Madhabs

MADHABS: THE BASIS OF ISLAM IS TO ACT UPON THE QURAN AND SUNNAH

By: Shaikh Muhammad Sultaan al-Ma`soomoee

Source: Hadiyyat us-Sultaan ilaa Muslimee Bilaad al-Yaabaan

This is the deen of Islam in truth and its fundamental and its basis is the Book and the Sunnah. So they are the points of reference in every dispute that the Muslims fall into and he who refers back to other than them is not a believer! As Allah the most Most high says: “But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (O Muhammad (saws) judge in all disputes between them and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions and accept (them) with full submission.[1]

Not one of the scholars said, ‘follow me in my opinion’ rather they said, ‘take from where we have taken,’ besides, much has been added to these madhabs from the understanding of their later generations[2]. They contain many errors and matters of conjecture, which if the Imaams to whom they are attributed were to see them, then they would absolve themselves of them and from those who said them.

All of the people of knowledge from the Pious predecessors clung to the manifest texts of the Book and thew Sunnah and encouraged the people to stick to them and act accordingly. This is established from the Imaams from amongst them. Abu Haneefah, Maalik, Ahmad,ash-Shafiee, the two Sufyaans, ath-Tahwree and Ibn Uyaiynah, al-Hasan al-Basree, Abu Yousuf Yaqoob-the Qadee, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ash-Shaybaanee, Abdur Rahmaan al-Awzaee, Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak, al-Bukharee, Muslim and the rest (raa).

All of them warned against innovations in the Deen and against blind following of anyone except the infallible Messenger (saws). As for other than him, then he is fallible whoever he may be, his saying which is in accordance wiht the Book and the Sunnah is accepted and that which goes against them is to be rejected. As Imaam Maalik (ra) said, “The saying of everyone may be taken or rejected except for the companion of this grave” and he pointed to the grave of the Prophet (saws) [3]

The scholars, the four Imaams and the others, all followed this way, all of them warned against blind following! Since Allaah, the Most High, condemned the blind followers in more than one place in His book. Most of the earlier and later people became disbelievers due to their blind following of their priests, rabbis, old people and forefathers. It is established from Imaams Abu Haneefah (raa), Maailik,ash-Shafiee, Ahmad and others (raa) -that they said: “It is not permissible for any one to give judgment with our saying unless they know the source from which we took it” [4]

“If the hadeeth is found to be authentic then it is my madhab” [5]

“If I say something then compare it to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger and if it agrees to them, then accept it and that which goes against them, then reject it and throw my saying against the wall”.[6]

These are the sayings of these prominent Imaams, may Allaah enter them into the Home of peace. Unfortunately, the later blind followers and authors who wrote the books, whom the people think to be scholars and infallible mujtahids, have made it obligatory for the people to blindly follow one of the four Imaams and their well known madhaabs. After declaring this to be obligatory, they forbade taking or acting upon anyone else’s saying, it is as if they have made him (i.e., the Imaam) Prophet to be obeyed. It would have been better had they acted upon the sayings of the Imaams. However, most of them know nothing of the Imaam whom they claim to follow, except his name.

Further, some of the latter followers invented questions, created new madhabs and ascribed them to the original Imaams. So those who came after them think that it is the saying of the Imaaam or his students and in reality it goes against what the Imaam said and approved; he is free from what they ascribe to him, such as the saying of many of the later Hanafees that it is forbidden to point the forefinger in the tashshuud in prayer [6] or that what is meant by Allah’s hand id His power, or that He is present by His Dhaat (self) in every place and not above the Arsh because of this and its like the unity of the Muslims has been destroyed their community has separated, the splits increased and the horizons filled with hypocrisy and disunity! Each of them declaring those who differ from them in the slightest matter to be upon misguidance, to the extent that some of them declare the others to be disbelievers and some striking the necks of the others and have become fitting for what the truthful and trustworthy Messenger, the most noble of us, Muhammad (saws) said, “My Ummah will split into seventy -three sects, all of them in the fire except one” It was said, ‘Who are they O Messenger of Allaah? He said, “That which I and my Companions are upon” [7]

