EID AND JUMU’AH COINCIDING ON THE SAME DAY
Abu Dawud, An-Nasaa’ee, Ibn Majah, Ibh Khuzaimah, Ad-Daarimee, and Ahmad transmit from Iyaas ibn Abee Ramlah as-Shaamee who said: “I witnessed Mu’aaweeyah ibn Abee – Have you witnessed the coinciding of two Eids on the same day with the Prophet (SAW)? He replied: Yes. So he said: What did he do? He replied: He (SAW) prayed Eid and then gave permission not to pray Jum’ah, and said: “He amongst you who desires to pray them, pray.” (This hadeeth has been declared sahih by scholar of hadeeth, Imam ‘Alee ibn al-Madenee, as in Talkhess al-Habeer)
In this area Abu Hurairah (RA) and others report from the Prophet (SAW).
The Companions also act according to this.
Abdur-Razzaq reports in his Musnaf, Ibn Abee Shaibah in his musnnaf with an authentic chain of narration from ‘Alee ibn Abee Talib (RA) that two Eids coincided on the same day so he said:”He who wishes to pray Jum’ah then let him do so and he who wishes to sit then let him do so.”
And in Sahih Al-Bukhari is a similar narration from Uthman (RA).
In Sunan Abu Dawud, Musaanaf of Abdur-Razzaq with an authentic chain of narration from Ibn Zubair that he said: “Two Eids coincided on the same day and so they were both joined together by making them one. He prayed on the day of Jum’ah two Rakahs in the morning and he did not add to them until he prayed Asr Prayer…”
Ash-Shawkanee said in Nayl al-Awtaar after this narration: “It is apparent that he did not pray Zhur prayer”
It also shows that if for any (permissible) reason, the Jum’ah prayer is canceled it is not obligatory for the person for whom it has been canceled to pray the Zhur prayer and ‘Ataa held this opinion.
Thus it is apparent that those who hold this opinion are those who say that the Jum’ah prayer is the origin. You are well aware of what He obligated over his servants on the day of Jum’ah, and that is the Jum’ah prayer. Thus making the Zhur prayer obligatory upon a person who leaves it i.e. Jum’ah, either due to a permissible excuse or otherwise is in need of evidence and there is no evidence which is worthy of being adhered to from that which I know.
THE GREETINGS AND CONGRATULATIONS OF EID
Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah (ra) was asked about the greetings/congratulations of Eid (Majmee al-Fataawaa) so he answered:
“As for the greetings on the day of Eid, then it is by saying to one another when meeting AFTER the prayer: Taqabbala Allahu minnaa wa minkum wa Ahaala Allahu ‘alaika (May Allah accept it from you and us and may Allah make it return to you, and other things of this nature)
Indeed it has been reported that a group of the Companions used to do this. The A’immah, like Ahmad and others permitted this.
However Ahmad said: ‘I do not initiate greeting anybody but if they begin I answer them and that is because answering a greeting is obligatory. As for initiating greetings (of Eid) then it is not from the requested Sunnah and neither is it from that which is prohibited. Therefore whosoever does it, has precedent and whosoever leaves it, also has a precedent – and Allah knows best.'” (as-Suyootee in his treatise Wusool al-Amaanee bi Ussol at-Tahaanee has gathered the sayings from many of the Salaf mentioning the Eid greetings. It is printed within his book al-Haawee lil-Fataawaa, refer back to it and to the book al-Masno’o fee M’arifatil-Hadeeth al Mawdoo’ by the renowned scholar ‘Alee al-Qaree and the footnotes by its checker).
Haafidh Ibn Hajr said: (Fath-ul-Baree)
“We have related in “Mahaamiliyaat” with a chain of narration that is hasan, from Jubair bin Nufair (RA), who said: The Companions of Allah’s Messenger (SAW) used to, when they met on the day of Eid used to say to each other: Taqabbala Allaha minnaa wa minkum (May Allah accept it from you and us).'”
Ibn Qudaamah (ra) mentioned in al-Mughnee that Muhammed ibn Ziyaad said: “I was with Abee Umaamah al-Baahilee and other companions of the Prophet (SAW) and when they returned from the Eid they said to each other: Taqabbala Allah minnaa wa minkum (May Allah accept it from you and us).'” Ahmad said the chain of narration of the hadeeth of Aboo Umaamah is good, (Refer to al-Juwhar an-Naqee) as for the saying , by the general populous of Muslims, who say to each other: kulu ‘aamin wa antum bi khair (Hope you are well and you have a good year), and other similar sayings are rejected. Rather regarding this Allah – Mighty and Sublime says: “Do you exchange that which is better for that which is lower.” (Surah Baqarah 2:61)
The sacrifice is a sheep that is slaughtered after the Eid-ul-Adhaa prayer, seeking nearness to Allah, the Most High, by offering this sacrifice. Allah, the Perfect and Free of all defects and the Most High, says: “Say [Oh Muhammad (SAW)]. Indeed my prayer, my sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the worlds…””(Surah al-An’am 6:162)
Here the word “sacrifice” means “slaughtering so as to seek nearness to Allah, Exalted by He.” (Refer to Minhaaj al-Muslim)
The scholars have differed with respect to its ruling. However, that which seems to be the strongest opinion from the differing evidences, is that the sacrifice is obligatory and here – my Muslim sisters and brothers – are some of the ahadeeth which have been used as evidence by the ones who say it is obligatory:
1. From Abu Hurairah (RA) who said: “The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: ‘Whosoever has the capability and does not offer a sacrifice, then let him not approach our musallaa.'” (Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Ad-Daaraqutnee, al-Haakim and its chain is hasan)
The inference of proof from the hadeeth is that when he (SAW) prohibited one who has the ability and does not offer a sacrifice from approaching the musallaa, he (SAW) highlighted the fact that the one not offering a sacrifice has left and obligatory act. Therefore it is as if he (SAW) is saying that there is no benefit in seeking nearness to Allah while at the same time leaving this obligatory act.
2. From Jundub bin Abdullah al-Bajalee (RA) who said: “I witnessed the Messenger of Allah (SAW) say on the day of Nhar (slaughtering). ‘Whomsoever slaughtered before praying, then let him replace it with another sacrifice and whosoever has not slaughtered then let him slaughter.'” (Reported by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, an-Nasaa’ee, Ibn Majah, at-Tayaalisee and Ahmad)
The “order” is clear in showing that it is obligatory, and nothing has come (The reply to the most significant evidences used by those who say the sacrifice is Sunnah shall come later) to take the order away from its clear meaning.
