both He created many men and women; and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights) and (do no cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is ever an All Watcher over you” ( Qur’an 4:1).

“O ye who believe ! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth, He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed achieved a great success” (Qur’an 33:70-71).

Know that the most truthful speech is that of Allah’s Book (the Qur’an), and that the best of guidance is that of Muhammad, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam. The worst of evils are innovations (foreign to the true teachings of Islam), and every innovated matter (in religion) is a Bid’ah, and every Bid’ah is a misguidance, and every mean of misguidance is in the Fire of Hell.

This is an introductory book for every Muslim. It is a summary of basic Islamic beliefs and acts of worship. We ask Allah by His Names and Attributes to accept this work and make it a benefit for those who read it and/or distribute it.

Khalid Al-Awadh and Dr. Saleh As-Saleh 24/2/1413 (8/12/1993)

GLOSSARY

salla Allah u alihi wa sallam : May Allah Praise him and grant him peace.

Subhanahu wa ta’ala : Most Glorified, Most Exalted.

Radiya Allah u Annhu (or Annha) : May Allah be pleased with him (or with her).

Hadeeth : The traditions of the Prophet, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, his sayings and deeds. The hadeeths were collected by famous scholars like Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, An-Nasa’ee, At-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawoud, Ibn Majah, and others.

The First Lesson:

Memorizing the opening Surah (Chapter) of the Qur’an: Al-Fatiha (the Opening) and some short passages and Surahs from No. 99 (Az-Zalzalah) to 114 (An-Naas) Every Muslim must make an effort to memorize, recite and understand passages and/or Surahs from the Noble Qur’an.

The Second Lesson:

Knowing the meaning and the conditions of the declaration of Ash-Shahadatan that: “there is no true God except Allah, and that Muhammad, salla Allahu alihi wa sallam, is the Messenger of Allah”. The phrase that “there is no true God” negates anything or anyone that is being worshipped other than Allah, and the phrase: “except Allah” confirms that all forms of worship, submission and adoration must be for Allah alone, without setting up rivals with Him. The conditions needed to fulfill the meaning of Ash-Shahadatan are:

  1. a. Knowledge about what it means.
  2. b. Certainty about its meaning which dispels doubts and suspicions.
  3. c. Sincerity that purifies its declarer from any form of shirk (association).
  4. d. Honesty which negates hypocrisy.
  5. e. Love and attachment to the declaration of Ash-Shahadatan, which leads to the dispel of uneasiness, dislike, or hate to what it implies.
  6. f. Adherance: conducting what Allah has decreed regarding His worship.
  7. g. Accepting to obey Allah by this declaration.
  8. h. Dissociating from anything or anyone being worshipped other than Allah.

The Third Lesson:

The six fundamental articles of faith are:

Believing in Allah (His Oneness), His Angels, all of His Messengers, all of His Scriptures (in their original and unaltered forms), in the Last Day (of Judgment), and Fate and Divine Decree (whether good or bad), which Allah Has measured and ordained according to His previous Knowledge and as deemed suitable by His Wisdom.

The Fourth Lesson:

Tawheed (Faith in the Unity of Allah) is divided into three articles:

First, believing in the Oneness of Allah in the sense of His being the only Creator, Preserver, Nourisher,…etc. This belief is called Tawheed Ar-Ruboobeyah.

Second, acknowledging that Allah alone is the One and Only true God who deserves to be worshipped and thus abstaining from worshipping any other being or thing. This belief is called Tawheed Al-Ulooheeyah.

Third, having faith and belief in the Oneness of Allah’s Names and Attributes. This belief is called Tawheed Al-Asmaa was-Sifat.

As for Shirk (associating anything or anyone in worship with Allah), it is divided into three types:

First: Major Shirk (Ash Shirk Al Akbar) which Allah does not forgive.

Allah says regarding Shirk: “But if they had joined in worship others with Allah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them” (Qur’an 6: 88).

“It is not for the Mushrikeen (polytheists) to maintain the Mosques of Allah (i.e. to pray and worship Allah therein, to looking after their cleanness and their building,…etc.), while they witness against their own-selves of disbelief. The works of such bear no fruit, and in fire shall they dwell.” (Quran 9:17).