FOOT NOTES

[1] Sooratun-Nisaa(4):65

[2] The following of madhabs has not only led the blind followers to prefer the sayings and opinions of men to the clear texts of the Quran and Sunnah, it has further taken them even to forget the authentic sayings of their own Imaams (raa)-preferring the sayings of the later followers, thinking that they are the madhabs of the scholars, without discrimination or research and that is due only to the severity of their blind following. It is known that the scholars wrote down their positions in books and left what they regarded to be correct according to their own ijtihaad. Imaam Maalik (raa) left his position in al-Muwatta and Imaam ash-Shafiee left his position in al-Umm. If we wish to know the madhab of any of those scholars we have to refer back to his book. It is not fitting as being the saying of Imaam Maalik, Imaam Ash-Shafiee and Imaam Abu Haneefah (raa) -which they never said or did. For example, the Maalikees leave their arms at their side, during the Slaah and read Qunoot in fajr,whereas we find Maailik-(ra) quotes in al-Muwatta: “Chapter: placing the two hands, one upon the other in Prayer. “He reported narrations therein, from them: That Abdul Kareem ibn Abil Makhaariq al-basaree said, “From the sayings of prophethood is: If you feel shame, then do as you wish; placing the hands one upon the other in prayer; being early in breaking the fast; and delaying taking the predawn meal (suhoor)”

But the later Maalikees use as evidence that Maalik used to pray with his hands hanging at his side, this is ignorance with regard to the madhab which they follow.Since Jafar ibn Sulayman, the governor of al-Madeenah lashed the Imaam in the year 146H and stretched out his arms until his hands became islocated and so he was not able to place his hands one over the other in Prayer.(See al-Intiqaa, p.44). He wrote al-Muwatta two years after this happened. Imaam Maalik (ra) also reports in the chapter of the Qunoot in Fajr prayer (1/159) that, “Ibn Umar (raa) did not read the Qunoot in any of his prayers.

As for Imaam ash-Shafiee (raa) then it is ignorantly attributed to him that he holds the salaat upon the Prophet(saw) to be a sunnah whereas he says in al-Umm (1/117) that it is obligatory:”Allaah, the Most high, made obligatory the salaat upon His Messenger (saws) saying: “Allah and the angels send salaat upon the Prophet (saws): O you who believe send salaat upon him and greet him with respect.( Sooratul-Ahzaab (33):56)

There is no place which has more right for that be obligatory therein than within the Prayer. We find proof from Allahs Messenger (saws) of what I have said, that salaat upon His Messenger (saws) is obligatory in prayer and Allaah, the Most high, knows best.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELATED TO TAQLEED AND MADHAAHIB

By the Standing Committee for Academic Research and Religious Verdicts

Source http://www.troid.org/articles/ibaadah/knowledge/taqleedandmadhaahib/taqleedandmadhaahib.htm

[Q.1]: ‘What is the true meaning of taqleed and what are its categories along with the clarification of its ruling?’

[A.1]: “All praise is for Allaah alone and may the Peace and Blesssings be upon His Messenger, and his Family, and his Companions. To proceed:

[i] The Scholars of Usool (fundamentals) have mentioned definitions to clarify the true meaning and essence of taqleed, and from them is the saying of some of them that taqleed is the acceptance of a saying of a person without him knowing its evidence. And some of them [the scholars] held the view that taqleed is the acceptance of the saying of a person without argument. And Aboo Ma’aalee al-Juwaynee chose the definition of taqleed that it is the following of one whose following is not based on proof and does not rely upon knowledge. And these definitions of the scholars of Usool, which are all close in meaning, have in it differences (in wording) which originate in the skill of enunciation, but the point here is to clarify the essence of taqleed in the manner of approximation.

[ii] And as for its categories along with the ruling of every category, then it is as follows:

[A] Taqleed by the one who has the skills of ijtihaad, to others from the scholars after the truth has been made clear to him with confirmed evidences from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). This is not permissible for him to do taqleed to what contradicts that which reached him from evidences and ijmaa’ (consensus).