3. From Mikhnaf bin Sulaaim (RA) who witnessed the Prophet (SAW) say while giving a sermon on the day of Arafah: “It is the duty of the people of every household to offer the sacrifice to Atariyah every year (Aboo Ubaid said in Ghareeb-ul-Hadeeth: “It is a sacrifice made in the month of Rajab, by which the people in Jahiliyah used to get closer to their deities. Then Islam came along and the sacrifice remained until is was abrogated.”) and do you know what Atariyah is? It is what the people call ar-Rajabiyah.” (Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud, al-Baghaawee, at-Tirmidhee, an-Nasaa’ee and in the isnaad is Abu Ramlah and he is majhool (unkown). The hadeeth has other chains of narration found with Ahmad. However the isnaad is daeef (weak) and because of this at-Tirmidhee in his Sunan declared the hadeeth to be hasan and Haafidh Ibn Hajr, in Fath-ul-Baree declared it strong (because of other ahadeeth). Refer to al-Isaabah)
This contains within it an obligatory order. As for Atariyah, then is has been abrogated but its abrogation does not necessitate the abrogation of the sacrifice of Eid, as that remains upon the original guideline and principal.
Ibn Atheer said: “Atariyah has been abrogated and this occurred in the beginning of Islam.” (Jaami-ul-Usool and refer to al-Adillat-ul-Mutma’innah alaa Thubbot-il-Naskh fil-Kitaab was-Sunnah and al-Mughnee)
As for the ones who oppose this stance, then their biggest doubt leading them to the conclusion that the sacrifice is Sunnah, is the saying of the Messenger (SAW): “When the (first) ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah) come and one of you wants to offer a sacrifice, then let him not remove anything from his hair or from his skin (fingernails).” [Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa’ee, al-Baghawee, Ibn Majah, al-Baihaqee, Ahmad, al-Haakim, at-Tahaawee in Sharh Ma’aanee al-Aathaar reported from several chains of narration from Umm Salamah (RA)] so they said: (al-Majmoo, Mughnee al-Muhtaaj, Sharh-us-Sunnah and al-Muhalla)
“This contains an evidence showing that the sacrifice is not obligatory, because he (SAW) said: ‘and if one of you wants to offer a sacrifice.’ Therefore, if it was obligatory he would not have left it to one’s will.”
Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah (ra) – after deeming that the strongest opinion is that of the sacrifice being obligatory – replied to this doubt by saying: (Majmoo al-Fataawaa) “The ones who deny that the sacrifice is obligatory, do not have a text to support them. Indeed the cornerstone of their view is the saying of the Prophet (SAW): ‘whoever wants to offer a sacrifice…’
“Thus they said an obligation would not be connected to wishes/wants. These words are general, since an obligation is not entrusted, to the wishes of the servant, so that it is said: ‘If you wish do this’. Rather, and obligation may be attached to a condition in order to explain a legal verdict; like the saying of Allah: “when you stand for prayer then wash.” (Surah al-Ma’idah 5:6)
Then (scholars) determined that the meaning of this is “when you intend to stand for prayer…” Similarly they determined that it meant: When you intend to recite (the Quran), seek refuge in Allah.
Purification for prayer is obligatory and recitation in the prayer is obligatory. Indeed Allah says: “Verily this (Quran) is no less than a reminder to all the Mankind and Jinn. To whosoever amongst you wills to walk straight.” (Surah at-Takweer 81:27-28)
and wanting to be upright in the Deen is an obligation.
Then he, [Ibn Taymeeyah (ra)], said: (Majmoo al-Fataawaa) “… Also, it is not obligatory upon everybody to offer a sacrifice. Rather it is obligatory upon the one who has the ability. As such a person is the one who wants to offer a sacrifice. Just as he (SAW) said: “Whoever wants to make Hajj then let him hasten for indeed a thing may deviate him from it and a need may prevent him from performing it.” [Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Abu Nu’aim in Hilyah from al-Fadl. There is a weakness in it’s isnaad. However the hadeeth has been found via another chain of narration with Abu Dawud, ad-Daarimee, al-Haakim, Ahmad but that too has a weakness. Nevertheless because of all these asaneed the hadeeth becomes hasan – Insha-Allah. Refer to Irwaa al-Ghaleel by Shaikh al-Albani (ra)]
Indeed Hajj is obligatory upon everyone who has the ability. Therefore, the sayings of the Prophet (SAW): “Whoever wants to offer a sacrifice” is like his (SAW) saying: “Whoever wants to make Hajj…”
Imaam al-Aynee (In al-Binaayah fee Sharh-al-Hidaayah) has replied to the reasoning of those who say it is not obligatory, when explaining the saying of the author of al-Hidaayah: (It is a book called al-Hidaayah Sharh-al-Bidaayah concerning the Hanafee jurisprudence. It is also from amongst the books that adhere to the Hanafee school of thought, as taken from Kashf al-Dhanoon. It is from the works of Imaam ‘Alee bin Aboo Bakr Margiyaanee, who died in the year 593 A.H. His biography is found in al-Fawaa’id al-Bahiyah by al-Lucknowee) … and the meaning of ‘want’ from that which has been narrated – and Allah knows best – is the opposite of inadvertence and not an option.”
So al-Aynee (ra) said: “Then intended meaning is not a choice between leaving and permitting. Rather is becomes as if he (SAW) said: ‘whoever amongst you intends to offer a sacrifice’ and this option does not point to a negation of the obligation. Just as in his (SAW) saying: “Whomsoever wants to pray, then let him make wudu.” (I did not find the hadeeth with this wording, but that which follows the hadeeth suffices us with regard to using it as proof.)
and his saying: “whomsoever amongst you wants to pray Jum’ah then let him make ghusl” (Reported with this wording by Muslim from hadeeth of Ibn Umar (RA), al-Bukhari reports the hadeeth but with another wording) i.e. whoever intends it, no option is found and likewise this one (i.e. the sacrifice).”
As for the decoction of proof from the reasoning that the Prophet (SAW) did not obligate the sacrifice upon his ummah, as in Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan at-Tirmidhee, Musnad Ahmad with an authentic chain of narration from Jabir ibn Abdullah (RA) – then it is a reasoning which does not hold, since it can be understood by harmonizing the evidences together – to mean those of the ummah who do not have the ability.
Therefore he who is unable to offer the sacrifice has the ruling of it being obligatory removed from him from the onset, and Allah knows best.
REGULATIONS OF THE SACRIFICE There are regulations connected to the sacrifice, which a Muslim must know about, so that he has knowledge of his acts of worship and is on clear guidance in his affairs (of his life). I shall by the will of Allah in what follows summarize these regulations.
