AHADITH ON DOGS
Malik Al-Muwatta . Hadith 54.13: Malik related to me from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever acquires a dog other than a sheepdog or hunting dog, will have two qirats deducted from the reward of his good actions every day.”
Sahih Muslim. Hadith 551. Narrated byAbdullah Ibn Mughaffal: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) ordered killing of the dogs and then said: What about them, i.e. about other dogs? – and then granted concession (to keep) the dog for hunting and the dog for (the security) of the herd, and said: When the dog licks the utensil, wash it seven times, and rub it with earth the eighth time.
Malik Al-Muwatta. Hadith 31.68: Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Abu Bakr ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Harith ibn Hisham from Abu Masud al-Ansari that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the sale price of a dog, the earnings of a prostitute and the earnings of a fortune teller. By the earnings of a prostitute he meant what a woman was given for fornication. The earnings of a fortune teller were what he was given to tell a fortune. Malik said, “I disapprove of the price of a dog, whether it is a hunting dog or otherwise because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade the price of a dog.”
Al-Tirmidhi. Hadith 4102. Narrated by Abdullah ibn Mughaffal: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Were dogs not a species of creature I should command that they all be killed; but kill every pure black one.” AbuDawud and Darimi transmitted it. Tirmidhi and Nasa’i added, “No family attaches itself to a dog without a qirat of their good deeds being deducted daily, except in the case of a hunting dog, a farm dog, or a sheepdog.”
Sahih Al-Bukhari 3:515. Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard Allah’s Apostle (saw) saying; “Angels (of Mercy) do not enter a house wherein there is a dog or a picture of a living creature (a human being or an animal).”
Sahih Muslim. Narrated ‘Aisha: Gabriel made a promise with Allah’s Messenger (saw) to come at a definite hour; that hour came but he did not visit him. And there was in his hand (in the hand of Allah’s Apostle) a staff. He threw it from his hand and said: Never has Allah or His messengers (angels) ever broken their promise. Then he cast a glance (and by chance) found a puppy under his cot and said: Aisha, when did this dog enter here? She said: By Allah, I don’t know. He then commanded and it was turned out. Then Gabriel came and Allah’s Messenger (saw) said to him: You promised me and I waited for you, but you did not come, whereupon he said: It was the dog in your house which prevented me (to come), for we (angels) do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture.
KEEPING A DOG IN THE HOUSE
Question: I would like to ask 3 questions:
1) I am hearing impaired and I have dogs inside my house that help me to hear when the doorbell rings or someone knocks on the door. Dogs are forbidden in the home except sheepdogs, farming and hunting dogs. Would my hearing dogs be an exception too?
2) There is a hadith that says angels do not enter a house where there are dogs. I would like to know the reason why…because dogs are dirty or because they will be able to see the angels?
3) If a dog licks you or rubs against you with his fur does it break your wudu?
Muslim, in his Saheeh, Tirmithi and an-Nissaai narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, may peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Whoever keeps a dog, other than the dogs for hunting, securing agricultural land or livestock, indeed two qeerat (a weight of about .195g) are taken away from his rewards everyday.” Saheeh alJamie
In this hadith is the prohibition of keeping a dog except for these 3 reasons: hunting, securing livestock and agricultural or farm land. Imam an-Nawawi has mentioned in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim that the scholars have differed regarding the permissiblity of keeping a dog for a necessity that resembles one of the necessities that were just mentioned. Some of them said this rationality is permissible due to qiyas (deduction by analogy) (this is studied in the science of Fiqh) and others said that rationale is not permissible in this instance, acting upon what is evident and apparent in the hadith.
Upon this, if it is possible to substitute this doorbell with a stronger one that you will be able to hear, then it is not permissible to keep this dog, if not, then perhaps you have a permission inshallah.
As far as the hadith, “Indeed, the Angels do not enter a house that has a dog or an image inside.” Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, Imam an-Nawawi also mentioned that the scholars differed. Is it that the angels of mercy do not enter a house that has a dog (that is haram to keep) only or all dogs in general including the ones that are permissible to keep for the reasons that were mentioned. Allah knows best. But as far as the reason why the Angels do not enter, then this does not concern us. What is important is that they do not enter and when the angels of mercy enter the houses, they cause comfort, tranquillity and barakah (blessings.)