[B] Taqleed by the one who has been endowed the skill of ijtihaad, to one other than him from the mujtahideen before he reaches a ruling with his own ijtihaad. Then it is not allowed for him to do taqleed to others. This is what ash-Shaafi’ee (d.204H), Ahmad (d.241H) – rahimahullaah – and others held as their opinion, and is more correct, due to his ability to arrive at a ruling by himself. He is responsible for ijtihaad to know what the sharee’ah has made him liable for because of His saying, the Most High, “So have taqwaa of Allaah as much as you are able.” [Sooratut-Taghaabun 54:16]

And what has been confirmed from the saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), “When I command you by a command, then follow it as much as you are able.” [1]

[C] Taqleed of the one who is not able to research the evidences and derive rulings from it, to a Scholar who has been endowed the skill of ijtihaad in the evidences of the Sharee’ah. This is permissible, due to His saying, the Most High, “Allaah does not burden a soul more than it can bear.”

and His saying, the Exalted,

“Then ask the people of remembrance if you do not know.” [Sooratun-Nahl 16:43]

and other texts similar to these, which point to the removing of difficulty and the protection of the one responsible, from straying about in the rulings and speaking about Allaah without knowledge.

[D] The taqleed to the one who differs with the Sharee’ah of Islaam from the forefathers, leaders, and rulers, due to nationalism or following desires. This is prohibited by ijmaa’. And verily many texts from the Qur‘aan and Sunnah have been mentioned concerning this. And Allaah, the Most High said: “‘Rather we shall follow what we found our fathers following,’ even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided.” [Sooratul-Baqarah 2:170]

And Allaah, the Most High said, “But no, by your Lord, they can not have faith until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and they find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept with full submission.” [Sooratun-Nisaa‘ 4:65]

And Allaah, The Most High said, “And it is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allaah and His messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision.” [Sooratul-Ahzaab 33:36]

And Allaah the Most High said, “And let those who oppose his (the Messenger’s) commandment beware, lest some trials should befall on them or a painful torment be afflicted on them.” [Sooratun-Noor 24:63]

And Allaah the Most High said, “Say: If you truly love Allaah, then follow me, Allaah will love you and forgive you your sins.” [Soorah Aali-’Imraan 3:31]

And Allaah the Most High said, “Verily Allaah has cursed the disbelievers and prepared for them a flaming fire. They will abide in it forever, they will find no protector nor helper. On the day when their faces will be turned over in the Fire, they will say: ‘Oh would that we had obeyed Allaah and obeyed the Messenger!’ And they will say: ‘Our Lord! Verily we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the right way. Our Lord! Give them double torment and curse them with a mighty curse!’” [Sooratul-Ahzaab 33:64-68]”

[Q.2]: ‘There are some that say that taqleed is disbelief (kufr) without exception and sinfulness (fisq) and association (shirk), and attribute disbelief (kufr) and misguidance to the four imaams. So what is the ruling concerning such a person. They also say that this is the opinion of the Scholars of the two sanctuaries, the Saudi Kingdom, and Kuwait.’

[A.2]: “All praise is for Allaah alone and may the Peace and Blessings be upon His Messenger, and his Family, and his Companions. To proceed:

[i] Not all taqleed is kufr without exception or fisq or shirk, rather the truth is that its ruling requires explanation, which can be found out from the answer to the second question from what has preceded.

[ii] Not one of the four imaams called to their madhhab, nor were fanatic about it, nor did they require the people to act upon it or any other madhhab in particular. But they only called to act upon the Book and the Sunnah, may Allaah have mercy on them. They explained the texts of the religion, made clear its principles and what stems from them, and they gave verdicts (fataawaa) in what was asked of them with evidences from the Book and the Sunnah, without requiring their students or others with the opinion of any one in particular from the scholars of the Ummah. Rather, they censured that, and they ordered to throw their opinions against the wall if it differed with a authentic (saheeh) hadeeth. And one of them said, “If a hadeeth is proved to be authentic, then it is my madhhab.” [2] And it is upon a Muslim to strive to know the truth by themselves if he is able to do that, and to seek help from Allaah, then from the wealth of knowledge that the predecessors from the Muslim scholars have left for the ones after them, and that which is easy for them in the path to the understanding of the texts and its application. And whoever is not able to understand the rulings from its evidences and its derivations for a matter, he is to ask the poeple of knowledge trustworthy to him about what he needs from the rulings of Sharee’ah, seeking to know the truth with its evidences as much as is able, due to the statement of Allaah the Most High: “Then ask those of the remembrance if you do not know.” [Sooratun-Nahl 16:43]

And upon him is for him to inquire who he trusts from those who are known for their knowledge, merit, piety, and righteousness. And from this is known that the four imaams are free from those who overly concern themselves with it (madhhabs) and about those who attribute to them kufr, misguidance, falsehood and lies.