The one who associate others with Allah and dies on this shirk will not be forgiven and Jannah (Paradise) is forbidden to him, as Allah, Most Mighty and Honored says:

“Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives anything else, to whom He pleases; and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.” (Qur’an 4:48).

“Verily, whosoever sets up partners in worship with Allah, then Allah has forbidden the Jannah for him.” (Qur’an 5:72).

Asking the dead or idols for help, slaughtering for them and making vows for them are examples of this Shirk.

Second: Minor Shirk (Ash-Shirk Al-Asgar) which is stated in the Qur’an or in the Prophet’s tradition but is not the same as Major Shirk. Riya (showing off) and swearing by other than Allah are examples of this kind of Shirk. Prophet Muhammad, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, said: “Of which I fear for you the most is Minor Shirk “.When he was asked what was it, he said, “Riya”.

He, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, also said: “He who swears by anything other than Allah commits Minor shirk “.

The Prophet, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, also warned: “Do not say: ‘had Allah and such and such (person) willed’, but say: ‘had Allah then such and such (person) willed’ “. This kind of Shirk does not necessarily lead to disbelief from Islam or an eternal stay in Hell. It negates, however, the completeness of faith.

The Third kind of shirk is the hidden Shirk.

Prophet Muhammad, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, explained: “Shall I not tell you of which I fear for you more than I fear of the Anti-Christ?” They said: “Yes, O Messenger of Allah”, and he said, “The hidden Shirk, where one beautifies his way of praying only because another one is looking at him”.

Alternatively, Shirk could be divided into two kinds: Major and Minor. In this case, the Hidden Shirk encompasses both the Major and Minor kinds depending upon the act committed. It is Major if it is the same as the Shirk of the hypocrites who hide their false beliefs while showing off Islam out of fear. It is Minor if it is the same as Riya.

The Fifth Lesson:

The five pillars of Islam are:

Ash-Shahadatan: bearing witness that there is none worthy of being worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, is His Messenger; establishing prayers; paying the alms (Zakat); fasting the month of Ramadhan; and performing pilgrimage (Hajj) if one can afford it.

The Sixth Lesson:

The nine conditions of prayers are as follows:

Islam, sanity, maturity, performing the ablution (wudu), cleanliness from impurities (on the body, clothes, and place of prayer) dressing properly, having the intention of prayers, facing the right direction of Qibla (direction of Ka’aba at Makkah), and the praying at the proper time.

The Seventh Lesson:

The fourteen Basic Elements (Arkan) of prayers:

Standing (if one is able); saying “Allah u Akbar”, which means: “Allah is the Greatest”; reading the opening Surah of the Qur’an (Al-Fatihah); lowering the head and back down at the right angle (Ruku); resuming the initial standing position; prostrating with the toes of both feet, both knees, both hands and the forehead touching the ground (Sujud); rising in a sitting position; a short rest in a sitting posture between the two prostrations; tranquillity in all actions; performing the Basic Elements of prayer in order, the last Tashahud (the second part); sitting for the last Tashahud; exalting the Prophet Muhammad, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam; and turning the face to the right side and to the left one saying “Assalamu Alaykum wa Rahmatu Allah” (“Peace and Mercy of Allah be upon you”) one time on each side. (Note: salat is invalid if any of the above is missing.)

The Eighth Lesson:

The eight obligatory acts of the prayer are:

All the occasions of saying “Allah u Akbar” other than Takbeerat Al-Ihram (which is basic); saying “Sami Allah u liman hamidah” (“Allah accepts any who are thankful to Him”) by the Imam as well as the one who is praying alone, and saying “Rabbana wa laka Alhamd” (“Our Lord, praise be to You”) for both the Imam and the individual; saying “Subhana Rabbi Al-Atheem” (“Glory to my Lord, the Most Great” ) in Ruku; saying “Subhana Rabbi Ala’la” (“Glory to my Lord, the Most High”) in Sujud; saying “Rab Ighfir li” (“Oh my Lord, grant forgiveness to me”) between the two prostrations; the first part (At-Tashahud Al-Awwal); and sitting for it. (Note: if any of the above is missing, the Muslim need to make sujud al sahw).