Regarding a dog licking a person with his tongue or touching him with his body then this does not invalidate the wudoo according to the majority of the scholars. But they differed in this aspect: Is the dog Najis (filthy) where it is then obligatory to wash the place the dog touched or not?
The Malikiyah said : the dog is pure. And this is the predominant opinion. So it is not obligatory to wash the body or the clothes, but he must still wash a bowl that was touched or licked.
The Ahnaf and some of the Hanabilah said: His saliva is Najis (filthy) but his body is not.
Ashafi’iyah and some of the Hanabilah said: His saliva is Najis and his body is also Najis.
Those that ruled with the dog being najis said that one must wash seven times the body and the clothing that was affected by the dog. And some of them said one must only wash the place once with dirt, similarly to when washes the bowl that was affected and Allah knows best.
Malikiyah: scholars that took Imam Malik’s school of thought
Hanabilah: scholars that took Imam Ahmad’s school of thought
Ahnaf: scholars that took Abu Haneefah’s school of thought
Ashafi’iyah: schoalrs that took Imam Ashafiee’s school of thought
KEEPING DOGS WITHOUT NECESSITY
By Ahmed Ismail
Keeping dogs inside the house without any necessity merely as pets was forbidden by the Prophet (saws). When we observe how lavishly the well-to-do treat their dogs while despising their relatives, and how much attention they give their dogs while neglecting their neighbors, we realize the wisdom of this prohibition. Moreover, the presence of a dog makes the household utensils unhygienic due to their licking of them. The Prophet (saws) said, “If a dog licks a plate (or pot), clean it seven times, of which one time should be with sand (or earth).” (Reported by al-Bukhari.)
Some scholars are of the opinion that the reason for prohibiting the keeping of dogs may be because they bark at visitors, scare away the needy who come to ask for charity, and chase and try to bite passers-by. The Prophet (saws) said, Jibril came to me and said, ‘I came to you yesterday but what stopped me from entering was that there was a statue at the door, a curtain with figures on it in the house, and a dog inside the house. So order that the head of the statue be broken off so that it resembles the trunk of tree, that the curtain be cut and made into two pillows to recline on, and that the dog be taken out.’ (Reported by AbDaoud, al-Nisai, al-Tirmidhi, and by Ibn Hibban in his Sahih.)
This prohibition is limited to keeping dogs without need or benefit.
The Permissibility of Keeping Hunting Dogs and Watch Dogs
Dogs which are kept for a purpose, such as hunting, guarding cattle or crops and the like are exempted from the above ruling. In a hadith reported by both al-Bukhari and Muslim, the Prophet (peace be on him) said, Whoever keeps a dog except for hunting or for guarding crops or cattle will lose one large measure (qirat) of his reward each day. On the basis of this hadith some jurists argue that the keeping of dogs as pets can be classified as makruh rather than haram, as the haram is absolutely prohibited without regard to whether there is a decrease in reward or not.
However, the prohibition of keeping dogs in the house does not mean that dogs may be treated cruelly or that they should be eradicated. Referring to the following verse of the Qur’an, There is not an animal on the earth, nor a birdflying upon two wings, but comprise nations like yourselves. (6:38), the Prophet (peace be on him) said, “If dogs were not a nation (ummah) among nations, I would have ordered that they be killed.” (Reported by Abu Daoud and al-Tirmidhi. (This was said by the Prophet following Jibril’s remark that angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog. Trans.))
The Prophet (saws) told his Companions a story concerning a man who found a dog in the desert panting and licking the dust due to thirst. The man went to a well, filled his shoes with water, and relieved the dog’s thirst. Said the Messenger of Allah (saws), “Allah appreciated this and forgave him all his sins.” (Reported by al-Bukhari.)
