The Muslim Creed – Vol. 9 No. 8

The Muslim Ummah has always consented that the Muslims who curse or slander Allah, the Prophet or the religion of Islam will have nullified their Islam, thus deserving capital punish-ment. The Ummah has also agreed that if it was a non-Muslim who lives under Muslim control who curses the Prophet, then he will also have to be executed as a punishment. Imam ibn Al-Munthir has stated that there is an Ijmaa’ that it is a requirement of Islam to execute those who curse the Prophet. Furthermore, Imam Al-Khattabi said, “I know of no disagreement among the scholars regarding killing such a person if he was a Muslim.”

In addition, Imam ibn Qudamah said, “Whoever curses Allah will have committed Kufr, whether he was serious or just jesting, such as the case with those who jest regarding Allah, His Ayat, His Mes-senger or His Book. Allah said, what translated means, “If you ask them (about this), they declare, “We were only talking idly and joking.” Say, “Was it at Allah, and His Ayat (verses, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger (Mohammad) that you were mocking?” Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed. [9:65-66].”

Also, Imam ibn ‘Hazm stated that, “There is no Muslim on the face of this earth who would disagree that cursing Allah constitutes clear Kufr. Only the Jahmiyyah and the Ash’ariyyah, two sects who do not deserve attention, said that it is a sign of Kufr, not that it is actual Kufr.” Then, ibn ‘Hazm refuted the opinions of these two misguided sects that he mentioned, and then commented, “There is no doubt that it is true that whoever jested regarding some of Allah’s Ayat or regarding one of Allah’s Messengers, then he is a Kafir, Murtadd (as those who revert from Islam are called).” He also stated that, “After the proofs that we have produced, we should state that it is certain that those who curse Allah or jest regarding Him, or curse one of the angels or jest regarding them, or curse one of the Prophets, or curse one of Allah’s Ayat or jest regarding them, will have become Kuffar and Murtaddeen, and hence deserve the treatment of the Murtadd. This is our position, and all success comes from Allah alone.” [Al-Mu’halla].

Furthermore, Shaykh Al-Islam ibn Taymiyyah said under chapter: “Cursing Allah”, “If such a person was Muslim, he shall be killed according to Ijmaa’, because he is a Kafir, a Murtadd, and even worse. The Kafir respects the Lord and thinks that the creed that he follows, which is false, does not constitute ridiculing Allah or cursing Him.” [As-Sarim Al-Maslool]. He also stated that, “When a non-Muslim curses or slanders Allah, it is like if he has cursed or slandered the Prophet (meaning they both carry the same punishment). We have mentioned Imam Ahmad’s statement that whoever disrespects the Lord shall be killed whether he was a Muslim or a Kafir. Also, our scholars have stated that whoever shows disrespect for Allah, His Book, His religion or His Messenger, deserves the same pun-ishment (meaning capital punishment for all these offenses).

The same is also the position of Imam Malik and his followers, as is also the case with the followers of Imam Ash-Shafii. They have all stated that the same ruling applies for whoever curses or slanders Allah, His Messenger or His Book, even if such people were from Ahlu Ath-Thimmah (as non-Muslims who live under Muslim control are called).” [As-Sarim Al-Maslool].

Also, Shaykh Al-Islam stated that Imam Ahmad said, “Whoever mentions the Lord with disrespect shall receive the death penalty, whether he was a Muslim or a Kafir. This is the ruling of the scholars of Madinah.” [As-Sarim]. He also mentioned that Imam Ahmad had said, “All those who curse the Messenger, whether they were Muslims or Kuffar, deserve to be executed.” The type of slander and cursing that we have stated their ruling in the religion entail cursing, humiliation, ridiculing, jesting and disrespect. It does not include the various religious beliefs of the nations of Kufr, which are also slander in reality. The Jews, for example, claim that Allah rested on the seventh day due to exhaustion and that He is poor. The Christians claim that Allah has a son. This is a type of slander in reality, but it is not the subject that we are discussing here, and thus, has a different ruling. Shaykh Al-Islam said, “The cursing and slander that we have stated their ruling are that speech that entail disrespect and insults, and which are equal to the cursing that all people of different faiths consider cursing. It is also the slander that is entailed by what Allah said, “And insult not those whom they (disbelievers) worship besides Allah, lest they insult Allah wrongfully without knowledge.” [6: 108].

