By Abu Rumaysah

Know that the Prophet (SAW) has been called by many names and titles in the Qur`aan and Sunnah, each one of them describing a special quality of this exalted personality. And in understanding them and reflecting upon them, we can, by the permission of Allaah, increase in our love and following of the Messenger of Allaah (SAW). This discussion is taken from ‘Zaad al-Ma`aad’ (1/88-97) of ibn al-Qayyim, rahimahullaah, summarised.

The names of the Prophet (SAW) are of two types:

Those names that are specific to him and none of the Messengers before him had these names, like Muhammad, Ahmad, al-Aaqib, al-Haashir, al-Muqaffee, Nabi al-Malhama.

Those names and qualities that are not specific to him, and were shared by the Messengers before him, but are found in him in the most complete and perfect forms. Like: Messenger of Allaah, His Prophet, His Servant, Prophet of Mercy etc.

What follows is an explanation of some of them.

Muhammad: is a passive participle, whosoever is praised, possessing many praiseworthy qualities then he is muhammad. And Muhammad (SAW) is praised more than any other person, and this is why – and Allaah knows best – he was called by this name in the Torah, due to the many praiseworthy qualities which he, his religion, and his nation possess such that even Moses wished that he would be from them.

Ahmad: Derived, as is Muhammad, from the noun hamd (praise). A group of scholars said that it is a passive participle, meaning: his praising of Allaah is more than any other person’s praise of him, and therefore he is the most deserving of being praised and the first. So in meaning Ahmad is similar to Muhammad except that the distinction is that he is Muhammad due to his possessing many praiseworthy qualities, and he is Ahmad due to his being praised in a more excellent way than the praise of any other. And this is the most complete meaning of this word, and the most extensive in commending him (SAW).

Also these two names stem from his character, and the praiseworthy qualities specific to him, and it is because of these that he is called Muhammad (SAW) and Ahmad. And he is the one who is praised by the People of the Heaven, the People of the earth, the People of the world and the People of the Hereafter.

Al-Mutawakkil: (The One who puts his trust in Allaah). In the Saheeh of Bukhaaree from the hadeeth of Abdullaah bin Umru who said, “I read the description of the Prophet (SAW) in the Torah: Muhammad is Messenger of Allaah, My servant and Messenger, I have called him al-Mutawakkil. He is neither rude nor harsh and he does not shout in the markets, and he does not return an evil for an evil, rather he overlooks and forgives. And I will not make him to die until I make firm the nation through him, causing them to say: there is none worthy of worship except Allaah.” {1}

He (SAW) is the most deserving of this name, because the trust he put in Allaah to establish the religion was a trust unequalled by any other.

Al-Maahee: (the destroyer/effacer). This has been explained in the hadeeth of Jubair bin Mut`am: “al-Maahee: the one through whom Allaah destroys and effaces unbelief.” {2}

Disbelief was not destroyed and removed by any single person as completely as was done by the Prophet (SAW). For indeed he was sent, and all of the inhabitants of the earth were in disbelief, except for some remnants of the People of the Book. Consisting of the worshippers of idols, the Jews who had the Anger of Allaah on them, the Christians who had been misguided, the atheist Saabi`een, the worshippers of the stars and the fire, and the philosophers who did not acknowledge the laws of the Prophets. And Allaah effaced them all through His Messenger until He established His religion and made it supreme over all others, and made it spread to the extent that the night and day spreads, and made his call as the rays of the sun in the various lands.

Al-Haashir: (the Gatherer). He is the one who gathered and united the people at his feet, and therefore it was as if he had been sent for this purpose.

Al-Aaqib: (The Last). He is the one who came at the end of the line of Prophets, and there is no prophet after him.

Al-Muqaffee: (). He is the one who was sent with the characteristics of the Messengers that had preceded him, and was their seal.

Nabi at-Tawba: (the Prophet of Repentance). It was by him that Allaah opened the door of repentance for the inhabitants of the earth [by them accepting his message], and Allaah forgave them with a forgiveness that was not given to the people before him. {3}

And the Prophet (SAW) was the one who sought forgiveness from Allaah the most, to the extent that he would say, “My Lord forgive me and turn toward me, You are The Oft-Forgiving, The Oft-Returning” {4}, 100 times in a single sitting. And he used to say, “O people repent to Allaah, your Lord, for indeed I repent to Allaah 100 times in a day”. {5}

And likewise the repentance of his (SAW) nation is more complete than the repentance of all the other nations, the most quickest in being answered, and the easiest to be obtained. For the repentance of the previous nations was of the most difficult matters, to the extent that the repentance for the worshippers of the cow amongst the People of Israa`eel was to kill those worshippers. {6} But as for this nation, then from the Kindness of Allaah to it is that he has made repentance dependant upon sorrow and abstaining (from the sin in question).