The Findings of Scientific Research Relative to Keeping Dogs
Some lovers of the West in Muslim countries claim to be full of love and compassion for all living creatures and they wonder why Islam warns against this “best friend” of man. For their benefit, we quote here a lengthy excerpt from an article by the German scientist, Dr. Gerard Finstimer, (Translated from the German magazine Kosinos.) in which the author sheds light on the dangers to human health resulting from keeping dogs or coming in contact with them. He says: The increasing interest shown by many people in recent times in keeping dogs as pets has compelled us to draw public attention to the dangers which result from this, especially because pet dogs are hugged and kissed and permitted to lick the hands of the young and the old, and what is worse, to lick the plates and utensils which are used by human beings for eating and drinking.
Besides being unhygienic and uncouth, this practice is bad manners and abhorrent to good taste. However, we are not concerned with such matters. Leaving them to be addressed by teachers of etiquette and good taste. Rather this article is intended to present some scientific observations.
From the medical point of view, which is our main concern here, the hazards to human health and life from keeping and playing with dogs are not to be ignored. Many people have paid a high price for their ignorance, as the tapeworm carried by dogs is a cause of chronic disease, sometimes resulting in death.
This worm is found in man, in cattle, and in pigs, but it is found in fully-developed form only in dogs, wolves and rarely in cats. These worms differ from others in that they are minute and invisible, consequently, they were not discovered until very recently. He continues, Biologically the developmental process of this worm has some unique characteristics. In the lesions caused by them, one worm gives rise to many heads which spread and form other and varied kinds of lesions and abscesses. These heads develop into full-grown worms only in dogs’ tonsils. In humans and in other animals they appear as lesions and abscesses completely different from the tapeworm itself In animals the size of an abscess may reach that of an apple, while the liver of the infected animal may grow from five to ten times its normal size. In human beings the size of the abscess may reach that of a clenched fist or even the head of an infant; it is filled with yellow fluid weighing from ten to twenty pounds. In the infected human it may cause diverse kinds of inflammations in the lungs, muscles, spleen, kidneys, and brain, and appears in such different forms that specialists, until very recently, had difficulty in recognizing it.
In any case, wherever this inflammation is found, it poses great danger to the health and life of the patient. What is worse is that, in spite of our knowledge of its life history, origin, and development, we have not been able to devise a cure for it, except that in some instances these parasites die out, possibly because of antibodies produced in the human body. Unfortunately, cases in which such parasites die without causing damage are rare indeed.
Moreover, chemotherapy has failed to produce any benefit, and the usual treatment is surgical removal of the abscessed parts of the body. For all these reasons we should use all possible resources to fight against this dreadful disease and save man from its dangers.
Professor Noeller, through post-mortem dissection of human bodies in Germany, found that the incidence of infection with dogs’ worms is at least one percent. In some places such as Dalmatia, Iceland, southeastern Australia, andHolland, where dogs are used for pulling sleds, the incidence rate of tapeworm among dogs is 12 percent. In Iceland the number of people who suffer from the inflammation caused by this worm has reached the rate of 43 percent. If we add to this the human suffering, the loss of meat because of infection of cattle, and the permanent danger to human health because of the presence of tapeworms, we cannot be very complacent toward this problem.
Perhaps the best way to combat the problem is to limit the worms to dogs and not let them spread, since in actuality we need to keep some dogs. We should not neglect to treat dogs when necessary by getting rid of the tapeworms in their tonsils and perhaps repeating this process periodically on shepherd dogs and watchdogs.
Man can protect his life and health by keeping a safe distance from dogs. He should not hug them, play with them, or let them come close to children. Children should be taught not to play with dogs or to fondle them. Dogs should not be permitted to lick children’s hands or come to places where they play. Unfortunately, dogs are allowed to roam about everywhere, especially in places where children play, and their bowls are scattered throughout the house. Dogs must have their own separate bowls, and they must not be allowed to lick bowls and plates used by humans. They should not be allowed inside grocery stores, restaurants, or marketplaces. In general, great care must be taken that they do not come in contact with anything which is used by people for eating and drinking.
We already know that the Prophet (saws) forbade mixing with dogs, and that he warned against their licking plates and against keeping them without necessity. How is it possible that the teachings of an unlettered Arab, Muhammad, should agree with the latest findings of scientific research? Truly, we cannot say anything except to repeat the words of the Qur’an: Nor does he speak from (his own) desire. It is nothing other than a revelation sent down. (53:3-4)