Kufr

WHAT CONSTITUTES KUFR (DISBELIEF)

Author Unknown

The following points list twelve actions or beliefs that would categorize someone as a kaafir or a murtadd (apostate). This list is not intended to be comprehensive, however it is general and every person should be forewarned against the matters mentioned therein. Kufr should be recognized and acknowledged by the Muslims in general so that they know how to protect themselves from its dangers.

We must however remember never to be hasty in labeling one who claims to be Muslim a kaafir (disbeliever) or murtadd (apostate) without clear and irrefutable evidence. An assignation or specific ruling of kufr (disbelief) for such a person should generally be left to the scholars of Islam. Kufr (disbelief) is of two types: action (‘amaly) and belief (‘itiqaady ), some of which may be termed “kufr doona kufr” that is, a degree of kufr less than the total kufr which does not necessarily put one outside of Islam although such a person’s Islam may be doubtful or in grave danger. This is the explanation of Qur’aan 5:44 by the companion Ibn Abbaas (radiallahu ‘anhu) collected by Ibn Jareer and quoted by Ibn Katheer on the authority of ‘Ataa.

Ibn Umar (radiallahu ‘anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said “Any person who called his brother ‘O Unbeliever’ (has in fact done an act by which this kufr) would return to one of them. If it were so as he (the accuser) asserted, (the kufr of the accused would be confirmed, but if the kufr was not true) then it returned to him (the man who called his brother Muslim a kaafir).” Muslim.

There are matters which may indeed indicate or even necessitate that a person be a disbeliever (kaafir) such as defiling the Qur’aan or cursing the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) regardless of what the person espouses and it is only Allah who knows the unseen. As humans we can only judge or make determinations from what is outwardly evident.

1. To disavow Allah’s Lordship (Ruboobiyah) or Deity and singular right to be worshipped (Uloohiyah) [Qur’aan 4:48 & 116, 5:72, 39:2-3, 51:56] or the message of any of the Messengers of Allah (Tawheed) [Qur’aan 10:35, 16:36] or to claim that any Messenger or Prophet (Rasool or Nabiy) came after the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). [Qur’aan 6:93, 6:21, 7:37, 11:18-19, 18:15, 29:68, 33:40, 39:32, 61:8]

2. To deny or reject any of Allah’s Attributes or Names (Asmaa was Sifaat) i.e. Living, Knowing, Hearing, Seeing, Merciful, having a face and hands (though we know not in what manner yet certainly not like His creation), or to add to them that which is not mentioned in the Qur’aan or authentic Sunnah. i.e. Belief that Allah is not above His creation & that He is everywhere or in everything or to attribute any quality that is Allah’s alone to man [Qur’aan 4:48, 6:18 & 61, 10:3, 68 – 69, 20:5, 35:10, 42:11, 72:26 – 27, Ch. 112]

3. Setting up intermediaries between oneself and Allah, making supplication to them, asking their intercession, and placing one’s trust in them. Calling upon the dead, asking them for help, or offering them gifts or sacrifices is all shirk. [Qur’aan 2:165 & 255, 5:72, 30:52, 39:44]. To give any of the creation that which is due to Allah alone or to be pleased with being given worship besides Allah in any manner [Qur’aan 21:29] thus making or becoming a taaghoot (pl. tawaagheet).

4. To curse, abuse the Name of Allah, to deny or to revile Him or any of His Messengers or Prophets or Angels. [Qur’aan 2:285, 4:136, 6:10, 57:19]

5. To deny, stop, or reject any Fard (obligatory) duty of the Sharia (Divine Law) i.e. Salaah, Zakaah, Saum, Hajj, Kindness to parents, or Jihad. [Qur’aan 4:50, 64-65, 80] or to turn away from the religion by not learning or practicing it’s precepts. [Qur’aan 32:22]

6. To deem or to make permissible (halaal) what is clearly forbidden (haraam) -i.e. adultery, fornication, drinking alcohol, taking drugs, theft, murder, sorcery, magic; or to make what is halaal haraam – i.e. to eat meat or seafood, marry plural wives, women to veil, etc. [Qur’aan 2:102, 174-176,4:69, 6:157]