Nabi al-Malhama: (The Prophet of Slaughter). He was the one who was sent with Jihaad to the enemies of Allaah, and no prophet before him did Jihaad to the extent that the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) and his nation fought Jihaad. And the like of the large wars that took place between him and the disbelievers were not seen before him. For his nation fought the disbelievers in lands to the ends of the earth.

Nabi ar-Rahma: (The Prophet of Mercy). He was the one whom Allaah sent as a Mercy for the universe. And Allaah was Merciful to all the people of the earth through him, both the believers and the disbelievers.

Al-Faatih: (the opener/conqueror). It was through him that Allaah opened the door of guidance after it had been closed, and opened closed eyes and deaf ears and sealed hearts. And through him Allaah conquered the lands of the disbelievers, and opened the doors of Paradise, and opened through him the ways of acquiring beneficial knowledge and righteous actions. And He opened through him both the doors of this world and the hereafter.

Al-Ameen: (the Trustworthy). He is the most deserving out of all creation for this name. For he is the trustee of Allaah of His revelation and religion. And he is the trusted one in the Heaven and in the earth. And this is why he was called al-Ameen before his Prophethood.

Al-Basheer: (the Bearer of glad tidings). He is the bearer of glad tidings for the one who obeys him of reward, and he is the Warner (an-Nadheer) of the one who disobeys him of punishment.

And Allaah called him his servant (Abd) in many places in His Book for example, ‘Blessed be He who revealed the Furqaan to His servant’. {7}

It is established that he (SAW) said, “I am the Master (sayyid) of the children of Aadam [on the Day of Judgement] and I am not being arrogant.” {8}

And Allaah called him an Illuminating Lamp (Siraaj Muneer). And all praise is due to Allaah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.


  1. {1} Related by Bukhaaree in chapter dealing with the tafseer of Surah Fath.
  2. {2}The full hadeeth is, “I am Muhammad, and I am Ahmad, and I am al-Maahee through whom Allaah effaces disbelief, and I am al-Haashir through who the people are gathered at my feet, and al-Aaqib after whom there is no Prophet.” Related by Bukhaaree in the chapter dealing with the tafseer of Surah Saff
  3. {3} For example, a person who enters Islaam shall have all his sins forgiven provided he does not persist in them while he is a Muslim.
  4. {4} Related by at-Tirmidhee in the chapter of du`aa (no.3430) and it is saheeh.
  5. {5} Related by Muslim in the chapter of Dhikr and Du`aa.
  6. {6} See Qur`aan (2:54)
  7. {7} Qur`aan (25:1)
  8. {8} Related by at-Tirmidhee in the chapter ‘Excellence of the Prophet’ (no.3618) and it is saheeh.



Studies in History, Economics & Public Law Vol 68.2

New York 1924 Appendix V

(extracted from, Kitab Futah al Buldan)

Al Walid and Muhammad ibn Saad from al Wakidi from his teachers, who said: The first who wrote for the Apostle of Allah, having preceded him to al Madinah, was Ubaiy ibn Kab al Ansari. He was the first who wrote in the back of the book “Written by so and so”. When Ubaiy was not present, the Apostle would call Zaid ibn Thabit al Ansari, and he would write down the revelation in his presence, and his letters to whomever he wrote, and whatever notes he made, etc.

Al Wakidi says that the first of the Kuraish who wrote for Muhammad was Abdallah ibn Sad ibn abu Sarh. He afterwards left for al Madinah and returned to Makkah and said to the Kuraish, “I bring that which is just as good as what Muhammad bought”. Muhammed used to dictate to him “the unjust”, and he would write “the unbelievers”, and he dictated to him “the Listener, the Omniscient” and he would write “the Pardoner, the Merciful” and so forth. Then Allah revealed to the Prophet the following: “Who is more wicked than he who makes up lies about God, or who says ‘It was revealed to me’, when nothing has been revealed to him, and he who says, ‘I will cause to come down a revelation like what God has sent down'(6:93).

When the day of Makkah’s conquest came, the Apostle of Allah ordered Abdallah to be put to death; but Uthman ibn Affan spoke to Muhammad on behalf of him, saying: “He is my foster brother, and he has accepted Islam”. And so the Apostle of Allah ordered him to be set free. Uthman made him govenor of Egypt.

When Muawiyah accepted Islam in the year of the Conquest, he also acted as scribe for Muhammad. One day the latter summoned him while he was eating, and he delayed coming; and the Apostle said, “May his belly never be satisfied”. Muawiyah used to say, “The prayer of the Apostle of Allah has been fulfilled upon me”. For he used to eat daily seven meals more or less.

Al Wakidi and others say: – Hanthalah ibn ar Rabi ibn Rabah al Usaiyidi of the banu-Tamim wrote in the presence of the Apostle of Allah a single time, and as a result he was called Hanthalah al Katib (the Scribe).