First: The Prophet (SAW) used to sacrifice two rams, (The evidence for this will come later with point eight, as the two issues share the same evidence) after the Eid prayer and he (SAW) informed us that: “Whosoever slaughters before the Eid prayer, then it is not from the sacrifice: rather it is meat which he gives to his family.” [Reported by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, from the hadeeth of Baraa ibn Aazib (RA)]
Second: He (SAW) used to order his Companions to slaughter a sheep which is a jadha’a and a thaniyaa from other than the sheep. (Haafidh Ibn Hajr said in Fath-ul-Baree: “… Jadha’a is a term used for the specific age of farm animals. Thus, a sheep which is a jadha’a is a sheep which is one year old. This is the opinion of the majority of scholars. However it is said that a jadha’a is a sheep “less than on year old” but they differed as to its actual age. Some said ‘8 months’ and others ’10 months’. A camel which is a thaniyaa, is a camel which is five years old. A cow or goat which is a thaniyaa, is a cow or goat which is two years old. Refer to Zaad-ul-Ma’aad and the footnotes on it.)
Mujaashi’a ibn Mas’ood (RA) said: The Prophet (SAW) said: “Indeed a sheep which is jadha’a is equal, as a sacrifice, to the slaughtering of a goat which is a thaniyaa.” (Saheeh al-Jaami. Refer to Silsilatul ahaadeeth ad-Da’eefah)
Third: It is permissible to delay the slaughtering until the second or the third day after Eid. This is taken from what is established upon the Prophet (SAW) who said: “All the days of Tashreeq are days of slaughtering.” [Reported by Ahmad from Jubair bin Mu’tim, but the chain of narrators is disconnected. Also reported by Ibn Hibban but it too has a chain of narration which is disconnected, also reported by at-Tabaraanee in his Mu’jam and its isnaad is laieen (weak). However the hadeeth has some supporting narration’s found with Ibn ‘adee in al-Kaamil, from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (RA) and its isnaad is da’eef (weak). Nevertheless, the hadeeth becomes hasan – Insha-Allah. Refer to Nasb-ur-Raayah]
al-Qayyim (ra) said: “This is the opinion of Ahmad, Malik, and Abu Haneefah (ru). Ahmad said:’It is the opinion of many of the Companions of Muhammad (SAW).’ Athram mentioned this (view) upon Ibn Umar and Ibn Abbas (RU).” (Zaad-ul-Ma’aad)
Fourth: From the Prophet’s (SAW) guidance is that whosoever desires to offer a sacrifice and the (first) ten days of Dhul-Hijjah have began then he should not remove anything from his hair or from his fingernails, as there is prohibition upon doing this. (Its reference has preceded in Zaad-ul-Ma’aad. Refer back to Nail-ul-Awtaar, for it is essential).
Imaam an-Nawawee said in Sharh Muslim: “The meaning of the prohibition of removing any hair or finger nails is a prohibition from cutting the finger nails, or breaking them or other means and a prohibition of removing hair by shaving, shorting, plucking, burning, or by using cream or any other means. This applies to hair of the arms, mustache, private areas, head and other bodily hair.”
Ibn Qudaamah (ra) said in al-Mughnee: “…and if one does this then one seeks forgiveness from Allah. There is an ijmaa that there is no fidyaah (redemption) regardless of whether it was done intentionally or forgetfully.”
I (the author) says: This is an indication from him (ra), that it is haram and totally forbidden. This is clear in the original basis of the prophetic prohibition.
Five: He (SAW) used to select a sacrificial animal that was free from defects and he deemed this as being better. He prohibited the sacrificing of an animal whose ears were cut or had broken horns. (As is reported in Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhee, an-Nasa’ee, Ibn Majah, al-Haakim, from the hadeeth of Ali (RA) and its isnaad is hasan)
He ordered looking for the lawlessness of the animal, and prohibited slaughtering a one eyed animal, a muqaabil, a mudaabirah, a sharqaa’a, and a kharqaa’a. This is because they have been prohibited. [Muqaabil – It is an animal which has had the front (inner side) of its ear cut. Mudaabir – It is an animal which has had the back (outer side) of its ear cut. Sharqaa’a – It is an animal which has had the ear cleaved. Kharqaa’a – It is an animal which has had the ear pierced. The hadeeth concerning this has a chain of narration which is hasan and it is reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhee, an-Nasaa’ee, Ibn Maajah, ad-Daarimee, al-Haakim – from the hadeeth of Ali (RA)]
As for a ram that has been castrated then it is permissible to be used as a sacrifice, due to what is established from the Prophet (SAW). This has been transmitted by Aboo Ya’laa and al-Baihaqee with a chain of narration that has been declared hasan by al-Haithamee in Majmoo az-Zawaa’id.
Six: He (SAW) used to slaughter at the musallaa. [Reported by al-Bukhari, an-Nasa’ee and Ibn Majah from Ibn Umar (RA)]
Seven: From the guidance of the Prophet (SAW) is that a sheep is sufficient for a man and his family, even if the number of the family be many, as Ataa bin Yassar (He died in the year 103 A.H. His biography is found in Tahdheeb as-Tahdheeb) said: “I ask Aboo Ayyoob al-Ansaaree how was the slaughtering done at the time of Allah’s Messenger (SAW)? So he replied: ‘Indeed a man used to slaughter a sheep for himself and his family, and they would eat of it and feed others with it.'” (Reported by at-Tirmidhee, Maalik, Ibn Majah, al-Baihaqee and its isnaad is hasan)
Eight: It is preferable to make takbeer and tasmiyah when slaughtering. This is due to what is confirmed from Anas (RA) who said: “The Prophet (SAW) sacrificed two horned rams, which were white with black markings. He slaughtered them himself, while saying: “Bismillah, Allahu Akbar” (In the Name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest) and he had his foot placed on their sides.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawud)
Nine: The best sacrificial animal is that which is a large horned ram, being white mixed with black around its eyes and its legs; as this is the description that the Prophet (SAW) preferred and sacrificed. (As in the hadeeth of Aisha (RA) which is with Muslim and Abu Dawud)
Ten: It is preferred that a Muslim carries out his own sacrifice, but if he deputizes someone else to do the slaughter for him, then that is permissible and there is no problem in doing so. (I do not know of any difference of opinion amongst the people of knowledge concerning this issue. Refer to point thirteen for mention of it)
Eleven: It is preferred that the family who offered the sacrifice eat from the sacrifice, give gifts from its meat and give sadaqa from it. It is permissible for them to store some of the meat. This is taken from the saying of the Prophet (SAW): “Eat, store, and give sadaqa.” [Reported by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and others from the hadeeth of Aisha (RA) and that which is found concerning the prohibition of storing/saving (part of the sacrifice), then it is abrogated. Refer to Fath-Al-Baaree and Itibaaar]
Twelve: A camel suffices a sacrifice of seven, and similarly a cow. Muslim reports in his Sahih from Jabir ibn Abdullah (RA) who said: “We slaughtered a Hudaibiyah with the Prophet (SAW) a camel which sufficed for seven and a cow sufficed for seven.”