7. To deny or reject any chapter, verse, or letter from the Book of Allah (Al-Qur’aan) or to purposely give it deviant interpretations [Qur’aan 3:7, 6:21] i.e. not derived from the Qur’aan itself, the authentic Sunnah of Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) [Qur’aan 6:153, 16:64] or according to established methods of tafseer. Abu Hurairah (radiallahu ‘anhu) reported that the Rasool (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, “Don’t pursue that which you have no knowledge of”. Ahmed. [Qur’aan 4:59, 10:68-70].

8. To openly show disdain, scorn, contempt for, or treat with levity the Deen of Islam or it’s tenets, obligatory injunctions or it’s traditions. [Qur’aan 4:140] To ridicule and deride them or to treat the Qur’aan as a piece of garbage or filth or to trample or abuse it as an insult. [Qur’aan 4:83, 140, 6:4-5, 7:50-51, 9:63-66, 20:124, 41:26 27]

9. To disbelieve in the Resurrection, Punishment, or Goodly reward on the Day of Reckoning or that punishment and reward are only abstract, symbolic or spiritual. [Qur’aan , 56:1-2, 67:8-10, 69]

10. To say that the Righteous (Awliyaa’) are above the Prophets (‘alaihimus salaam) or that some of the Righteous are exempt from acts of worship prescribed by Islam according to the Sunnah of Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). [Qur’aan 3:85, 8:34, 10:62-63]

11. To rule or judge by other than that which Allah revealed. This is of different types and the ruling differs depending on the beliefs and actions. Whoever rules by other than what Allah has revealed viewing it or believing it to be superior or better than Allah’s sharia is considered a disbeliever by all the Muslims. Likewise, the one who substitutes the sharia with man-made laws and views that as permissible, even if he says that to rule by the sharia is better, is a disbeliever because he has made halaal what Allah has made haraam. If one rules as described following whims or in opposition to someone (i.e. not viewing it as equal, a substitute or superior as described above) he is considered a major sinner. [2:120, 3:85, 4:115, 5:3, 44, 49, 50, 33:36, 45:18, 58:22]. [explained in detail in Fataawa Ibn Baz, Vol. 1 Rulings on ‘Aqeedah, pg. 991]

12. To support or aid the polytheists (mushrikoon) against the Muslims. [3:28. 118, 4:51, 5:57]

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THE TYPES OF GREAT KUFR

From Tafsir Ibn Katheer

The Qu’ran uses the word Kufr to denote people who cover up or hide realities. The Qu’ran uses this word to identify those who denied Allah’s favors by not accepting His Dominion and Authority. Kufr thus is an antonym for Iman or disbelief in Allah and a Kafir is a non-believer. This type of Kufr is called AL-KUFRUL AKBAR or major kufr. There are many types of Al-Kufrul Akbar:

Kufrul-‘Inaad: Disbelief out of stubborness. This applies to someone who knows the truth and admits to knowing the truth and admits to knowing it with his tongue, but refuses to accept it and refrains from making a declaration. Allah says: “Throw into Hell every stubborn disbeliever.” [Surah Qaaf 50:24]

Kufrul-Inkaar: Disbelief out of denial. This applies to someone who denies with both heart and tongue. Allah says: “They recognize the favors of Allah, yet they deny them. Most of them are disbelievers.” [Surah Nahl 16:83]

Kufrul-Kibr: Disbelief out of arrogance and pride. The disbelief by the devils (Iblis) is an example of this type of Kufr.