The Ninth Lesson:

Knowing the contents of At-Tashahud:

First Part: “Attahiyyato li Allah i wassalawatu wattayyibat. Assalamu alayka ayyuha annabi wa rahmat u Allah i wa barakatuh, Assalamu alayna wa ala ibadii Allah i assalihin, Ashadu an la ilaha illa Allah, wa ashadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa Rasuluh.”

“Greetings, prayers ant the good things of life belong to Allah . Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the Mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us all and on the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is no true God worthy of worship but Allah alone, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His true slave and Messenger.”

Second Part: “Allahumma Sallee ala Muhammad wa ala aali Muhammad kama Sallaita ala Ibrahima wa ala aali Ibrahim. Wa barik ala Muhammad wa ala aali Muhammad, kama barakta ala Ibrahima wa ala aali Ibrahim, Innaka Hamidon Majid.”

“Oh Allah! Exalt Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you did exalt Ibrahim (Abraham ) and the family of Abraham. And bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you did bless Abraham and the people of Abraham, verily You are the Most Praised, The Most Glorious.”

Following the reciting of the Tashahud, the slave asks Allah’s protection from the torment of Hell, the torment of the grave, the trials in life-time and after death, and from the impostor Anti-Christ. After that he may supplicate and ask Allah whatever he wishes, especially the type of invocation said by the Prophet, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, :

“O Allah help me to perform remembrance of You and to give all due thanks to You and allow me to worship you in the good way (i.e. as ordained by Allah and His Messenger). O Allah I have inflicted a great deal of wrong upon myself and there is none other than You who can offer forgiveness. Grant me forgiveness from You and grant me your Mercy. You are the All-Merciful, The Oft Forgiving. ”

The Tenth Lesson:

The Sunnan (supererogatory) acts of the prayer:

  1. 1. The opening call of the prayer.
  2. 2. Placing the right hand over the left one with both over the chest while in the standing position.
  3. 3. Raising the hands up to the level of the shoulders or near the ears with the fingers being close together (not separated) when saying “Allah u Akbar” at the beginning of the prayer, when performing the Ruku, when resuming the standing position after Ruku, and when standing to begin the third unit of the prayer.
  4. 4. Saying “Subhana Rabbi Al-Adheem” and “Subllana Rabbi Al- A’la” more than once in Ruku and Sujud, respectively.
  5. 5. Saying “Rab Ighfer li warhamni wahdini warzuqni wa’afni, wajburni” (“Allah, my Lord, grant me forgiveness, have mercy on me, guide me, provide me with your blessings and console me”) more than once between the two prostrations.
  6. 6. Bowing down, making the head and back on one level. This is the position of Ruku.
  7. 7. While prostrating, the arms should not be brought close to the sides nor the abdomen to the thighs or the thighs to the legs.
  8. 8. Raising the arms in Sujud.
  9. 9. Praying for the Prophet and the family of Muhammad, Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim (as in Tashahud).
  10. 10. Performing the early morning prayer and the first two units of the sunset and the evening prayer with an audible voice.
  11. 11. Sitting between prostrations on the outer side of the left foot (i.e. laying it flat) keeping the right foot erected with the internal parts of the toes touching the ground. The same position is to be taken while sitting in the first part of Tashahud.
  12. 12. Taking the position of Tawartruk during the recitation of the full Tashahud: The person sits on his left foot laid down with his right foot erected.
  13. 13. Making Du’a (to invoke Allah) following the recitation of the last Tashahud.
  14. 14. Whispering the recitation in the Dhuhr (noon), Asr (late afternoon), the third raka’ of Maghrib (sunset) prayer, and the last two raka’at of the Isha’ (evening) prayer.
  15. 15. Reciting another passage from the Holy Qur’an after the opening Surah of Al-Fatiha.