Thirteen: The butcher is not given payment for his work from the sacrifice because of what is established upon Ali (RA) who said: “The Prophet (SAW) ordered me to watch over his slaughtered meat, to give sadaqa from its meat, skin and jalaalee (In al-Qamoos: “it is that which is worn on the animal for protection.”); and not to give the butcher anything from the sacrifice.” He (Ali) said: “we pay the butcher from ourselves.” (Reported with this wording by Muslim, Abu Dawud, ad-Daarimee, Ibn Majah, al-Baihaqee, and Ahmad. Also by Al-Bukhari but without the wording “we pay him ourselves.”)
Fourteen: Whosoever, from amongst the Muslims is unable to offer a sacrifice then he stills takes the reward of those who offer a sacrifice from the Prophet’s (SAW) ummah. This is because the Prophet (SAW) said when he was slaughtering one of the two rams: “O Allah! this is on my behalf and on behalf of those of my ummah who do not offer a sacrifice.” [Reported by Abu Dawud, At-Tahaawee, al-Haakim, al-Baihaqee, and Ahmad from the hadeeth of Jabir (RA). Refer to Irwaa al-Ghaleel]
Fifteen: Ibn Qudaamah (ra) said in al-Mughnee: “Indeed the Prophet (SAW) performed the sacrifice as did the rightly guided Khulafa, after the Prophet (SAW). And if they knew that giving sadaqa is better they would have turned to it and enacted it. However giving the sadaqa instead of the sacrifice leads to abandoning a sunnah which the Prophet (SAW) established.
A SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF SOME SCHOLARS MENTIONED
Ibn-ul-Atheer, al-Mubaarak bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Abdul-Kareem al-Jazaree: Commonly known as Ibn-ul-Atheer. Born 544 A.H. He is well known amongst the people of knowledge and left behind a treasure of knowledge. His most well known books are: an-Nihaayah fil Ghareebil hadeeth wal Athar and Jaami’-ul-‘Usool fee Ahadeeth ar-Rasool. He died in 606 A.H.
REPREHENSIBLE ACTS DONE AT THE EIDS
Know, my Muslim sister and brother, may Allah give you and I understanding of the Deen, that the joy that occurs at the Eids has made many people forget or become negligent of matters of their Deen and the Islamic regulations. Thus you see people perpetrating sins, doing acts that are reprehensible, while they think that they are doing good deeds. All of this has led me to add to this treatise of mine, this beneficial chapter because it is effective in reminding the Muslims what they have forgotten and cautioning them about the things they have become negligent of (Insha-Allah). (The reprehensible acts mentioned occur mostly in Eid and other than Eid but it becomes very common and in fact increases at the Eid, so be aware)
From the reprehensible acts are:
1. The man beautifying himself by shaving the beard. This is a thing that most Muslims do, even though shaving the beard is HARAM in the Religion of Allah, the Perfect and Free from all imperfections. This (ruling) is shown by authentic ahaadeeth, which contain a command to LEAVE THE BEARD!
This “command” to LEAVE THE BEARD is either connected to the reason of not imitating the idol worshippers and thus differing from them, or it is not connected to this reason. The beard is also from the fitrah, and it is NOT permissible to change the fitrah. Textual proof regarding the forbidance of shaving the beard is found in the books of the four madhhabs. So know this!!! (Refer to Fath-ul-Baaree, al-Ikhtiyaarat al-Ilmeeya, al-Muhalla and Gahaa al-Baab and others. Shaikh Muhammad ibn Ismaa’eel in his book Adilat-ut-Tahreem Halq-ul-Lihyaa has made a thorough examination of the ahaadeeth concerning this issue, after which he mentions the explanation of the scholars, on the issue, and the sayings from the dependable books of the schools of thought. Finally bringing any discussion surrounding the issue, without leaving anything out! Refer to it, for indeed it is valuable. Also refer to Majallat-ul-Azhar. I have, also written a treatise on the issue, calling it Hukm ud-Deen fil-Lihyaa wat-Taddkheen which has been printed many times.)
2. Shaking the hands of strange women – those that are NOT mahram (Mahram are: mother, blood related maternal/paternal grandmother, blood related maternal/paternal aunt, sister, wife, daughter) for a man. This is one of the widespread problems that we suffer from and none is saved from it except he whom Allah has favored.
This act is PROHIBITED (HARAM) because the Prophet (SAW) said: “To pierce a metal comb into a man’s head is BETTER for him than for him to touch a woman, for whom he is not a mahram.” [Reported by ar-Ruyaanee in his Musnad, from Ma’qal bin Yasaar and its isnaad is good. Refer to Silsilatul Ahaadeeth as-Saheeha by Shaikh Al-Albaanee (ra)]
This ruling is also textualised in the books of the four madhhabs – so take note. (Refer to Sharh Muslim by Imam an-Nawawee, Haashiyah ibn Aabideen, Aaridat-ul-Ahwaadhee and Adwa-ul-Bayaan.)
3. Imitating the non-believers and Westerners in their CLOTHING, in LISTENING TO MUSIC and other reprehensible acts. Indeed the Prophet (SAW) said: “Whosoever imitates a people then he is FROM them.” [Reported by Ahmad from Ibn Umar (ra) and its isnaad is hasan. At-Tahawee in Mushkil-al-Aathaar from Hassaan bin Ateeyah, Aboo Nu’aim in Akhbaar-al-Asbahaan from Anas, however there is speculation regarding its status. Nevertheless the hadeeth becomes authentic because all of these chains, Insha-Allah]
Also, because of the saying of the Prophet (SAW):”There will be a group of people from my ummah who will seek to make fornication, the wearing of silk, intoxicants and MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS permissible halal). Indeed a people will stay at the side of a mountain peak and when he – i.e. a needy person comes to them in the evening asking them for aid, they will say to him, ‘Come back tomorrow.’ Allah will destroy them and cause the mountain to fall upon them and change others into apes and swine and they will remain like that until the Day of Judgment.” reported by Al-Bukhari in mu’allaq form (omitting part of the chain of narrators) and in full form (of isnaad) by Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqee and others. Haafidh Ibn Hajr said in Haadi as-Saaree, “It is related with a full chain of narration by Hasan bin Sufyaan in his ‘Musnad.’ “ismaa’eelee, at-Tabaraanee in Kabeer, Aboo Nu’aim from four chains of narration, Ibn Hibban in his Saheeh and others.]