Kufrul-Juhood: Disbebelief out of rejection.This applies to someone who aknowledges the truth in his heart, but rejects it with his tongue. This types of kufr is applicable to those who calls themselves Muslims but who reject any necessary and accepted norms of Islam such as Salaat and Zakat. Allah says: “They denied them (OUR SIGNS) even though their hearts believed in them, out of spite and arrogance.” [Surah Naml 27:14]

Kufrul-Nifaaq: Disbelief out of hypocrisy.This applies to someone who pretends to be a believer but conceals his disbelief. Such a person is called a Munafiq or hypocrite. Allah says: “Verily the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of Hell. You will find no one to help them.” [Surah An Nisaa 4:145]

Kufrul-Istihaal: Disbelief out of trying to make HARAM into HALAL. This applies to someone who accepts as lawful (Halal) that which Allah has made unlawful(Haram) like alcohol or adultery.Only Allah(swt) has the prerogative to make things Halal and Haram and those who seek to interfere with His right are like rivals to Him and therefore fall outside the boundries of faith.

Kufrul-Kurh: Disbelief out of detesting any of Allah’s commands. Allah says: “Perdition (destruction) has been consigned to those who disbelieve and He will render their actions void. This is because they are averse to that which Allah has revealed so He has made their actions fruitless.” [Surah Muhammed 47:8-9]

Kufrul-Istihzaha: Disbelief due to mockery and derision. Allah says: “Say: Was it at Allah, His signs and His apostles that you were mocking? Make no excuses. You have disbelieved after you have believed.” [Surah Taubah (9), ayah 65-66]

Kufrul-I’raadh: Disbelief due to avoidance. This applies to those who turn away and avoid the truth. Allah says: “And who is more unjust than he who is reminded of his Lord’s signs but then turns away from them. Then he forgets what he has sent forward (for the Day of Judgement).” [Surah Kahf 18:57]

Kufrul-Istibdaal: Disbelief because of trying to substitute Allah’s Laws. This could take the form of: 1)Rejection of Allah’s law(Shariah) without denying it 2)Denial of Allah’s law and therefore rejecting it, or 3)Substituting Allah’s laws with man-made laws. Allah says: “Or have they partners with Allah who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not allowed.” [Surah Shuraa 42:8]

Allah says: “Say not concerning that which your tongues put forth falsely (that) is lawful and this is forbidden so as to invent a lie against Allah. Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah will never prosper.” [Surah Nahl 16:116]

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TEN THINGS WHICH NULLIFY ONES ISLAAM

Source http://www.whyislam.org/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=4884&PN=0&TPN=1

All praise is due to Allaah, Lord of the worlds. May peace and salutations be upon the Last Messenger of Allaah, and upon all those who follow him until the Last day.To proceed:Brother and Sister Muslim, you must be aware that there are matters which nullify your Islaam. Please be Mindful of them.

1. Associating partners with Allah (shirk). Allaah Most High says (in the meaning ): “Truly, whosoever sets up partners with Allaah, then Allaah has forbidden the Garden for him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the wrongdoers there are no helpers.” (Soorah Al-Maa’ida 5:72)

Calling upon the dead, asking their help, or offering them gifts or sacrifices are all forms of shirk.

2. Setting up intermediaries between oneself and Allaah, making supplication to them, asking their intercession with Allaah, and placing ones trust in them is unbelief (kufr).

3. Anyone who does not consider the polytheists (mushrikeen) to be unbelievers, or who has doubts concerning their unbelief, or considers their way to be correct, is himself/herself an unbeliever (kafir).

4. Anyone who believes any guidance to be more perfect, or a decision other than the Prophets decision to be better, is an unbeliever. This applies to those who prefer the rule of Evil (Taghout) to the Prophets rule. Some examples of this are:

(a) To believe that systems and laws made by human beings are better than the Shariah of Islaam; for example,

That the Islaamic system is not suitable for the twentieth century.

That Islaam is the cause of the backwardness of the Muslims.

Or that al-Islaam is a relationship beween Allaah and the Muslim. It should not interfere in other aspects of life.

(b)To say that enforcing the punishments prescibed Allaah, such as cutting of the hand of the thief or the stoning of an adulterer, is not suitable for this day and age.