The Eleventh Lesson:

Invalidation of the prayers:

Any prayer is invalid and nullified if any of the following acts are committed:

  1. a. Intentional talking.
  2. b. Laughing.
  3. c. Eating.
  4. d. Drinking.
  5. e. Uncovering the parts of the body of which are not allowed to be uncovered during prayer.
  6. f. Excessive alteration in the direction towards the Qibla.
  7. g. Excessive moving outside the regular acts and movements of prayer, without a proper reason.
  8. h. Nullifying the ablution.

The Twelfth Lesson:

The ten conditions for performing ablution are:

  1. 1. Islam.
  2. 2. Sanity.
  3. 3. Maturity.
  4. 4. Intention and ..
  5. 5. ..its continuity (i.e. the person should not intend to discontinue his ablution before its completion).
  6. 6. If one performs Istinja’ (cleaning the areas of natural discharges with water) or with stones, tissues, leaves etc. (Istijmar) before ablution.
  7. 7. Water must be pure and Mubah (i.e. it is not stolen or taken by force).
  8. 8. The removal of all things that prevent water from reaching the parts of ablution such as mud.
  9. 9. Those who continually lose their ablution (for example due to release of gas, urine, or any reason that nullifies ablution), must make prior to prayers.
  10. 10. Causes that requires ablution (e.g. urine, eating camel meat, sleep, etc.)

The Thirteenth Lesson:

The obligatory elements of ablution are:

  1. 1. Washing the face, including rinsing out the mouth with water and cleansing the nostrils of the nose.
  2. 2. Washing the two hands up to and including the elbows.
  3. 3. Wiping the whole head including the two ears.
  4. 4. Washing the two feet including the heels.
  5. 5. Doing the ablution in the prescribed sequence, without delays.

The Fourteenth Lesson:

The six nullifying acts of the ablution are:

  1. 1. Natural excretion, such as urine, feces, gas,…etc.
  2. 2. Any unclean substance excessively discharged from the body.
  3. 3. Losing one’s reason due to sleep, loss of consciousness or otherwise.
  4. 4. Eating camel meat (because the Prophet, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, ordered so).
  5. 5. Rejection of Islam.
  6. 6. Touching the sexual organs with hand (without any barrier: clothes and so on).

Notice: Washing the dead does not nullify the ablution except for that the washer’s hand touches (without any barrier) the sexual organs. Kissing women with or without desire does not nullify ablution because the Prophet, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, once kissed one of his wives and prayed without performing ablution. This holds as long as there is no associated sexual excretions (e.g. semen). As for the saying of Allah, Most Glorified: “..or you have been in contact with women (by sexual relations)…” (Qur’an 4: 43)

The contact with women is the involvement in a full sexual relation as related by Ibn Abbass (companion) and others, and it is the correct opinion.

The Fifteenth Lesson:

The recommended morals for every Muslim are:

Truthfulness, honesty, abstinence, modesty, courage, generosity, loyalty, refraining from everything that Allah had made unlawful, being a good neighbor, helping the needy, and other morals stated either in the Holy Qur’an or in the Prophet’s, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, tradition.

The Sixteenth Lesson:

Islamic decencies:

Greeting, cheerfulness, eating and drinking with the right hand, adhering to the Islamic conduct in entering and leaving homes and mosques and while traveling, dealing kindly with parents, relatives, neighbors, the old man and the young; congratulating, lamenting, and other Islamic ethics.

The Seventeenth Lesson:

Warning against Shirk (association) and against other wrongdoing such as witchcraft, murdering, taking the money of the orphan, dealing with interest (riba), escaping on the day of Jihad (war), speaking evil of faithful women, disobeying parents, breaking up with one’s relatives, false witnessing, harming neighbors, committing outrage upon others, and other warnings as declared by Allah and His messenger, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam.