4. Entering into the presence of women who are NON Mahram (Mahram are: mother, blood related maternal/paternal grandmother, blood related maternal/paternal aunt, sister, wife, daughter) for them. This is taken from the saying of the Prophet (SAW): “Beware of entering into the presence of women. So a man from the Ansar said: ‘What about the Hamoo (sister-in-law, i.e. brother’s wife)?’ He (SAW) replied: “The Hamoo is death.” [Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim, from the hadeeth of Uqbah bin Ameer (ra)]
The renowned scholar of az-Zamakhsharee, said in explaining the word “Hamoo”: “The plural of it is: Ahmaa’u: meaning the husbands relatives, such as the father (The father is exempted from this ruling, by Quranic texts Refer to al-Mughnee), the brother, the uncle and others… The meaning of the saying of the Prophet (SAW): ‘The Hamoo is death,’ is that her “hamoo” is of the ultimate level of EVIL and CORRUPTION, and thus was resembled to death. This is because he is the ULTIMATE limit of all misfortunes and calamities since he is MORE dangerous than a stranger, in the sense that he feels secure and is presumptuous; while a stranger is feared and watched.
It is also possible that it could be understood as a supplication against her i.e. as if death for her is of the same status to the hamoo who enters into her presence and she is pleased with that.” (Faa’iq fi Ghareeb-ul-Hadeeth. Refer to Nihaayah and Ghareeb-ul-Hadeeth and Sharh-us-Sunnah)
5. Tabarruj (Open display of beauty) by the WOMEN, going to the market and other places. This is PROHIBITED in the Laws of Allah, Allah the Most High, says: “Stay in your homes, and do not DISPLAY yourselves like that of the times of IGNORANCE and offer prayer perfectly and give the zakat…” (Surah al-Ahzab 33:33)
And the saying of the Prophet (SAW): “I have not seen two types of people from the people of the Fire: … and women that are clothed but at the same time NAKED and are ma’ilaat (Deviated away from the obedience of Allah – the Perfect and one free of all imperfections and the Most High – and from whatever is required of them from safeguarding their chastity) their heads are like TILTED CAMELS” HUMPS. (Qadee Iyaad, in Mashaariqul-Anwaar said: “It is a fat two humped camel.” Its meaning – and Allah knows best 0 is that they will make their head grandiose by wearing veils and rolling up their hair into humps and they will not lower their gaze.) These women will NOT enter paradise and neither will they smell its aroma; even though its aroma can be smelt from a distance of so and so …” [Reported by Muslim in his Sahih and Ahmad from Abu Hurairah (RA)]
6. Particularizing the day of Eid for visiting graves; distributing sweets and other edible items at the grave, sitting upon the graves, the INTERMIXING of men and women, the SHAMELESS uncovering of faces, wailing for the deceased and other reprehensible deeds. [For details about the innovations at the grave refer to the book Ahkaam al-Jaa’naiz by Shaikh Al-Albaanee (ra)]
7. Immoderation and squandering upon things that have NO use and have NO good or benefit. Allah, the Most High, says: “… but be not extravagant. Indeed He likes not the extravagant ones…” (Surah al-An’am 6:141)
“and… but be not extravagant. Indeed He likes not the extravagant ones…” (Surah al-A’raf 7:31)
and Allah says:
“… But spend not wastefully (in your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. Verily spendthrifts are the brothers of the devils…” (Surah al-Isra 17:26-27)
The Prophet (SAW) said: “The son of Adam will not cease to be in front of his Lord on the Day of Judgment until he is asked about his … wealth and where he gained it from and how he SPENT it.” [Reported by at-Tirmidhee, al-Khateeb in his Taareekh from Ibn Masud (RA), but it has a weakness. The hadeeth has supporting narration’s, from Abu Bazzrah (found) with ad-Daarimee, Aboo Nu’aim in Hilyah, Ibn Dabithee in Zil Tareekh al Baghdad and from the hadeeth of Mu’aadh (found) with Khateeb. Thus the hadeeth is hasan.]
8. The ABANDONMENT, of the PRAYER IN the masjid by many people having an Islamically acceptable excuse; and some people not praying at all EXCEPT the Eid prayers, while they abandon praying the OTHER prayers. By Allah this is a great sin.
Informing us about the inhabitants of Hell, Allah (SWT) says: “(The people in Hell will be asked:) What has caused you to enter Hell? They will say: We were not among those who used to pray. Nor did we feed the poor. And we used to talk falsehood (all that which Allaah hated) with vain-talkers. And we used to belie thc Day of Recompense. Until there came to us that which is certain (i.e., death). So no Intercession of intercessors will benefit them.” (Al-Muddaththir, 74:42-48)
The Prophet (SAW) said: “The covenant between us and them is prayer, so if anyone abandons it he has become a disbeliever.” (Ahmad, Tirmidhee, Nasaa’ee)
And he (SAW) also said: “What lies between a man and disbelief is the abandonment of prayer.” (Muslim, Aboo Dawood, Nasaa’ee)
9. The general Muslims going to the graveyard after the Fajr prayer, leaving the Eid prayer, cloaked by the innovation of particularizing the day of Eid for visiting the graveyard. (al-Madkhal by Ibn Haaj, al-Ibdaa by Alee Mahfoodh, Sunan-al-Edain by Shaqeeree)
Others have added the placing of palm leaves or other tree branches (All that this implies opposes then it is rejected. Refer to Ahkam-ul-Janaa’iz, Ma’alim as-Sunan and the note, by Shaykh Ahmad Shaakir to Sunan at-Tirmidhee) on the graves.
All of this has NO basis in the Sunnah.
10. Not having any compassion for the poor and the needy. They sons of the rich people display their joy and happiness, they eat appetizing food and they do all this in front of the poor and their children, without having any feelings of sympathy or feeling the need to help or have responsibility even though Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said: “None of you TRULY believes until he wishes for his brother (or sister) that which he wishes for himself.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari, Muslim and reported by an-Nasaa’ee, al-Baghawee but they added “from good” and its isnaad is Sahih.)