(c) To believe that it is permissible to give a rule from that which Allaah did not reveal in Islamic transactions or matters of law, punishments or other affairs. Althoughone may not believe such things to be superior to the Shari’ah he in effect affirms such a stnad by declaring a thing which Allaah has totally prohibited, such as adultery, drinking alcohol or usury, to be permissible. According to the consensus of the Muslims, one who declares such things to be permissible is an unbeliever (Kafir)

5. Anyone who hates any part of what the Messenger of Allaah [saw] has declared to be lawful has nullified his Islaam, even though he may act in accordance with it. Allaah Most High says(in the meaning): “This is because they hate what Allaah has sent down, so he has made their deeds fruitless” (Soorah Muhammad 47:9)

6. Anyone who ridicules any aspect of the religion of the Messenger of Allaah [saw], or any of its rewards or punishments, becomes an unbeleiver. Allaah Most High says (in the meaning): “Say: Was it Allaah, and His signs and His Messenger that you were mocking? Make no excuse; you have disbeleived after you had believed.” (Soorah At-Tawbah 9:65-66)

7. The practice of magic. Included in this, for example, is causing a rift between a husband and wife by turning his love for her into hatred, or tempting a person to do things he dislikes using black arts. One who engages in such a thing or is pleased with it is outside the fold of Islaam. Allaah Most High says (in the meaning): ” But neither of these two (angels, Harut and Marut) taught anyone (magic) till they had said, Indeed, we are a trial; then do not disbelieve. (Soorah Al-Baqarah 2:102)

8. Supporting and aiding polytheists against the Muslims. Allaah Most High says (in the meaning): “Whoever among you who takes them as allies is surely one of them. Truly, Allaah does not guide the wrongdoers.” (Soorah Al-Maaida 5:51)

9. Anyone who believes that some people are permitted to deviate from the Shariah of Muhammad [saw] is an un believer by the word of Allaah Most High (in the meaning): “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islaam, it will not be accepted of him and in the hereafter he will be from among the losers.” (Soorah Aal-Imraan 3:85)

10. To turn completely away from the religion of Allaah neither learning its precepts nor acting upon it. Allaah most high says (what means): ” And who does greater wrong than he who is reminded of the revelations of his Lord and turns aside therefrom Truly, We shall exact retribution from the guilty.” (Soorah As-Sajdah 32:22)

and He [swt] also says (what means): “But those who disbelieve turn away from that about which they are warned.”

It makes no difference whether such violations are commited as a joke, in seriousness or out of fear, except when done under compulsion (i.e. from threat of loss of life )We seek refuge in Allaah from such deeds as entail His wrath and severe punishment.

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THE ACTIONS OF THE DISBELIEVERS

By Abu Rumaysah

I will insha`Allaah make a number of general points by the permission of Allaah.

1. The disbelievers are in Hell forever: “Those who disbelieve and die as disbelievers, on them is the Curse of Allaah, the curse of the Angels and all of mankind. They will abide therein and their penalty will never be lightened nor will they be given respite.” [2:161-162]”Thus Allaah will show them their deeds as regrets and they will never leave the Fire.” [2:167]”Every time they seek to get away therefrom, from anguish they will be driven back therein and it will be said: ‘taste the torment of burning’.” [22:22]

2. The Christians are disbelievers: “Indeed they disbelieved who say that Allaah is Christ.” [5:17]”Indeed they disbelieved who say that Allaah is Christ the son of Mary. But the Messiah, son of Mary said, ‘O Children of Israel! Worship Allaah, my Lord and your Lord.’ Indeed whosoever sets up partners with Allaah then Allaah has forbidden Paradise for him and the Fire shall be his abode. And for the wrong-doers there are no helpers. Surely they disbelieve who said that Allaah is the third of three but there is no god save one god.” [5:72-73]”The Christians say: Messiah is the son of Allaah. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old, Allaahs curse be on them how they are deluded away from the truth.”Yes, whosoever believes in Allaah and the Last Day is a Muslim, but can the Christians be said to believe in Allaah? No! Instead they insult Him in the worst of ways and in fact worship something that is not Allaah but a mere figment of their imagination.As for Christian X being worse or better than Abu Jahl then this is for Allaah and not for us to decide, it is for us to judge on what is outward and as for what is inside a person then that is for Allaah to judge.