Ishak ibn abi Israel from Abd ar Rahman ibn abu Zinad from his father from Kharijah ibn Zaid, who says that his father, Zaid ibn Thabit, said:’ “The Apostle of Allah ordered me to learn for him the Jewish method of writing, saying to me, ‘I do not trust a Jew at my writing’. And not half a month passed before I learned it. I used to write to the Jews for him, and when they wrote to hom, I would read their letters”.


Writing in Arabic was rare among the Aus and the Khazraj. Some of the Jews taught how to wqrite Arabic, and the young folks in al Madinah had learned it previous to Islam. Then Islam came; and among the Aus and the Khazraj a number could write (namely): Sad ibn Ubaidah ibn Dulaim, al Mundhir ibn Amr, Ubaiy ibn Kaab, Zaid ibn Thabit (he used to write Arabic and Hebrew), Rafi ibn Malik, Usaid ibn Hudair, Maan ibn Adi al Balawi (a client of the Ansar), Bashir ibn Saad, Saad ibn ar Rabi, Aus ibn Khawali and Abdallah ibn abu Munafik.

THE KAMILS: (A kamil is one who knows how to write, shoot [arrows] and swim)

Among the kamils were Rafi ibn Malik, Saad ibn Ubaidh, Usaid ibn Hudair, Abdallah ibn Ubaiy and Aus ibn Khawali. Suwaid ibn as Samit, and Hudair al Kataib, members of the people of Yathrib, posessed these three accomplishments in the days of ignorance (i.e. pre Islam)

Al Wakidi:- Jufainah al Ibadi, a Christian, of the people of al Hirah, was foster father to Saad ibn abu Waqqas. Ubaidallah ibn Umar charged him together with Mashayaah abu Luluah of complicity in the crime of killing his father (Umar ibn al Khattab), and killed him and his two sons.



Author Unknown

Allah says: Say (0 Muhammad to mankind): If you love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. Qur ‘an 3:31)

Those who disobey the prophet (pbuh) have refused Paradise. Abu Hurairah (r.a.) reported that the messenger of Allah said, “Everyone of my followers will enter Paradise except those who refused.” He was asked: And who has refused? He said, “Whoever obeys me will enter Paradise, and whoever disobeys me has refused.” (Bukhari)

Whoever disobeyed Muhammad has disobeyed Allah. Some angels came to the prophet (pbuh) and said: Whoever obeyed Muhammad has indeed obeyed Allah; and whoever disobeyed Muhammad (pbuh) has disobeyed Allah. And Muhammad is a distinguisher among men. (Bukhari)

The prophet’s companions did exactly as they saw Him doing. (may Allah be pleased with all of them) lbn Umar (r.a.) narrated: The prophet (pbuh) wore a gold ring and then the people followed him and wore gold rings too. Then the prophet (pbuh) said, “I had this golden ring made for myself.’9 He then threw it away and said, “I shall never put it on.” Thereupon the people also threw away their rings. (Bukhari)

The companions rushed to carry out the slightest hint from the prophet (saw). It is reported that the messenger of Allah said, “How good the man Khuraim Asadi would have been, but for his long hair and his long lower garment.” That reached Khuraim who took a knife and cut off his long tuff up to his ears, and raised his lower garment to half of his shin. (Abu Daud)

A sahabi dared not pick up a thing that the prophet (pbuh) disliked. Abdullah ibn Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah saw a ring of gold on the hand of a man. He snatched it and threw it away and said, “Someone of you was verging on the smoke of the Fire and put it on his hand.” When the Messenger of Allah departed, the man was told, “Take your ring and profit by it.” He said, “No! By Allah, I shall never take it again after the Messenger of Allah threw it away.” (Muslim)

Hadrat Umar (r.a.) wept at the thought of wearing what the prophet (pbuh) disliked. Jaber (r.a.) reported that one day, the Messenger of Allah put on a gown of embroidered silk that was presented to him. Then he took it off very soon, and sent it to Umar (r.a.). He was asked, “0 Messenger of Allah, why did you take it off so soon?” He said to me, “Jibreel forbade me that.” Umar came to him weeping and said, “0 Messenger of Allah, you disliked a thing and gave it to me. What then is the matter with me?” He said, “I did not give it to you to wear it. Surely I gave it to you to sell it.” So he sold it for two thousand dirhams. (Muslim)

Muhammad (pbuh) was sent to explain the revelation to us. Allah says: And we have revealed unto you the Remembrance (the Qur’an) so that you may explain to mankind that which has been revealed for them, and that perhaps they may reflect. (Qur’an 16:44)

A true believer will accept the prophet’s decisions whole-heartedly. Allah says: But no, by thy Lord, they can have no (real) faith until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction. (Qur’an 4:65)