11. The innovations that are performed by many of those who pretend to be scholars, while claiming to be seeking nearness to Allah. Even though these innovations have NO basis in the DEEN of Allah. There are many innovations enacted by such people (Refer for any of it to, ‘Ayaad al-Islaam in the section on innovations of the Eids) but I shall only mention one of them, so that we do not go away from the purpose of this treatise.
Indeed many of the sermon givers and preachers are eager in seeking approach to Allah by staying awake in worship on the night of Eid. However they do not just do that. NO! they also attribute to the Messenger (SAW), that he said: “Whosoever stays awake in worship in the night of Eid, his heart will not die, the day that hearts die.” [It is a FABRICATED hadith, Shaikh Al-Albaanee (ra) has spoken EXTENSIVELY about it in Silsilatul Ahaadeeth ad-Da’eefah; so refer back to it!]
It is NOT permissible to attribute this to the Messenger of Allah (SAW) and the BEST guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (SAW).
A SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF SOME SCHOLARS MENTIONED
Badr-ud-deen al-‘Aynee: A famous scholar of hadeeth who was a contemporary to Ibn Hajr. He ascribed to the Hanafee school of thought. He compiled an explanation of Sahih al-Bukhari called Umdat-ul-Qaaree. Az-Zamkhsharee: A renowned scholar of ‘Arabic grammar, however his belief was known to differ from that of the Salaf. He died in year 467 A.H.
Naaf’I Aboo ‘Abdullah al-Quraishee: The servant of Ibn Umar (RA). Scholar of Madeenah and well known personality. Many of the scholars from Atbaa-at-taabi’oon studied under him.
EID AL-ADHA SERMON
By Shaykh ‘Alee Ibn Abdur-Rahmaan Al-Hudhayfee
All praise is due to Allaah. May peace and blessings be upon the Messenger, his household and companions.
Fellow Muslims! Fear Allaah and hold fast unto the trustworthy handhold of Islaam. Fear of Allaah is the best provision and the means to achieving Allaah’s pleasure.
Brethren in Faith! Every nation has its celebration that reflects its belief, manners and philosophy. There are some celebrations that emanate from human thoughts and that are far from Divine Revelation. These are unIslaamic celebrations. As for ‘Eedul Adhaa and ‘Eedul Fitr, they are prescribed by Allaah for the Muslims. He says, “For every nation We have ordained religious ceremonies.” (Al-Hajj 22:67)
Each of ‘Eedul Adhaa and ‘Eedul Fitr comes up after carrying out of a pillar of Islaam. Eedul Adhaa comes up after the acts of Hajj and Eedul Fitr comes up after the completion of fasting of the month of Ramadhaan. Anas narrated that the Messenger of Allaah, upon entering Madeenah, met people celebrating on two days. He asked them of that and they said, “We used to have fun and do merrymaking on these days during the time of ignorance.” The Messenger of Allaah then said, “Allaah has substituted for you what is better than them: Eedul Adhaa and Eedul Fitr” (Abu Daawood)
Allaah ordained that Eedul Adhaa be marked on the 10th day of Dhul-Hijjah after standing at Arafaat which is the greatest pillar of Hajj, and ordained for this day great righteous deeds and calls it the greatest day of Hajj because most Hajj rites take place on that day. Also, Allaah, in His mercy and wisdom, prescribed righteous deeds and invites people unto them when He says, “Race with one another in hastening towards forgiveness from your Lord and Paradise the width thereof is as the width of the heaven and the earth prepared for those who believe in Allaah and His Messengers. That is the grace of Allaah which He bestows on whom He is pleased with. And Allaah is the Owner of the Great Bounty.” (Al-Hadeed 57:21)
If a Muslim is however unable to do some acts of worship because of their relevance to a specific time or place Allaah provides for him alternatives to that. For example, the day of Arafah is a day of celebration, gathering and supplication for the pilgrims, so Allaah prescribes for those who are not performing pilgrimage the prayer of Eedul Adhaa in the congregation and also prescribes for them the fasting on the day of ‘Arafaat that erases the sins of past and coming years. There are many acts of righteousness that a Muslim can do on this occasion as much as Allaah would allow him.
Fellow Muslims! Eed is one of major manifest Islaamic rites. It contains lofty goals and wonderful lessons. The first of which is the actualization of the belief in the Oneness of Allaah through supplicating to Him Alone and directing all acts of worship like seeking protection and assistance, fear, hope, slaughtering, vowing etc… to Him Alone. Belief in the Oneness of Allaah is the foundation of Islaam and it is also the actualization of the word: “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah” which is referred to by the verse: “You (Alone) we worship and You (Alone) we ask for help.”, that makes one enter Paradise and makes one who neglects it remain in Hell-Fire forever. When one reflects over the history of mankind he will notice that the corruption, error and heresy started in the belief in the Oneness of Allaah first, then spread to other aspects of religion. Therefore, hold fast unto this great fundamental for it is Allaah’s right upon you and the covenant that Allaah took on the children of Aadam. Every verse in the Quran speaks about the Oneness of Allaah directly or indirectly. Whoever fulfils the right of Allaah, Allaah will fulfil His Promise to him. The Messenger of Allaah said, “The right of Allaah upon His slaves is that they should worship him alone and associate nothing with Him in worship. And the right of slaves upon Allaah is that He would not punish whom who does not associate anything in worship with Him.” (Al-Bukhaaree)
The second purpose of Eed is to actualize the testimony that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah which means to follow him in his commandment, abstain from all that he has forbidden, believe in all that he has informed and worship Allaah with only that which he has prescribed. This is in addition to loving and honouring him. Allaah says: “Say: Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he is only responsible for the duty placed on him and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is only to convey (the message) in a clear way.” (An-Noor 24:54)
Among the great benefits of Eed is that all Muslims gather together for the prayer and partake in the blessings of the supplications of that day under the mercy of Allaah, showing their dire need of His infinite favour. Umm ‘Atiyyah narrated: “The Messenger of Allaah commanded us to encourage the old women, the menstruating women and the maidens to go out on Eedul Fitr and Eedul Adhaa. As for the menstruating women, they should abstain from prayer but witness the blessings and supplications of the Muslims.” (Al-Bukhaaree & Muslim)
Women should witness the Eed prayer without displaying their beauties or wearing perfumes.
Brethren in Faith! Among the benefits of Eed is that it promotes good relationship among Muslims through exchange of visits, mutual love and elimination of rancour. Islaam’s ability to gather the Muslims for Eed prayer is therefore a sign that it is capable of gathering them over the truth and reconciling their hearts through piety.