3. Their actions are null and void:”Whosoever rejects faith then his deeds are fruitless and in the Hereafter he will be from the losers.” [5:5]”As for those who disbelieve then their deeds are like a mirage in the desert, The thirsty one thinks it to be water until he comes up to it and finds nothing but he finds Allaah with him Who will pay him his due (in Hell).” [24:39]

4. The necessity of testifying to the Messengership of Muhammad (SAW) to become a Muslim:”When the hypocrites come to you (O Muhammad) they say: We bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allaah. Allaah knows that you are indeed His Messenger and Allaah bears witness that the Hypocrites are indeed liars.” [63:1]Who is and who is not a hypocrite is known to Allaah Alone. We are just ordered to judge on what is outward, therefore whosoever says the shahaadah then he is a Muslim as far as we [Ahlus Sunnah] are concerned and by virtue of his saying the shahaadah he is better than the best of the disbelievers.”Say (O Muhammad): If you truly love Allaah then follow me. Allaah will forgive you your sins and Allaah is Oft Forgiving and Most Merciful.” [3:31]The Messenger of Allaah (SAW) said to Mu`aadh, “your are going to a community of the People of the Book so first call them to testify that there is none worthy of worship save Allaah and that I am the Messenger of Allaah…” [Saheeh Muslim no. 27]He (SAW) also said, “I have been commanded to fight the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped save Allaah and that I am the Messenger of Allaah….” [Saheeh Muslim no. 31]The Messenger of Allaah (SAW) said, “I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped save Allaah and that I am the Messenger of Allaah. The man who meets his Lord without harbouring doubt about any of these two would never be kept away from Paradise.” [Saheeh Muslim no. 42]The Messenger of Allaah (SAW)) said, “He who testifies that there is none worthy of worship save Allaah and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger and that Christ is His servant and the son of His slave-girl (Mary) and he is a word which He communicated to Mary and His spirit and that Paradise is a fact and that Hell is a fact. Allaah would make him enter Paradise through any of its eight doors that he wishes.” [Saheeh Muslim no. 43]Whosoever does not testify to the Messengership of Muhammad (SAW) has not believed in Allaah correctly and in fact he has rejected all the Prophets for to reject one it to reject all.

5. It is obligatory upon the one who hears of Islaam to accept it:The Messenger of Allaah (SAW) said, “by Him in Whose hand is the life of Muhammad whosoever from the Jews and Christians hears about me and does not believe in me and what I have come with shall be one of the denizens of the Fire.” [Saheeh Muslim no. 284]

6. The Jewish and Christian religions are abrogated and invalid:”Fight against those who believe not in Allaah nor the Last Day nor forbid that which Allaah and His Messenger have forbidden and those who do not acknowledge the Religion of Truth from amongst the People of the Book until they pay jizya with willing submission and feel themselves subdued.” [9:29]”Indeed the only religion (acceptable) with Allaah is Islaam.” [3:19]”And whosoever seeks a religion other than Islaam it will never be accepted of Him and in the Hereafter he will be of the losers.” [3:85]”This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as your religion.” [5:3]”And We have sent to you the Book confirming the Scripture that came before it and a witness over it.” [5:48]And Allaah the Most High knows best.

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SAYINGS OF THE ULAMAA’ REGARDING RULING BY OTHER THAN WHAT ALLAH HAS REVEALED AND THE TWO TYPES OF KUFR

Tranlated by Abu Iyaad as-Salafi

Salafi Publication Article ID MNJ050001

Allaamah Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 751H) said: “And it is correct that judging by other than what Allaah has revealed is both types of kufr (disbelief) – kufr asghar (the minor disbelief) and kufr akbar (the major disbelief) – and [which of the two it is] depends on the condition of the ruler. If he believes in the obligation of judging by what Allaah has revealed in this situation but turned away from it – out of disobedience – and while acknowledging that he is deserving of punishment then this is kufr asghar. And if he believes that it is not obligatory and that he has a choice in the matter – along with his firm belief that it is the judgement of Allaah – then this is kufr akbar – and if was ignorant in the matter or made an error then he is one who errs (mukhtee’) and his ruling is as the same for those who err. [Madaarij us-Saalikeen 1/337]