There is not anyone from the scholars of the two sanctuaries, Makkah or al-Madeenah, nor from the rest of the scholars of the Saudi Kingdom who criticize the imaams of fiqh, Maalik, Aboo Haneefah, ash-Shaafi’ee, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, and those of their likes from the scholars of Islaamic fiqh, or who thinks little of them. Rather, it is known from them that they honour them and acknowledge their merit. And (they know) that they led the way for truth in the service to Islaam, its protection, and the comprehension of its texts, its principles and clarifying them, its conveyance, their jihaad (struggle) in aiding it, defending it, warding off the doubts from it, and in falsifying the claims of those who falsely ascribe to it and the innovations of the liars, so may Allaah reward them from Islaam and the Muslims a good reward.

And what gives evidence to the position of the scholars of the two sanctuaries and the rest of the scholars of the Saudi Kingdom towards the four imaams of honouring and valuing their concern, is the teaching of their madhhabs and their works in the Sacred Mosque in Makkah, and al-Madeenatul-Munawwarah, the rest of the mosques of the Saudi Kingdom, and in its universities, and their concern of publishing many of their books and its distribution and spreading among the Muslims in all the countries which Muslims are in.

And from Allaah is the Success, and may the Peace and Blessings of Allaah be upon His Messenger, his Family, and his Companions.”

The Standing Committee for Islaamic Research and Verdicts:

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan

Vice President: ’Abdur-Razzaaq ’Afeefee

President: ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Baaz [3]

[Q.3]: ‘We see that imaams, all of them, are upon a madhhab that differs from the other, and most of the time the matter ends up in a battle between them that leads to some of the praying people to leave the Prayer. So we need a clear sufficient answer on this subject. Are we to follow one school of thought (madhhab), and how do we reconcile between the schools of thought so that we can settle this matter?’

[A.3]: “All praise is for Allaah alone, and may the peace and blessings be upon His Messenger and his Family, and his Companions. To proceed:

The difference that is present in the branches of fiqh between the four madhhabs returns to the causes of it, for example, a hadeeth being authentic with some imaams and not others, or the attainment of a hadeeth by one imaam and not others, and reasons other than those from the causes of difference.

So it is obligatory on a Muslim to have good thoughts about them, and every one of them is a Mujtahid in what originated from him from fiqh, searching for truth. So if the ijtihaad was correct, then for him is two rewards: a reward for his ijtihaad, and a reward for it being correct. And if it was incorrect, then there is a reward for his ijtihaad, and the wrong ijtihaad is overlooked.

And as for blindly following (taqleed) these four imaams, whoever is able to take the truth with its evidences, it is obligatory on him to take with evidences. And if he is not able, then he does taqleed of the most trustworthy of the people of knowledge with him as much as he is able. And these differences are in the branches (of fiqh) and does not entail the prohibition of those who differ to pray behind each other, but it is obligatory to pray behind each other, for verily the Companions (sahaabah), may Allaah be pleased with them , differed in matters in the branches and they (still) prayed behind each other, and like that, the taabi’een and those who followed them in righteousness. And from Allaah is the Success, and may the Peace and Blessings of Allaah be upon His Messenger, his Family, and his Companions.’’

The Standing Committee for Islaamic Research and Verdicts:

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Qu’ood

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan

Vice President: ’Abdur-Razzaaq ’Afeefee

President: ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Baaz [4]

[Q.4]: ‘What is the ruling upon the one who blindly follows Maalik in his ijtihaad, and leaves the Qur‘aan and the Hadeeth.’

[A.4]: ‘‘All praise is for Allaah alone and may the Peace and Blesssings be upon His Messenger, and his Family, and his Companions. To proceed:

Maalik, May Allaah have mercy on him, is an imaam from the imaams of knowledge; he is a human, he is incorrect at times and is correct at times, and (some) is taken from his sayings and (some) is rejected. So what is in accordance with the truth from his sayings is accepted, and what is not in accordance with the truth is left. And a person, if he is able to take the rulings from the Qur‘aan and the Sunnah, then is not permissible for him to blindly follow any one, and if he is not able (to take the rulings from the Qur‘aan and Sunnah) and something is ambiguous from the matters of his Religion, then he is to ask the most trustworthy of the people of knowledge with him, and he is to act upon the answer, and Maalik and others are in that the same.’’