Nothing reconciles the hearts but truth and nothing causes dissention but whimsical desires. Therefore, mutual compassion and cooperation are among the characteristics of the believers. The Messenger of Allaah said, “The example of believers in their mutual love and compassion is like that of a single body. When a part thereof suffers, the other parts partake in that through sleeplessness and fever.”
Brethren in Faith! Take the opportunity of Eed to be kind to parents, the kith and kin and the orphans, for Allaah hastens the reward of such acts in this world in addition to the everlasting reward of the Hereafter. Equally, disobedience to parents, severing the ties of kinship and not doing good to people hasten punishment in this world in addition to the punishment of the hereafter. Respect the rights of your neighbours for the Prophet has said, “He whom his neighbour is not secured from his evil is not a believer”. Enjoin all that is good, forbid all that is evil and shun all acts of shirk that negate the belief in the Oneness of Allaah like calling on the Prophets and righteous people, circumambulating their graves and seeking help and aid from them. Allaah says, “Verily Allaah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills.” (An-Nisaa 4:48)
You should also not kill a forbidden soul nor commit adultery, for Allaah has mentioned those two along with shirk in order to show their gravity. He says about the true believers, “And those who invoke not any other god along with Allaah, nor kill such person as Allaah has forbidden, except for just cause, nor commit illegal sexual intercourse and whoever does this shall receive the punishment. The torment will be doubled to him on the Day of Resurrection and he will abide there in disgrace.” (Al-Furqaan 25:68-69)
The Prophet said, “There is no sin greater in the sight of Allaah after shirk than illegal sexual intercourse” (Ibn Abee Dunyaa)
Homosexuality is also a great sin even greater than illegal sexual intercourse, for the Prophet has cursed whoever does that. Lesbianism is also a type of illegal sexual intercourse and a filthy act. Keep away also from usury. The Prophet said regarding it, “Usury is of 72 categories the least dangerous of which is like committing adultery with one’s mother.” (At-Tabaranee)
Do not usurp the properties of the Muslims and weak people for that causes eternal destruction.
Bribery and false testimony should also be kept away from, for they lead to usurpation of other people’s rights. The Prophet has cursed him who takes bribery and the one who gives it, and mentioned false testimony along with the greatest sin which is shirk. Keep away also from taking alcohols, tobacco and narcotics for they destroy one’s heart and sense, destroy good conduct, cause the wrath of Allaah and destroy the society. The Prophet said, “All intoxicants are alchohol and all intoxicants are forbidden and Allaah has a covenant to feed those who drink alchohol the sweat of the inhabitants of Hell.” (Muslim)
You should also not backbite nor gossip for the victim of backbiting will be told on the Day of Resurrection to take from the righteous deeds of the person who backbite him. The Prophet said, “The gossiper will not enter Paradise.” (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim)
Allaah says, “And Verily, this is My Straight Path, so follow it and follow not (other) paths for they will separate you away from His Path. This He ordained for you that you may become pious.” (Al-An‘aam 6:153)
Fellow Muslims! Fear Allaah by seeking for His pleasure and keeping away from all that He forbids. Know that this day of yours is a great day. The Prophet said, “The best day in the sight of Allaah is the day of slaughtering and the following day.” The day of Arafah, even if it is the best day in some aspects, it is a preparation and introduction to the day of slaughtering. In Arafah, the pilgrims purify themselves from sins, supplicate and repent and when they have done that, they pass the night at Muzdalifah in supplication and seeking for Allaah’s forgiveness. They then slaughter their sacrifice for Allaah Alone and eat there from under the hospitality of Allaah in Mina on the day of slaughtering. Then Allaah permits them to visit His House and make the Tawaaf round it. As for non-pilgrims, Allaah ordains slaughtering of sacrifice for them on that day along with remembrance of Allaah and doing righteous deeds. The Prophet said, “There is no act that a man can do on the day of sacrifice that is better than sacrificing an animal, except being kind to the kith and kin.” (At-Tabaraanee)
Brethren in Islaam! A goat is sufficient for a man and his family and a camel is sufficient for seven persons while a cow will do for five persons. A sheep will not be suitable for sacrifice until it is six months old. A goat should be a year old, a camel should be at least five years old and a cow should not be less than two years old. It is preferable to select the fat and the most healthy of these animals. The visibly sick, one-eyed, emaciated, clearly lame or the animal with severely broken ear or horn are not suitable for sacrifice. The castrated animal is however suitable. The sunnah is to slaughter the camel in standing position with its left hand tied. As for the cow and sheep, they should be slaughtered while they lie on their left side and facing the Qiblah. Then the slaughterer should say, “Bismillahi Allaahu Akbar. This sacrifice is from You O Allaah and it is slaughtered for You.” It is recommended that he eats one third of it, give out a third as gift and make the remaining third a charity. Allaah says, “Eat thereof and feed the poor who does not ask and the beggar.” (Al-Hajj 22:36)
Slaughtering starts shortly after the Eed prayer and extends to the following three days.
O Muslims women! Fear Allaah as regards your obligations. Give your children Islaamic education for a mother has more impact on children than the father. Let the father also help his wife to give their children Islaamic upbringing and let the woman preserve the honour, property and the house of her husband. Let her respect the rights of his relatives and neighbours. The Prophet said, “If the woman prays her five obligatory prayers, fasts in the month of Ramadaan, performs Hajj, protects her chastity and obeys her husband; she will be told to enter Paradise from any gate she likes.”
Dear Muslim woman; Thank Allaah for all His favours on you through Islaam. Do not be deceived by alien propaganda, for your position in this land is better than that of any woman anywhere in this contemporary time. Always remember the Word of Allaah, “O Prophet! When believing women come to you to give you the pledge, that they will not associate anything in worship with Allaah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit illegal sexual intercourse, that they will not kill their children, that they will not commit slander (by attributing their illegal children to their husbands) and that they will not disobey you in all that Islaam ordains, then accept their pledge and ask Allaah to forgive them. Verily, Allaah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful” (Al-Mumtahanah 60:12)
Brethren in Faith! Thank Allaah and praise Him for His blessings of faith, security and His bountiful provisions. Show gratitude to Him through acts of obedience and abstention from sin. Know that the fortunate is not the one who wears new dress and adorns himself, but the fortunate is the one who fears Allaah, have safety from Hell and is admitted to Paradise.
Reciting the recommended takbeer starts for non-pilgrims from the dawn of Arafah day till shortly before the sunset of the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah. As for the pilgrim, it starts from the noon of the day of slaughtering.