Shaikh Abdur-Rahmaan as-Sa’dee (d. 1376H) said: “Judging by other than what Allaah has revealed is among the actions of the People of Disbelief – and it can also take one outside of the religion. And that is when he believes in its legality and its permissibility. And it can sometimes be one of the major sins and from the actions of disbelief – the one who is guilty of it will receive a heavy punishment – and He said: “And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, then they are the wrongdoers (dhaalimoon).” Ibn Abbaas said: “Kufr less than kufr and dhulm less than dhulm and fisq less than fisq. It is dhulm akbar when it is declared permissible but it is a great sin when it is done without declaring it permissible.” [Tayseer al-Kareem ar-Rahmaan 2/296-297]

Imaam Ibn al-Jawzee (d. 596H) said: “And the decisive speech in this regard is that whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed – while rejecting it [in belief] {jahahda) and he knows that it is Allaah who revealed it – as the Jews did – then he is a disbeliever. And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed – inclining to his desires without rejecting it [in belief] then he is a dhaalim, faasiq and it has been reported from Alee bin Abu Talhah from Ibn Abbaas that he said: “Whoever rejects (jahada) what Allaah has revealed then he has disbelieved, and whoever affirms it (aqarra bihi) but does not judge by it – then he is a dhaalim, a faasiq.” [Zaad al-Maysir 2/366]

Imaam ibn Abee Izz al-Hanafee (d. 792H) said: “And there is a matter which it is necessary to comprehend well – that ruling by other than what Allaah has revealed can sometimes be kufr that ejects from the religion and sometimes a major or minor sin – or it can be ‘metaphorical kufr’ (kufran majaaziyyan) or ‘minor kufr’ – and this is in accordance with the state of the ruler. If he believes that ruling by other than what Allaah has revealed is not waajib and that he has a choice in the matter – or if he disdains/despises it – while having conviction that it is the rule of Allaah, then this is the major kufr. And if he believes in the obligation to rule by what Allaah has revealed and in this [particular] incident [he knows it to be the rule of Allaah] but he turns away from it – whilst acknowledging that he deserves punishment then he is a disobedient person and he is termed a disbeliever with the metaphorical type of kufr or the minor type of kufr. [Sharh Aqeedat it-Tahaawiyyah p. 363]

And the Imaam and Mujaddid, Shaikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhaab (d.. 1206H) said: “Know that those things which eject from the religion (nawaaqid) are then in number: …Whoever believes (i’taqada 0that a guidance other than that of the Prophet (sas) is more perfect or that the judgement other than his is better – such as the one who gives preference to the hukm of the tawaagheet – then such a one is a disbeliever…” [Mu’allifaat Ash-Shaikh al-Imaam Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhaab – al-Qismul-Awwal]

Shaikh Abdul-Azeez bin Baaz said: “And whoever ruled by other than what Allaah has revealed then he will not be in other than one of four situations: ”

1. The one who says: ‘I rule by this because it is superior to the Sharee’ah of Islaam.’ Such a one is disbeliever in the sense of the major disbelief..

2. The one who says: ‘I rule by this because it is like the Sharee’ah of Islaam, so ruling by it is permissible and ruling by the Sharee’ah is permissible’. Such a one is a disbeliever in the sense of the major disbelief.

3. The one who says: ‘I rule by this and ruling by the Sharee’ah of Islaam is superior but ruling by other than what Allaah has revealed is permissible.’ Such a one is a disbeliever in the sense of major disbelief.