The Eighteenth Lesson:

Washing the dead body and performing the funeral prayer:

a) Washing the dead:

1. When a Muslim is confirmed dead his eyes must be closed and his jaws brought together.

2. When washing the dead body, the whole body beginning with the exposed parts of ablution must be washed. The abdomen is gently squeezed and followed by washing of the anus and the sexual organs using a wet piece of cloth. Normal ablution will then be performed. The body is washed starting with the head and beard using water mixed with the leaves of Sidr (lote tree, if available). The right side must be washed before the left side and the body must be washed three times. Each time the abdomen is squeezed as above. The mustache and the nails are clipped, and when the body is clean, it is wrapped in three white cotton sheets covering all parts of the body and perfumed with incense. If the body is still unclean, ablution must be extended to 5-7 times after which the body is dried with a clean cloth. Men’s hair should not be combed while that of a woman is to be braided into three chains and left hanging down behind her (as done to the Prophet’s daughter).

3. It is preferred to shroud men with three white sheets without a gown or Amamah (head cover); children in one up to three sheets and women in five sheets, these sheets are:

  1. 1. Dir’: a loose outer garment with sleeves slit in front.
  2. 2. Khimar: covering head and face.
  3. 3. Izzar: a sheet wrapped around the waist, and
  4. 4. Two overall wrapping sheets.

Young girls can be wrapped with a gown and two sheets.

4. The one who has the most right to wash the dead body of a man is his chosen guardian (if any) then his father, his grandfather, then the closest of his relatives. The woman is best washed by her chosen female then the mother, the grandmother, then the closest one of her female relatives. The husband can wash the body of his wife and vice versa because Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, was washed by his wife; and Ali bin Abi Taleb, may Allah be pleased with him, washed his wife, Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet, may Allah be pleased with her.

b) The funeral prayer (Salat-Aljanaza):

Saying Takbeer: “Allah u Akbar” four times. Reciting Al-Fatiha after the first Takbeer. Following the second Takbeer, one prays for the Prophet, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, as he does in Tashahud. Then after saying “Allah u Akbar” for the third time, one recites what is usually said in other prayers like asking Allah to forgive all Muslims or any supplications he knows, preferably this:

“Allahumma Ighfir li hayyina wa mayyitina, wa shahidina wa ghaibina wa sagheerina wa kabeerina wa thakarina wa unthana. Allahumma man ahyaytahu minna fa ahyihi ala al Islam, wa man tawaffaytah u minna fa tawaffahu ala aleeman. Allahmma la tahrimna ajrah, wa la taftinna baadah”.

“O Allah, grant forgiveness to our living and to our dead, and to those who are present and to those who are absent, and to our young and our old folk, and to our males and our females. O Allah, whomsoever you grant to live, from among us, help him to live in Islam and whomsoever of us you cause to die, help him to die in faith. O Allah, do not deprive us of the reward for patience on his (her, their) loss and do not make us subject to trial after him….”

Or one could say:

“Allahumma Ighfir lah u warhamhu wa’afihi wa’fu anhu, wa’akrim nuzulahu wa wassi’ madkhalahu, wa’ghsilhu bi l mae wathalgi walbarad, wanaqihi mina al-thunoubi walkhataya kama unaqa athawbo alabiado mina addanas, wa abdilhu daran khairan min darihi, wa ahlan khairan miin ahlihi, wa adkhilhu al Jannah, wa aidhu min adhabi al qabr, wa adhabi an Narr; wafsah lahu fee qabrihi, wanawir lahu fehi. Allahumma la tahrimna ajrahu, wa la tudhlilna ba’dahu. ”

“O Allah forgive him (her, them) and have your Mercy upon him; protect him and pardon him, receive him with honor and make his grave spacious; wash him with water, snow and hail, and clean him from sins and wrong-doings as is cleaned a white garment from impurity; requite him with an abode more excellent than his, and with a mate better than his mate. Admit him to the Garden, and protect him from the torment of the grave and the torment of the Fire; widen his space in his grave and bring him light therein. O Allah don’t deprive us from his reward and don’t let us go astray after him.”

Then after saying “Allah u Akbar” for the fourth time one turns his head to the right (making tasleem) and thus ending the funeral prayer.

It is best to raise one’s hand while saying “Allah u Akbar”

In the case when the dead is a child or an infant, the following Du’a is made:

“Allahumma ejalhu dhiktan liwalidayehi, washafeean mujaban. Allahuma thaqil bihi mawazeenahuma wa a’dhun bihi ujorahuma wa alhiqhu bi salih el Mumineen, waj’alhu fee kafalati Ibrahim aleihi As-Salam, waqihi bi rahmatika adhaba al Jaheem.”