This type of speech is the worst of what the mouths can ever utter. The ruling of what is in reality slander, but some people think that it is a part of their religion and think that it is valid, and also think that it does not entail insults or disrespect, is that this is a type of Kufr (but as we have stated, is not our subject in this ar-ticle). The ruling concerning such people is the same ruling concerning the Murtadd who announces the Riddah and the hypocrite who conceals hypocrisy. This is not where we discuss in detail the words that lead to Kufr and that which not, or the beliefs that constitute Kufr or only Bid’ah. What we sought to affirm is that this type is not included in the cursing and slander that we have discussed its ruling…”

The Proofs that Require Executing those who Commit this Act

The evidence and proofs that justify the Ijmaa’ to execute those who commit this act against Allah, His Messenger, His Book or the religion of Islam, are derived from the Quran and Sunnah.

First The Quran: Allah said, what translated means, “The recompense of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter.” [5:33]

and, “If you ask them (about this), they declare, “We were only talking idly and joking.” Say, “Was it at Allah, and His Ayat and His Messenger (Mohammad) that you were mocking?” Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed. [9:65].”

Second The Sunnah: In Muntaqha Al-Akhbar it is narrated under chapter: “Executing those who commit slander against the Prophet”:

1– Imam Ash-Shi’bi narrated that Ali bin Abi Talib said that there was a Jewish woman who used to curse the Prophet and utter words of disrespect about him. Then, a man suffocated her until she died. The Prophet annulled her Diyyah (blood money, meaning he declared that killing her was justified). [Abu Dawood, and Al-Albani rendered it authentic].

2 – Ibn Abbas narrated that a blind man had a wife who used to curse and slander the Prophet and who would frequently insult him. The blind man used to forbid and advise her not to do that, but she would not listen. Consequently, one night while she was cursing the Prophet and heralding insults against him, her husband took an ax and pushed it against her stomach and killed her. In the morning, what had happened was mentioned to the Prophet, and the Prophet gathered the people and said, “I ask the man who did this, if he pronounces that I have a right on him, that he stands up.” The blind man stood up passing by the people, until he sat between the hands of the Prophet, saying, “O Messenger of Allah! I did it. She used to curse and insult you, and I used to forbid her, but to no avail. And I advised her against this conduct, but to no avail. I have two daughters with her who are just like two pearls (meaning they are dear and precious to him), and she used to be good to them. Then last night, she started to curse and insult you, so I took the ax and pushed it against her stomach and killed her.” The Prophet then said, “Be witnesses that her blood is Hadar (permissible to be shed, meaning killing her was justified).” [Abu Dawood & An-Nasaii].

The approval by the Prophet for this man‘s deed indicates the ruling that we have mentioned.

Sabb means to curse, insult and slander someone. Sabb of Allah, the Prophet or the religion of Islam is a grave act that takes the person out of the folds of Islam. We previously proved this ruling, and now we will elaborate on this most devastating act that millions of Muslims commit unaware of its danger.

The Acceptance of Repentance

Many scholars have agreed that those who commit Sabb against Allah, His Messenger or the religion, that they are to be executed without asking them to repent. Some scholars, on the other hand, said that such people are like the Murtadd who deserves a chance to repent or else will be killed. Thus, many scholars have stated that when a person repents from the Sabb of Allah, His Book, His Prophet or His religion, then he will not be immediately executed. Furthermore, some drew a distinction between the Sabb of Allah and the Sabb of the Prophet, thus requiring execution for those who curse the Prophet even if they repent, while averting capital punishment from those who repent from cursing Allah. This is the opinion of Shaykh Al-Islam