Fellow Muslims! Remember death that you are sooner or later going to face. Remember the darkness of the grave, the Day of Reckoning and the scale of deeds. Remember that there are some who prayed with you in the past Eeds and have now become the dwellers of the graveyard. Know that you will inevitably join them one day. Do not therefore be deceived by the life of this world. Where are the past generations? Where are the past kings and warriors? Where are those wealthy people who erected palaces and mansions? It was death who forced them out of their palaces into the graves. Do not therefore recline to this world in which the happiness does not last. It is a vain abode that does not stay in a permanent state. Take it therefore as a place of work towards the Hereafter.
RULING OF UDIYAH
Udhiyah is one of the rituals of Islam. It is mentioned in Jawaahir al-Ikleel Sharh Mukhtasar Khaleel that if the people of a city or country neglect udhiyah, they should be fought, because it is one of the rituals of Islam. (Rasaa’il Fiqhiyyah by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, p. 46).
There are two scholarly opinions on udhiyah:
(A) That it is waajib (obligatory). This is the opinion of al-Oozaa’i, al-Layth and Abu Haneefah, and it is one of the two opinions narrated from Imaam Ahmad. It was also the opinion of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, and is one of the two opinions in the madhhab of Maalik, or is what seems to be the madhhab of Maalik. Those who favour this opinion take the following as evidence: The aayah: “Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only).” [al-Kawthar 108:2]. This is a command, and a command implies that something is obligatory. The hadeeth of Jundub (may Allaah be pleased with him), reported in al-Saheehayn and elsewhere, who said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Whoever slaughtered his sacrifice before he prays, let him slaughter another one in its place, and whoever did not slaughter a sacrifice, let him do so in the name of Allaah.’” (Reported by Muslim, 3621) The hadeeth: “Whoever can afford to offer a sacrifice but does not do so, let him not approach our place or prayer.” (Reported by Ahmad and Ibn Maajah; classed as saheeh by al-Haakim from the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him). It says in Fath al-Baari that its men are thiqaat).
(B) That it is a confirmed Sunnah (sunnah mu’akkadah). This is the opinion of the majority, and it is the madhhab of al-Shaafa’i and the better-known opinion of Maalik and Ahmad. But most of those who favour this opinion stated that it is makrooh (disliked) for the one who is able to offer a sacrifice to neglect to do so. They base their opinion on the following: The hadeeth of Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) in Sunan Abi Dawood, where he said: “I prayed on Eid al-Adhaa with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and when he finished (the prayer), he was brought two rams, and he sacrificed them. He said, ‘In the Name of Allaah, Allaah is Most Great. This is on behalf of myself and any member of my ummah who did not offer a sacrifice.” (Sunan Abi Dawood bi Sharh Muhammad Shams al-Haq Abaadi, 7/486) The hadeeth reported by all the famous muhadditheen apart from al-Bukhaari: “Whoever among you wants to offer a sacrifice, let him not take anything from his hair or nails.” Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, may Allaah preserve him, said, following his discussion of those who say it is obligatory and those who say it is Sunnah, “Each point of view has its evidence, but to be on the safe side, the one who is able to offer a sacrifice should not neglect to do so, because of what is involved in this act of reverence towards Allaah, remembering Him, and making sure that one has nothing to be blamed for.
Conditions of udhiyah
The animal should have reached the required age, which is six months for a lamb, one year for a goat, two years for a cow and five years for a camel. It should be free of any faults, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There are four that will not do for sacrifice: a one-eyed animal whose defect is obvious, a sick animal whose sickness is obvious, a lame animal whose limp is obvious and an emaciated animal that has no marrow in its bones .” (Saheeh, Saheeh al-Jaami’, no. 886). There are milder defects that do not disqualify an animal, but it is makrooh to sacrifice such animals, such as an animal with a horn or ear missing, or an animal with slits in its ears, etc. Udhiyah is an act of worship to Allaah, and Allaah is Good and accepts only that which is good. Whoever honours the rites of Allaah, this has to do with the piety (taqwa) of the heart. It is forbidden to sell it. If an animal has been selected for sacrifice, it is not permissible to sell it or give it away, except in exchange for one that is better. If an animal gives birth, its offspring should be sacrificed along with it. It is also permissible to ride it if necessary. The evidence for this is the report narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw a man leading his camel and told him, “Ride it.” He said, “It is for sacrifice.” He said, “Ride it” a second or third time. It should be sacrificed at the specified time, which is from after the prayer and khutbah of Eid – not from when the time for the prayer and khutbah starts – until before sunset on the last of the days of Tashreeq, which is the 13th day of Dhu’l-Hijjah. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever sacrifices before the prayer, let him repeat it.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim). ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The days of Nahr (Sacrifice) are the day of al-Adhaa and the three days following it.” This is also the opinion of al-Hasan al-Basri, ‘Ata’ ibn Abi Rabaah, al-Oozaa’i, al-Shaafa’i and Ibn al-Mundhir, may Allaah have mercy on them all.
What should be done with the sacrifice?
It is mustahabb (liked, preferable) for the one who has made a sacrifice to not eat anything on that day before he eats from it, if this is possible, because of the hadeeth, “Let every man eat from his sacrifice.” (Classed as saheeh in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 5349). This eating should be after the Eid prayer and khutbah. This is the opinion of the scholars, including ‘Ali, Ibn ‘Abbaas, Maalik, al-Shaafa’i and others. The evidence for this is the hadeeth of Buraydah (may Allaah be pleased with him): “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would not go out on the day of Fitr until he had eaten, and he would not eat on the day of Adhaa until he had slaughtered (his sacrifice).” (Al-Albaani said: its isnaad is saheeh. Al-Mishkaat, 1/452). It is better for a person to slaughter the sacrifice himself, but if he does not, it is mustahabb for him to be present when it is slaughtered. It is mustahaab to divide the meat into three: one third to be eaten, one third to be given as gifts and one third to be given in charity. This was the opinion of Ibn Mas’ood and Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them). The scholars agreed that it is not permissible to sell anything from its meat, fat or skin. In a saheeh hadeeth, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever sells the skin of his udhiyah, there is no udhiyah for him (i.e., it is not counted as udhiyah).” (Classed as hasan in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 6118). The butcher should not be given anything of it by way of reward or payment, because ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded me to take care of the sacrifice and to give its meat, skin and raiment ( covering used for protection ) in charity, and not to give anything of it to the butcher as a compensation . He said, ‘We will give him something from what we have.’” (Agreed upon). It was said that it is permissible to give the butcher something as a gift, and that it is permissible to give some of it to a kaafir if he is poor or a relative or a neighbour, or in order to open his heart to Islam. (Fataawa al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz).