THE HOUSES OF THE COMPANIONS AROUND THE PROPHET’S MOSQUE
Byy Imtiaz Ahmad (A summary and translation of Dr. Mohammed Ilyas Abdul Gani’s book of the same title)
Hujrat is plural of Hujrah. It means a hut or an ordinary cottage. Here Hujrat means those houses in which the Prophet Mohammed (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) stayed in Madina with his wives (radhi Allahu anhun). According to several narrations, the Prophet Mohammed (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) built two huts for his two wives when he built the Prophet’s Mosque in Madina. One hut was for Aisha (radhi Allahu anha) and the other for Sauda (radhi Allahu anha). Later on he had more wives and he, therefore, built similar huts for them. He built nine such huts during his lifetime and he spent the last ten years of his life in these huts. One of these huts happens to be his resting place till the Day of Judgment…
Historians agree about the location of five Hujrat. These were the residences of Hafsa, Aisha, Sauda, Zainab bint Khazima and Umm Salma (radhi Allahu anhun). There are some differences among historians about the locations of the other Hujrat. After analyzing their difference we arrive at the conclusion that all these Hujrat were situated on the eastern side of the Prophet’s mosque. They were in a row and extended beyond the northern boundary of the mosque…
What were these Hujrat like? Each Hujrah consisted of a small room and a tiny backyard. The backyard was enclosed by the branches of palm trees and unbaked bricks. Blankets of hair were thrown on them to ensure privacy in the yard. The door of each Hujrah was not built from an expensive wood. Each door had a rough blanket hanging there for privacy. Hence each Hujrah reflected humbleness and modesty.
Dimension of each Hujrah was approximately 5m x 4m and the backyard was 5m x 3.5m. A person standing in a Hujrah could touch the ceiling by his hand…
Saeed bin Musayyab wished that these Hujrat should not have been demolished during the extension of the Prophet’s Mosque. He said, “I earnestly wished that these Hujrat were left as they were, to remind the visitors as well as the new generations of Madina about the lifestyle of Prophet Mohammed (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and his contentment with so very little. Owners of lofty buildings would hopefully avoid bragging about their worldly assets after their visit to these humble cottages.”
The locations of Aisha’s Hujrah and Sauda’s Hujrah are shown on the map (below) died during the year 55. She gave her Hujrah to Aisha (radhi Allahu anha) at the time of her death. The location of Hafsa’s Hujrah can also been seen on the map. There ran a very narrow street between the huts of Aisha (radhi Allahu anha) and Hafsa (radhi Allahu anha). It was so narrow that hardly one person could pass through it at a time. Aisha (radhi Allahu anha) and Hafsa (radhi Allahu anha) used to talk to each other while sitting in their own Hujrat. Zainab bint Khuzaima (radhi Allahu anha) passed away two months after her marriage to the Prophet Mohammed (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam). Location of her Hujrah can be seen on the map. When the Prophet Mohammed (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) married Umm Salma (radhi Allahu anha) he housed her in the hut that formerly belonged to Zainab bint Khazima (radhi Allahu anha).
DU’A FOR ENTERING HOME ANYTIME
Abu Dawood (5096) narrated that Abu Maalik al-Ash’ari said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “When a man enters his house, let him say, ‘Allaahumma inni as’aluka khayr al-mawlaj wa khayr al-makhraj. Bismillaah walajna wa Bismillaah kharajna wa ‘ala Allaahi rabbina tawakalna (O Allaah, I ask You for the best entering and the best exiting. In the name of Allaah we enter and in the name of Allaah we leave, and in Allaah our Lord we put our trust),’ then he should say salaam to his family.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 225.
Al-Tirmidhi (2698) narrated that Anas ibn Maalik said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to me, ‘O my son, when you enter upon your family and say salaam, it will be a blessing for you and the members of your household. Al-Albaani said in Takhreej al-Mishkaat (4652): this hadeeth is hasan when all its isnaads are taken into account.
DU’A FOR MOVING INTO A NEW HOME
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen
Question: Is there a du’aa’ for moving into a new house?
Answer: “Praise be to Allaah. When he enters a house or stops to camp in a spot out of doors, he should say, ‘A’oodhu bi kalimaat-illaah it-taammaati min sharri ma khalaq (I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allaah from the evil of that which He has created)’ three times. If he says this, then nothing will harm him until he leaves that place.”
The house he is talking about is a new house which he is going to go and live in for the first time. What should he say?
“When he enters it for the first time, he should say, ‘A’oodhu bi kalimaat-illaah it-taammaati min sharri ma khalaq.’”
Can he say, “Rabbi anzilni munzalan mubaarakan [My Lord! Cause me to land at a blessed landing-place – al-Mu’mineen 23:29 – interpretation of the meaning]”?
“This is for when one embarks on a boat or ship.”
A GOOD EXAMPLE AT HOME
Sheikh Abdul Baaree’ Ath-Thubaytee
All praise is due to Allaah, Lord of the worlds. May peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and all his companions.
Fellow Muslims, I advise you and myself to fear Allaah. Allaah says, “O you who believe! Fear Allaah as He should be feared, and die not but in a state of Islam.”
The God-fearing Muslim family is the heart of a healthy community. The piety of a family is dependant on the piety of individual members of the family, and the piety of a community is likewise dependant on the piety of the families who make up the community.
Islam attaches great importance to the family, how it is established and how to keep it together. For the Muslim family to keep up it’s high position it maintains a state of love and harmony, and you find in it feelings of amicability and kindness. Allaah says, “And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy.” (Ar-Ruum 30: 21)
He also says, “They are Libas [i.e. body cover, or screen, or Sakan, (i.e. you enjoy the pleasure of living with her)] for you and you are the same for them.” (Al-Baqarah 2: 187)
The Qur’an made it clear to married couples that each of them is essential to the other. Allaah says, “It is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and (then) He has created from him his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her.” (Al-A’araaf 7: 189)
It cannot be imagined that one could lead a normal, steadfast human life if there was a complete destruction of the normal family structure. Those people who call for the abolishment of the family structure do not do so for the good of humankind. Their call was – and still is – a discordant sound in the passing of history.
The family is established on mutual understanding, the exchanging of views and cooperation. Allaah says in relation to nursing and weaning babies, “The mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years, (that is) for those (parents) who desire to complete the term of suckling, but the father of the child shall bear the cost of the mother’s food and clothing on a reasonable basis. No person shall have a burden laid on him greater than he can bear. No mother shall be treated unfairly on account of her child, nor father on account of his child. And on the (father’s) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they both decide on weaning, by mutual consent, and after due consultation, there is no sin on them.” (Al-Baqarah 2: 233)
A happy family which seeks stability and continuity builds its life on firm principles, the most important of which are: the raising of children, mutual respect of each others rights, courteousness in dealing with one another and widening one’s family’s and one’s own horizons. Here, couples can find the pure quietude that the Qur’an spoke about, and if a difference occurs between them then true love will melt it away.
The Wise (Allaah) know that a person can sometimes be affected by an atmosphere of disagreement and feelings of hate, and then Satan finds what he is looking for sought after for destruction of the existence of the family. The Qur’anic viewpoint was to purify the emotions and to return to life its clarity and to the family its beauty. Allaah says, “…And live with them honourably. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allaah brings through it a great deal of good.” (An-Nisaa 4: 19) And for this reason Imam Ibn Katheer said about this verse, “It means: and perhaps your patience in holding onto them despite your mutual dislike is much better for you in this world and in the hereafter.”
If the members of a family exchange love for stubbornness; and this is a bad sign and a defeated beginning; nothing can destroy a family as stubbornness and argument. Small disagreements can be blown out of all proportions and become huge points of stubbornness, and major disagreement. How often do we hear tell of or witness marriages failing though they are but newly wed?
Many researchers have decided that family breakdown is the main cause of juvenile delinquency; therefore the family is responsible for protecting itself from disunity before it experiences breakdown and ceases to function as a family unit. Also one cannot pretend that life is or should always be trouble-free; quite the opposite in fact; a normal healthy life will always have it’s ups and downs.
Everything in this world no matter how insignificant has a wisdom behind it and serves a purpose, so what is the role of the Muslim family?
In a Muslim community, the family plays several important roles, the most important being:
Increasing the progeny of the Muslim nation. The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said, “Marriage is one of my traditions, and whoever does not follow my traditions is not one of us. So get married, for that way you will increase the nation (in strength and number).” (Ibn Majah)
Having many children increases the strength of the community, in addition to increasing ones personal status and being well-remembered after death. Advocates of birth control do not wish the Muslim community any good, and their weak arguments show that they have been afflicted with pessimism, uncertainty (in the truth of Islam and the Last Day) and mistrust (in Allaah’s Will).
Teaching and raising Muslim youth is a job for the whole family. In fact, the home is the first school in which the child is introduced to the basic tenets of his religion, and this important job should not be left to maids and nurses. The child that nurses from his mother’s milk also receives her compassion and affection. Conversely, a child which is cared for and raised by maids will never receive the same love, warmth and affection and nor will they have a correct Islamic upbringing.
The Muslim family is held responsible before Allaah for the correct Islamic upbringing of it’s children, instilling in them the concept of worship of Allaah and following His prescribed way in their lives.
Do our families today fulfill their childrearing and educational responsibilities? Does our method of raising children give them the power to resist westernization and secularization? Do members of the family gather together to learn the Qur’an? Or do they gather to watch acts of disobedience to Allaah (i.e. on the television etc.)? Do our children find in our homes useful lessons, good examples and good manners?
Any shortcomings or omissions in the family’s job of raising its children will have negative effects on the behaviour of the children, and in turn this will have a negative effect on the thoughts, structure and security of the community.
Parents will be asked about the fulfillment of their parental duties. Ibn Umar related that Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said, “All of you are guardians and all of you are responsible for your wards. An imam is a guardian, and he is responsible for his wards (among the local community); a man is a guardian in his family and he is responsible for his dependants, a lady is a guardian in her husband’s house and she is responsible for her charges (children, property under her control &c.)…” (Bukhari & Muslim)
One responsibility of a parent is to cleanse the house from all vice, to ensure that all members of the family perform all of their religious duties, and to encourage them to perform good and loved deeds.
One of the main goals of the family is to teach its children to love and respect the mosque, and build strong ties between its children and the mosque, for the mosque is an essential part of the life of a Muslim. Instilling love of the mosque is a great and important part of upbringing; deep in effect, and implants in a child respect, good values and manners.
A Muslim family which is based on faith in Allaah will be able to hold on to Islamic morals and manners, and feel a great attachment to the mosque. It is able, by the light of the Qur’aan, to bring into the world children who will become brave heroes, scholars, ascetic slaves (of Allaah), sincere leaders, pious men, and worshipful women. Such families fill a glorious page in the books of history.
Today the Muslim family faces a grim offensive aimed at shaking its very foundations, by undoing the family ties, spoiling the women’s characters, discarding family values, and calling towards nudity, mixing of the sexes and disinhibition. And if the family is destroyed, will there then remain any Muslim nation? And if it does remain it will be marginalized.
In some Muslim countries, the families’ hearts have been disunited as a result of the slavish adherence to Western values, drifting blindly behind any vogue that comes out of it; divorce cases have risen, and many youths have turned away from marriage followed by a frantic rush after brutish desires.
The following much-followed trend is a sensitive subject which touches many of us closely; it has a share in social change in decreasing the role of the family. Satellite dishes have taken over the family’s time, had an effect on it’s progress, and loosened it’s values; and the family loses – in some cases – some of its influence over the children. These devices (satellite, TV. etc.) compete with the family in controlling the children inside the safety of their own homes by their carefully researched attractiveness, and attack directly and indirectly to destroy their relation with their community, weaken their religion, and diminish their enthusiasm. However, one thing that is very painful to consider, is that some families completely abandon their role in the task of religious and intellectual upbringing, and surrender their children to satellite dishes and such like, that distort young minds and destroy faith unchecked.
Brothers in Islam! Building a family on a sound, rational basis is not an easy task, conversely it is a momentous duty that requires preparation and preparedness. Married life is not all fun and games; rather it is a series of responsibilities and duties, whoever proposes marriage without ability or suitability is ignorant, unaware of the wisdom of Allaah’s Divine Law, and whomsoever uses marriage for evil purposes, or denies its rights deserves the anger of Allaah and His punishment; so one must always behave righteously in this life. Allaah says, “O you who believe! Ward off yourselves and your families against a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones…” (At-Tahreem 66: 6)
Family life is a life of work. And life has its costs and burdens; so it needs someone to be in charge to direct it’s actions, and supervise its safety this leadership is called Qiwaamah in the Qur’an and it is the lot of the man. Leadership is not for the purpose of reverence and domination but it is a post of supervision and upbringing. It does not mean denying the wife her own personality and wishes, or preventing her from expressing her opinions or having any say of what goes on in the family.
Allaah has prepared the woman for certain jobs, and has prepared the man for certain jobs. They are each suited to their own jobs by reason of the physical and mental differences between them. If women were made to be the protectors and maintainers in place of men the woman would be charged with more than she could handle, and the family would be deviated from its normal course and would face trials and difficulties. There are essential differences between men and women which enable them to perform the gender-specific tasks which have naturally and traditionally been theirs to perform. If the roles of men and women were reversed, it would harm the family, and ultimately the community at large. Those people who call for the removal of man’s natural assertiveness and leadership are fools because that goes against the natural Law of Allaah.
Al-Qiwaamah means that the head of the household is responsible for the physical safety of his family, and for their safety from a religious standpoint. He protects them from evil fashions and deviation, and provides the perfect example in the way he abides by the Limits set by Allaah, and his exaltation of his religious rites and ceremonies, unashamedly and with the best of character and moral standard. He is like a shepherd that protects his flock.
The head of a household is required to strike a balance between his work, his acts of worship and being free for his family; to give each one it’s due, e.g. the rights of the wife, bringing up the children etc. If the head of the household is unable to make time to sit by himself or with members of the family to talk to them and listen to them, later on, when it is too late to do so, or is no longer possible, he will regret not having made the time.
‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn Al-‘Aas said, “The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said to me, ‘I have been told that you fast all day and then stay up all night (in worship) Don’t do so; For your body has it’s rights on you, and likewise your wife has rights upon you: fast and break your fast; fast three days in each month for that is (as if you were) fasting your whole life.'” (Bukhari & Muslim)