Ibn Taymiyyah, as he has stated in As-Sarim Al-Maslool. Shaykh Al-Islam said, “If such a person was a Muslim, he shall be executed according to the Ijmaa’ because he will have become a Murtadd, a Kafir and even worse. The Kafir respects the Lord, all the while believing that his false creed does not constitute jesting regarding Allah or Sabb for Him. Thereafter, our scholars have disagreed regarding accepting repentance from such people, thus averting capital punishment if they repent, just as is the case when the Murtadd repents. There are two opinions regarding this matter..” Then Shaykh Al-Islam stated that, “Some scholars, such as Imam Abu Hanifah, have indicated that there is a difference between those who commit Sabb against Allah and those who commit Sabb against the Prophet. They stated that committing Sabb against Allah is clear Kufr, and that this is an aggression against Allah. They have also stated that repentance by those who fall into Kufr or those who are Kuffar shall be accepted, thus averting capital punishment according to Ijmaa’.

What testifies to this fact is that the Christians commit Sabb against Allah by claiming that He is one in trinity and by saying that He has a son. The Prophet informed us that Allah said in a Qudsi Hadith, ‘The son of Adam has insulted Me, and he has no right to do so, and the son of Adam has also accused Me of lying, and he has no right to do so. As for his insulting Me, he says, ‘Allah has begotten a son,’ while I Am the One, the Ever-Sustainer.’ [Al-Bukhari & Muslim]. It is a well-known fact that Allah will forfeit His Right of retribution regarding those who repent from Kufr. If a person brings forward the earth’s fill of Kufr and sin and he then repents, Allah will forgive him. In addition, when Allah is insulted, His status will not decrease in the slaves’ hearts and hence, the harm of Sabb in this case only touches those who commit it. Allah’s status is far more honored and revered than being harmed by those who dare to commit Sabb against Him. This is the difference between Allah and His Messenger with regards to Sabb.

The Sabb for the Prophet, on the other hand, constitutes breaching the rights of the son of Adam (the Prophet in this case), and thus the punishment for this offense is not averted when one repents from it. Also, the Prophet will be humiliated and insulted because of this Sabb, since his status and respectability are solidified by refraining from cursing him. Furthermore, and since such insults and cursing will decrease the Prophet’s status with many people, we are obliged to guard these limits by punishing the aggressors. Otherwise, widespread evil will be the result.’” [As-Sarim].



Sahih Al-Bukhari Vol. 8 No. 73 Narrated by Thabit bin Ad Dahhak (raa): Allah’s Messenger (saws) said, “Whoever swears by a religion other than Islam (i.e. if somebody swears by saying that he is a non-Muslim e.g., a Jew or a Christian, etc.) in case he is telling a lie, he is really so if his oath is false, and a person is not bound to fulfill a vow about a thing which he does not possess. And if somebody commits suicide with anything in this world, he will be tortured with that very thing on the Day of Resurrection. And if somebody curses a believer, then his sin will be as if he murdered him. And whoever accuses a believer of Kufr (disbelief), then it is as if he killed him.”



By Shaykh ‘Abdul-Maalik al-Qasim


First Khutbah

Thanks be to Allaah Who prohibited harming the Muslims in all cases and said in this regard which means: “And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly bear (on themselves) a calumny and a glaring sin.” (Al-Ahzaab: 58)

I testify that there is no God but Allaah, Who ordered us to perform good deeds and prohibited us from evil acts, and that Muhammad (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) is His Prophet and Messenger who never hurt nor humiliated others. He, as well as his Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them all, never cursed any person.

When we examine closely our Islaamic laws, we find that they are most protective of the purity of Muslims, in both the abstract [1] and real sense of the word. They cover every type of moral filth and impurity, even extending to the act of insulting people, cursing them or calling them abusive names. These laws also prohibit scoffing at or ridiculing individuals or Muslim societies. Speaking unfavourably of others is lawful in a few essential cases, such as declaring a witness unreliable in a case of law, exposing one or more narrators of the Prophet’s Ahaadeeth if any of them are inaccurate, speaking frankly about a Muslim when marriage is involved, in matters of financial or real estate trust, or employment. In such necessary cases, it is lawful to expose the truth even if such persons have moral defects. This is not a form of slandering or backbiting.

Unfortunately, on the streets, in official organizations or popular gatherings, one may hear people reviling others, calling them names, or scoffing at them. All this happens despite the fact that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “A believer is never a person who scoffs at others, calls them names, or utters vulgar and obscene phrases.” (Tirmidhee)

This Hadeeth indicates that slandering people, belittling them and cursing them are all prohibited acts. A true believer is a decent person who uses polite phrases when he talks. The Holy Qur’aan taught us to use decent phrases as evidenced in its discussion of delicate acts, such as expressing the act of having marital relations with one’s spouse is described by the use of the term “touch” your wife.

Abu Tharr Al-Ghifaari reported that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “If a person accused another person of depravity or atheism, such an accusation applies to the accuser unless the accused is actually immoral or rejects faith”. (Bukhaaree)

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also said: “Reviling [2] a Muslim is an act of outrage (moral depravity) and fighting against him is an act of disbelief (Kufr)”. (Bukhaaree & Muslim)

In the case of a dispute arising between two persons, neither should have recourse to using vulgar and obscene phrases, reviling the other party or calling him names. Acting in this manner makes the dispute more complex and difficult to settle. One of the disputants may have been the victim of injustice, but this does not grant him the right to abuse the other party or call him names.

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The one who starts abusing his fellow Muslim and calling him names bears the sin of both, unless the abused person uses more vulgar phrases than the first”. (Muslim) Imaam Al-Nawawee explained this prophetic saying as thus: “This means that the person who starts insulting a Muslim or calling him names will bear the sin incurred by such an act for both of them, unless the second party uses more severe and vulgar phrases than the first”. Yet, sticking to patience and forgiving people is far better for the Muslim. Allaah said which means: “But indeed if any show patience and forgive, that would truly be an exercise of courageous will and resolution in the conduct of affairs.” (Al-Shooraa: 43)

Our religion does not even allow us to revile and abuse the sinner. Abu Hurayrah, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported: “A man drank alcohol so he was brought before the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) who said: “Beat him (according to the rules set by Allah).” Abu Hurayrah said: Some of us beat him with our hands, others with their sandals and still others with pieces of cloth. When the man went away, some said: May Allaah humiliate you! Whereupon, the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Do not say that. Do not support Shaytaan against your fellow brother”. (Bukhaaree)

Imaam Ibn ‘Illaan Al-Siddeeqi, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “The meaning of this prophetic saying is that the aim of Shaytaan, when he opens the gates of sins to the believers, is to heap humiliation upon them. Invoking Allaah against the sinner, as the Companions did, leads to humiliating the sinner, which is the very aim of Satan. Therefore, the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) prohibited them from invoking Allaah against the drunkard”.

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also said: “If a person accused his slave of adultery, he will be punished with the retribution set by Allaah on the Day of Judgment unless his slave is really an adulterer.” (Bukhaaree & Muslim)

This great prophetic saying points out the crime of the person who accuses others of adultery even if the accused is a slave. So what about those people who consider that one of the proofs of a strong relationship between them is their reviling and abusing each other? Such a person may accuse the other’s mother or sister of adultery while the other side is content and he may even laugh considering that this is a sign of a lasting friendship and strong relationship.

Servants of Allaah! Cursing people as well as calling them names is a type of verbal abuse.

Abu Hurayrah, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “A true believer is never used to cursing others”. (Muslim)

Abu Ad-Dardaa’, may Allaah be pleased with him, also reported that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “People who curse others will never be witnesses or intercessors on the Day of Judgment.” (Muslim)

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also said: “Do not curse each other and do not summon the wrath of Allaah or His Hell on each other”. (Abu Daawood & Tirmidhee)

Thaabit Ibn Al-Dahhaak, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “If a person perjures himself by swearing by a religion other than Islam, then he is as he professed. Whoever kills himself with a tool, he will be punished with the very same tool on the Day of Judgment. A man should not make a vow regarding things that he does not possess. Cursing a believer is just like the act of killing him.” (Bukhaaree & Muslim)

The meaning of the first sentence of the above-mentioned prophetic saying is as follows: If a person said, “If I have done so and so, I am a Jew or a Christian” and he did, he is a Jew or a Christian as he professed. If he meant this and insists that he’s telling the truth, then he becomes a disbeliever (Kaafir). However, if he just wanted to exaggerate so as to prevent himself from doing a certain act and therefore never intended to desert the Islamic religion, then he is just a sinner who should ask Allaah for forgiveness because of the sin he has committed.

The meaning of the last sentence in the above Hadeeth is that the crime of cursing a believer is similar to the crime of killing him.

Also, a Muslim may not curse his riding animal, car, house or any of his personal belongings. This is, again, a prohibited act in Islaam.

`Imraan Ibn Al-Husayn, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported: “The Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was travelling when a woman of the Ansaar cursed her she-camel because it made her furious. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) heard the curse and upon this he said: “Take away the luggage which the she-camel carries and let her away, because she is cursed”. `Imraan said: I have seen the she-camel walking in the streets and nobody ever pays attention to her.” (Muslim)

It is allowed to curse sinners in general (and not in particular) as Allaah said which means: “Behold! The curse of Allaah is on those who do wrong!” (Hood: 18)

“The Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) cursed the one who indulges in usury, the agent, the witness and the one who writes up the contract.” (Bukhaaree)

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said that Allaah curses the person who changes the boundaries of the land (as a sort of deceiving others).

He also said: “Allaah curses the thief who steals (even) an egg.” (Bukhaaree)

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also said: “Allaah curses the one who curses his parent” (Muslim)

“He (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) invoked curses on the tribes of R’al, Thakwaan and ‘Aseyyah who disobeyed Allaah and His Messenger.” (Muslim)

He (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also said: “Allaah cursed the men who imitate women and the women who imitate men.” (Bukhaaree)

In all these Ahaadeeth, the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not curse a certain person; rather he cursed whoever commits such evil deeds as a sort of warning against them.

I seek refuge in Allaah and hope that we will not be damned. I invoke Allaah, the All Merciful, to guide us so that we could escape the path of the damned. Hereby I end my first Khutbah and I invoke Allaah to grant you and me forgiveness.

Second Khutbah

Thanks be to Allaah, the All Merciful, the Most Compassionate. I thank Him and repent to Him and ask Him for forgiveness.

I testify that there is no God but Allaah and that Muhammad is His Prophet and Messenger (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) who said: “Indecency and obscene words distort any act, while courteousness embellishes any good act”.

The Islaamic law prohibits the act of unjustifiably reviling and abusing the dead and it warns against harming the dead because of his innovation in religion or immorality.

‘Aa’ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, reported that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Do not revile the dead, because they have already faced their destiny (be it good or bad).” (Bukhaaree)

The meaning of the Hadeeth is that the dead has already been commissioned with the consequences of his deeds, whether good or bad; accordingly, the Hadeeth warns against reviling them especially if they are Muslims.

Sadly, some people may insult or verbally abuse their children as well as invoke Allaah against them. Some may even curse themselves, their servants and even invoke ruin against their property.

Jaabir bin `Abdullaah, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: Do not invoke ruin against your property for when you do so, it may be an hour of accepting invocation (and you face such disaster). (Muslim)

Ubay, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “There are three invocations which Allaah will undoubtedly accept: the invocation of the oppressed, that of the traveller and the father’s invocation against his son.” (Tirmidhee)

Glory be to Allaah. What a great religion! What a supreme law! Only the pious people will stick to this religion that gives us a full account of even minute details of this life. Are we going to stick to this religion? Yes, God willing. We shall stick to the path of Allaah and follow the example of Prophet Muhammad (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).


[1] Abstract concepts of purity, such as purity of intentions (niyyah), heart, language or relationships, etc. Real concepts of purity refer to the physical sense which would include making ablution, wearing clean clothes, etc.

[2] The word “revile” includes in its meaning: to call bad names, abuse with words, to speak abusively, to insult, to blaspheme, curse, to swear or to exchange insults or abusive language.


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