4. The one who says: ‘I rule by this’ while he believes that ruling by other than what Allaah has revealed is not permissible and who says that ‘the Sharee’ah of Islaam is superior and it is not permissible to ruler by other than it’ but he is neglectful, or treats matters lightly, or does this action due to a reason which proceeds from his rulers, then he is a disbeliever in the sense of minor disbelief which does not eject from the religion – and it is considered one of the greatest of major sins.” [Al-Hukmu bi-Ghairi Maa Anzalallaahu wa Usool ut-Takfeer p. 71/72]

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THE TYPES OF KUFR AND RULING BY OTHER THAN WHAT ALLAH HAS REVEALED

Imaam ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah

Source http://www.calltoislam.com

Chapter: About the Impurities that need to be Repented from:

Disbelief:

And as for kufr it is of two types: Kufr akbar (major kufr) and kufr asghar (minor kufr).

So kufr akbar – this necessitates eternity in the Hellfire.

And the (kufr) asghar: Necessitates the fulfilment of the threat (of Hellfire) without eternally abiding in it. As occurs in the saying of the Exalted – and it used to be from what was recited and then it was abrogated: “And do not detest/hate your fathers, for that is disbelief from you.”

And his (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saying in the hadeeth: “There are two matters in my Ummah, by which (my) Ummah falls into kufr: Reviling the genealogy and wailing / lamenting (over the dead).”

And his saying in the Sunan: “Whoever comes to a women from her anus has disbelieved in what was revealed upon Muhammad”, and in another hadeeth: “Whoever comes to a sorcerer or a diviner and believes in what he says has disbelieved in what Allaah revealed upon Muhammad.”

And his saying: “Do not become disbelievers after me, striking the necks of one another.”

And this is the explanation of Ibn ‘Abbaas and the generality of the Companions regarding the speech of Allaah: “And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, then they are the disbelievers.” (5:44)

Ibn ‘Abbaas said: “It is not the kufr that takes one out of the religion. Rather when he does it then it is [an act of] disbelief, and he is not like the one who disbelieves in Allaah and the Last Day” and Taawoos said the same and Ataa said: “It is disbelief less than disbelief, oppression less than oppression and rebellion less than rebellion.”

And amongst them are those who interpreted the verse to mean the one who abandons the rule of Allaah while opposing and rejecting it (jahidan lahu) and this is the saying of Ikrimah! And this is a defective saying, since just the mere denial (juhud) of it is disbelief, regardless of whether he ruled by it or not.

And amongst them are those who explained it to mean abandoning ruling by all of what Allaah revealed, he said, and who enters into this the judgement of Tawheed and Islam! This is the interpretation of ‘Abdul-Aziz al-Kinani and this too is far from what is correct! Since the threat (contained in the verse) is for the negation of ruling by the revealed legislation, and this can apply to abandoning all of the legislation or just some of it.

And amongst them are those who explained it to mean to rule in opposition to the text, deliberately, without being ignorant of it and nor due to error in understanding or interpreting it. Al-Baghawee quoted this from the scholars generally.

And amongst them are those explained to refer to the Ahlul-Kitaab. And this is the saying of Qataadah, Dahhaak and others. And this is far (from what is correct) – and it is in opposition to the apparent wording – so it is not to be inclined towards.

And amongst them are those who explained it to mean the kufr that takes one out of the religion!

And what is correct is that judging by other than what Allaah has revealed is both types of kufr (disbelief) – kufr asghar (the minor disbelief) and kufr akbar (the major disbelief) – and [which of the two it is] depends on the condition of the ruler. If he believes in the obligation of judging by what Allaah has revealed n this situation but turned away from it – out of disobedience – and while acknowledging that he is deserving of punishment then this is kufr asghar. And if he (i’taqada) believes that it is not obligatory and that he has a choice in the matter – along with his firm belief that it is the judgement of Allaah – then this is kufr akbar – and if he was ignorant in the matter or made an error then he is one who errs (mukhtee’) and his ruling is as the same for those who err (i.e. one reward). And the intent here is: That sins, all of them are of the minor form of kufr (kufr asghar). For they are the opposite of gratefulness – which is to act in obedience to Allaah. And the striving (of a person), either it constitutes gratefulness (shukr) or disbelief (kufr), or a third matter which is neither this or that (i.e. gratefulness or disbelief), and Allaah knows best.