[Q.5]: ‘Why have the scholars of the (different) countries divided the Sharee’ah of the Prophet of Allaah, Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), into four: the schools of thoughts (madhaahib) of Maalik, ash-Shaafi’ee, Aboo Haneefah, and Ahmad, besides the fact that the Religion of the Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) is one and the Qur‘aan is one?’

[A.5]: ‘‘All praise is for Allaah alone and may the Peace and Blessings be upon His Messenger, and his Family, and his Companions. To proceed:

The basis for legislation (of the Religion) is the Qur‘aan, and the Sunnah is a clarification for the Qur‘aan, and the four imaams, every one from them, Allaah, the Exalted and Most High, granted them the guidance to understand the religion to the extent of what was made easy for them. And every one from them had students which related from them their fiqh and by this was the founding of the four madhhabs. And not all of what any one of them said the truth. But they are mujtahideen, and if it (the opinion) is correct, then for him is two rewards, a reward for his ijtihaad, and a reward for it (the opinion) being correct, and if he is incorrect, then for him is a reward for his ijtihaad, and the incorrectness is looked over. And from Allaah is tawfeeq, and may the Peace and Blessings of Allaah be upon His Messenger, his Family, and his Companions.’’

The Standing Committee for Islamic Research and Verdicts:

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Qu’ood

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan

Vice President: ’Abdur-Razzaaq ’Afeefee

President: ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Baaz [5]

[Q.6]: ‘What is the ruling for the blind following (taqleed) of the four schools of thought (madhaahib) and following their sayings in every situation and era?’

[A.6]: ‘‘All praise is for Allaah alone and may the Peace and Blessings be upon His Messenger, and his Family, and his Companions. To proceed:

First: The four schools of thought (madhaahib) are ascribed to the four imaams; Imaam Aboo Haneefah, Imaam Maalik, Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee, Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. So the Hanafee madhhab is ascribed to Aboo Haneefah, and so on for the rest of the madhaahib.

Second: These imaams took fiqh (jurisprudence) from the Book and the Sunnah and they were mujtahideen in that, and a mujtahid is either correct – then for him is two rewards, a reward for his ijtihaad, and a reward for it being correct, or (a mujtahid) is incorrect – then he is rewarded for his ijtihaad, and is excused for the incorrectness.

Third: The one who is able to derive from the Qur‘aan and the Sunnah takes from them (the Qur‘aan and Sunnah) like it was taken from them before, and it is not permitted for him to blindly follow other than what he believes to be true. But he should take what he believes to be true and it is permissible for him to do taqleed of in what he is incapable of and (what he) needs.

Fourth: Whosoever does not have the ability to derive (from the Qur‘aan and the Sunnah), it is permissible for him to blindly follow who he has confidence in doing taqleed to, and if there arises in himself a lack of confidence, he is to ask until it is obtained.

Fifth: It is clear from what has preceded that their (the imaam’s) sayings are not followed in every situation and era, because they may have erred. But the truth is followed from their sayings which are built upon evidences. And from Allaah is tawfeeq, and may the Peace and Blessings of Allaah be upon His Messenger, his Family, and his Companions.’’

The Standing Committee for Islaamic Research and Verdicts:

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Qu’ood

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan

Vice President: ’Abdur-Razzaaq ’Afeefee

President: ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Baaz [6]

[Q.7]: ‘I am a student in the Teacher’s Institute in Haa‘il, and the Professor of Religion explained that it is impossible to bring together the method of the four imaams in the religion of Islam, for example in the method of Prayer, ablution, fasting, etc., in all which is obligatory upon us. The professor says that it is not possible to bring together the method of the four imaams in Islamic legislation. I ask from your eminence that you mention to us whether the professor was correct or (whether he) erred, and I ask that you send if there is a book about this problem.’