“O Allah make him a preceding reward and a reserve treasure (on the Day of Judgment) for his parents; a one whose intercession would be granted. O Allah make of him an excess in the measures and in the rewards (granted by Allah) to his parents. Let him join the company of the righteous believers and make him under the care of Abraham (may the peace of Allah be upon him), and protect him, by Your Mercy, from the torment of the blazing Fire “.

The Position of the Imam in the Funeral Prayer:

The tradition is for the Imam to stand right next to the head of the body if it is a man, and to the middle of the body if it is a woman. If the dead were many, men, women, male and female children in one funeral, the following positions are to be taken:

The men right in front of the Imam. The women further towards the Qibla. The male children are between the men and women and more towards the men while the female children follow women further down in the direction of Qibla (all of the dead bodies are to be laid parallel to those praying). The bodies are to be arranged such that the head of the male child lies next to that of a man while the middle of a woman lies next to the head of a man. The head of the female child lies next to the head of a woman.

The followers of Imam are to stand behind him just as in other prayers. It is acceptable for one to stand to the right of the Imam if he finds no place behind him.

All praise is due to Allah and His blessings and peace be upon His Prophet, his family and his companions.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

 

AQEEDAH COMES FIRST!

By Shaykh Saalih Ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan

Translated by Aboo Sumayyah al-Anishnaabiyee

WHY MUST ‘AQEEDAH COME FIRST?

The ‘aqeedah (creed) must come first because it is the foundation of the da’wah (call) of the Prophets as Allaah the Exalted said upon the tongue of every Prophet He sent to his people: “O people! Worship Allaah, you do not have a deity other than Him. ” [Soorah Hood 11:84]

The ‘aqeedah (creed) must come first because it is the decisive partition between abiding in the Fire (forever) and being saved from it. Have you not heard the statement of Allaah – Sublime is His Affair – : “Verily Allaah does not forgive that shirk (association) be made with Him, and He forgives whatever is less than that for whomever He wishes. And whoever commits shirk with Allaah, then he has indeed perpetrated a great sin. ” [Sooratun-Nisaa’ 4:48] Shirk is the greatest of those things which negate Tawheed, whish is the basis for the correctness of the correct ‘aqeedah.

The ‘aqeedah must come first because shirk with Allaah is the greatest form of oppression as Allah the Exalted says: ” Verily Shirk is indeed a great transgression.” [Soorah Luqmaan 31:13]

The ‘aqeedah must come first because the only real cause for the differing and destruction that has come upon our Islaamic world is the purified ‘aqeedah. So indeed the creed of many of the Muslims today has become corrupted by matters of greater shirk from making tawaaf (encircling) the graves, and seeking help from the dead people inside of them, and trying to fulfill ones needs and affairs from them. So they return to the first jaahiliyyah (pre-Islaamic times of ignorance), and it is as if they have not heard the statement of Allaah the Exalted: ” Verily those whom you call upon besides Allaah do not hear your calls. And if they were able to hear you, then they would not be able to answer you. And upon the Day of Judgement, they will disown your worship of them, and there is none like He who is the All-Knower.” [Sooratul-Faatir 14]

And we prohibit you from the innovations of the Soofiyyah which many of the common folk of the Muslims have erected to (such) an educational level that whole countries have institutionalized these innovations, such as the celebration of the Birthday of the Prophet. And (innovations such as) accompanying the Christians in their festivals, not to mention the deviations in dealings and manners and other than that from that which separates their countries from the Book and the authenticated Sunnah, with the permission of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic.

And after this beloved brother of mine we have shown the truth of our statement that the ‘aqeedah must come first.

 

2 thoughts on “Aqeedah”

  1. Assalaamu Alaikum…

    Jazaakumu Allaahu Khairaan..

    Keep up the good work.

    Just a suggestion: I beleive it would great if you do make an index for the Aqeedah page.

    Great deal of information yet long.

A penny for your thoughts...

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s