And as for the Major Kufr (kufr akbar) – then it is of five types :Kufr of takdheeb (rejection), kufr due to arrogance and pride whilst one acknowledges the truth (tasdeeq), kufr of I’raad (turning away), kufr of shakk (doubts) and kufr of nifaaq (hypocrisy).

1. So the kufr of takdheeb – it is belief in the falsehood of the Messengers, and this type is not very common amongst the Kuffar, since Allaah the Most High has strengthened His Messengers and granted them such evidences and signs to establish their truthfulness that would be sufficient to establish a decisive proof, and (by which) any excuse would be finished. Allaah the Most High said about Fir’aun and his people: “And they belied them (those aayaat) wrongfully and arrogantly, though their ownselves were convinced thereof (of their truthfulness).” (27:14)

2. The kufr of istikbaar and ibaa’ (arrogance and pride) – then that is like the kufr of Iblees for the did not deny/reject the command of Allaah and he did not face it with rejection. But he responded to it with arrogance and pride – and from this comes the disbelief of the one who knows the truth of the Messenger and that he has come with the truth from Allaah, but he did not comply with it due to arrogance and pride. And this mainly, is the kufr of the enemies of the Messengers as Allaah, the Exalted quotes from Fir’aun and his people: “Shall we believe in two men like ourselves, whilst their people are enslaved to us?” (23:47)

And the saying of the various nations to their Messengers: “You are but men like ourselves.” (14:10

And His saying: “Thamud rejected (their Prophet) through transgression.” (91:11), this is the kufr of the Jews, as the Most High has said:

“And when that which they knew full well came to them (i.e. the Book of Allaah), they rejected it.” (2:89)

And He said: “They know him (the Messenger) just like they know their own sons.” (6:20), and this is like the kufr of Abu Taalib also who believed in him (the Messenger) and did not have doubt in his truthfulness but fanaticism overtook him and the aggrandisement of his forefathers, that he should not leave their religion and testify to their disbelief.

3. And as for the kufr of I’raad (turning away) – then that is to turn away with ones hearing and his heart, away from the Messenger – not believing in him and not rejecting him – not allying with him and nor showing enmity towards him – and never paying attention to that which he came with as one of the Banu Abd Yaaleel said to the Prophet (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “By Allaah, I will say to you a word: If you are truthful, then you are too great in my eyes that I should reply to you, and if you are lying, then you are more despicable than that I should (even) talk to you.”

4. And as for the kufr of shaqq (doubt) – then that is when one is not certain of his (the Messenger’s) truthfulness and he does not disbelieve in him – but he has a doubt. And this doubt of his will not continue unless he deliberately turns away from looking into the signs (aayaat) related to the truthfulness of the Messenger (sall-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in general, such that he does not hear them and does not turn to them. But if he was to turn to them and look at them then no doubt would remain with him, since they (the aayaat) necessitate truthfulness, especially the sum total of them. This is because their indication of truthfulness is like the indication of the presence of the sun, that it is day.

5. And as for the kufr of nifaaq (hypocrisy) – then that is when he manifests Eemaan upon his tongue and rejection is concealed in his heart and this is the greater hypocrisy and an explanation of its types will come later inshaa’Allaah ta’aala.

And the kufr of juhood (rejection/denial) is of two types: absolute (mutlaq) and restricted (muqayyid, khass).

The absolute one is: that he rejects the sum of what Allaah has revealed and His sending of the Messengers.

And the restricted and specific: that he rejects/denies an obligation from the obligations of Islaam, or one of the forbidden actions, or an Attribute that He has described Himself with or something about which He informed – deliberately – or giving preference to the saying of one who opposes it for whatever objective that might be. But as for the denial of that due to ignorance, or a faulty interpretation, then a person is excused for this and he does not become a disbeliever by it. This is like the hadeeth of the one who denied Allaah’s qudrah over him and ordered his family to cremate him and to scatter his ashes. Despite this, Allaah forgave him and had mercy upon Him, since he was ignorant, since that which he did was in accordance to the limits of his knowledge, and he did not deny the qudrah of Allaah out of wilful opposition or denial (takdhib).

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