[A.7]: ‘‘All praise is for Allaah alone and may the Peace and Blessings be upon His Messenger, and his Family, and his Companions. To proceed:

Indeed a Muslim is not asked to bring together the four madhhabs in his actions, but if he is able to derive the rulings (of Islaam) by himself from the evidences, it is obligatory upon him to take what his apparent to him, and if he is not able to derive the rulings, he is to follow an imaam from the imaams of the Muslims, emulating them, as Allaah, The Most High, says, ‘‘So have taqwaa (fear) of Allaah as much as you are able,’’ [Sooratut-Taghaabun 64:16]

and The Most High’s saying, ‘‘Then ask the people of the remembrance (scholars) if you do not know.’’ [Sooratun-Nahl 16:43]

And from Allaah is tawfeeq, and may the Peace and Blessings of Allaah be on His Messenger, his Family, and his Companions.’’

The Standing Committee for Islamic Research and Verdicts:

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Qu’ood

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan

Vice President: ’Abdur-Razzaaq ’Afeefee

President: ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Baaz [7]

[Q.8]: ‘Indeed some people believe that is obligatory upon a Muslim, in order to make correct their worship (’ibaadah) and dealings (mu’aamalah), that they follow one of the four known schools of thought (madhaahib), and that the madhhab of the Imaamate Shee’ah and the Zaydee Shee’ah are not from amongst them. So do you agree, your excellence, with this opinion without exception and forbid the taqleed of the madhhab of the 12th Shee’ah imaam (Ja’faree) for example?’

[Q.8]: ‘All praise is for Allaah alone and may the Peace and Blessings be upon His Messenger, and his Family, and his Companions. To proceed:

It is upon a Muslim to follow what came from Allaah and His Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) if he is able to take the rulings by himself, and if he is not able (to do) that, he is to ask the people of knowledge in what is difficult for him from the matters of his Religion, and ask the most knowledgeable who he can reach from the people of knowledge and ask them orally or by writing.

And it is not permissible for a Muslim to follow the madhhab of the Imaamate Shee’ah, the Zaydee Shee’ah, nor what resembles them from the people of innovation (Ahlul-Bid’ah) like the Khawaarij, the Mu’tazilah, the Jahmiyyah, or others. And about attributing themselves to some of the four known madhaahib, then there is no harm in that if he is not fanatic to the madhhab that he is attributing himself to and he does not go against the evidences for its sake. And from Allaah is tawfeeq, and may the Peace and Blessings of Allaah be upon His Messenger, his Family, and his Companions.’’

The Standing Committee for Islamic Research and Verdicts:

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Qu’ood

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan

Vice President: ’Abdur-Razzaaq ’Afeefee

President: ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Baaz [8]

[Q.9]: ‘Is it permissible to combine the four known madhaahib and to practice on it, instead of choosing the madhhab followed in a certain region?’

[A.1]: ‘‘All praise is for Allaah alone and may the Peace and Blessings be upon His Messenger, and his Family, and his Companions. To proceed:

The obligation on a Muslim is to follow the two revelations, the Book and the Sunnah, and what is inclusive from what is based on them, and that is if the person is from the people of knowledge. And if he is not, then he is to follow who is most trustworthy of those he knows from the people of knowledge. And from Allaah is tawfeeq, and may the Peace and Blessings of Allaah be on His messenger, his family, and his companions.

The Standing Committee for Islamic Research and Verdicts:

Member: ’Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan

President: ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Baaz [9]

Footnotes:

[1] Related by Muslim (6/29)

[2] Related by an-Nawawee in al-Majmoo’ (1/63), and ash-Sha’raanee (1/57), giving its sources as al-Haakim and al-Bayhaqee, and al-Fulaanee in ’Eeqaadhul-Hammaam (p. 107).

[3] Both of these answers were taken from Fataawal-Lajnatud-Daa‘imah lil-Buhoothil-’Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa (5/11296) compiled by Ahmad Ibn ’Abdur-Razzaaq ad-Duwaysh.

[4] Mujallatul-Buhoothil-Islaamiyyah (no. 51), corresponding to Fatwaa (no. 4272)

[5] Fataawal-Lajanatud-Daa‘imah (no. 4426)

[6] Fataawal-Lajnatud-Daa‘imah (no. 4172)

[7] Fataawal-Lajnatud-Daa‘imah (5/5560)

[8] Fataawal-Lajnatud-Daa‘imah (no. 2815)

[9] Fataawal-Lajnatud-Daa‘imah (no. 9873)

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