Muhammad (pbuh) is the only example for true Muslims. Allah says: Verily in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example for him who looks unto Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much. (Quran 33:2])

Allah commands us to do as the prophet (pbuh) says. Allah says: And whatsoever the messenger gives you, take it.And whatsoever he forbids, abstain (from it). And keep your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is stern in reprisal. (Qur’an 59:7)

We must strive against those who act contrary to the Sunnah. Ibn Mas’ud reported that Allah’s messenger (pbuh) said: There was never a prophet whom Allah raised among his people before me but he had in his ummah his disciples and his companions who held fast to his Sunnah and followed his command. Then they were succeeded by people who professed what they did not act upon, and acted upon what they were not commanded to do. He who strove hard against them with his hand is a believer; and he who strove hard with his tongue is a believer; and he who strove hard with his heart is a believer; but beyond that there is not even a mustard seed of faith. (Muslim)

Whoever calls to the Sunnah is rewarded like those who follow it. Abu Hurairah (r.a.) reported that the messenger of Allah (pbuh) said: He who calls (people) to the right guidance has a reward like the rewards of those who follow him without their reward being lessened thereby in the least bit; and he who calls others to the path of error will be guilty of a sin equal to the sins of those who follow his direction without their sins being lightened in the least bit. (Muslim)



Extracted from Kitab Futuh al-Buldan, Appendix III


Affan ibn Muslim from Shubah from Katadah, who says that he heard Anas ibn Malik say:- When the Apostle of Allah was aboutto write to the king of the Greeks (ar Rum), someone said to him that they woul dnot read the letter unless it was sealed. So he had a silver ring made, – I can almost see its whiteness upon his hand – and he had engraved upon it, ‘Muhammad, the Apostle of Allah’.


Abu-r-Ruabi Sulaiman ibn Daud az Zuhrani from Hammad ibn Zaid from Ayyub from Nafi from Umar:- The Apostle of Allah had made for himself a ring of silver and put its seal in the inside of his hand.

Amr an-Nakid from Yazid ibn-Harun from Humaid from al-Hasan:- The ring of the Apostle of Allah was of silver and its seal was Abyssinian stone.

[Lisan al-arab, says ‘According to tradition, the seal ring of the Prophet had in it an Abyssinian stone’. Ibn-al-Athir says, ‘It is possible it was made of onyx (jiz) or carnelian (akik) because the source of these two is Yemen and Abyssinia, or of some other stone called Abyssinian’.]


Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Abd-ar-Ruzzak from Mamar from az-Zuhri and Katadah, who say:- The Apostle of Allah made a ring of silver and engraved upon it, ‘Muhammad, the Apostle of Allah’. Abu Bakr used to seal with it; then Umar; then Uthman. The last named had it on his hand (one day) and it fell from his hand into a well. The well was emptied but the ring could not be found. This was in the middle of his caliphate. He had another ring made and engraved upon it in three lines, ‘Muhammad, the Apostle of Allah’. [Katadah adda, ‘and a hole’]

THE SEAL COUNTERFEITED Hannad from al-Aswad ibn-Shaiban, who says:- Khalid ibn-Sumair told us:- A man called Maan ibn Zaidah counterfeited the seal of the caliphate and obtained money from the kharaj of al-Kufah in the time of Umar. This came to the knowledge of Umar, who wrote yo al-Mughirah ibn-Shubah, saying, ‘It has come to my knowledge that a man called Maan ibn-Zaidah has counterfeited the seal of the caliphate and thereby obtained money from the kharaj of al-Kifah. Whn this my letter reaches thee, do to him what I order, and obey my messenger’. When al-Mughirah finished the evening devotions, and the people had seated themselves, he went out, accompanied by Umar’s messenger. The people observed him closely until he put Maan under arrest. Then he said to the messenger, ‘The commander of the Believers bade me to obey the order that thou bringest. So order what thou wilt’. And the messenger said, ‘Get me a tie that I may put it on his neck’. A necktie was bought to him, and he put it on the prisoner;s neck and twisted it tightly. Then he said to al-Mughirah, ‘Put him in prison until the order of the Commander of the Believers concerning him comes to thee’. And so he did.

The prison at this time was of reeds, and Maan schemed to escape, sending the following message to his family, ‘Send me my camel and my servant and my cotton overcoat’. They did so, and he escaped at night and had his servant follow, travelling until he feared the dawn would disclose him. He made his camel kneel and tied her, and his himself until the search for him was given up. When night came, he put th blanket back over his camel and strapped it on, and had his servant follow (on foot). Then he travelled until he appeared before Umar while the latter, whip in hand, was arousing the worshippers for morning prayer. Leaving his camel and servant apart, Maan approached Umar and said, ‘Peace be upon thee, O Commander of the Believers, and the mercy of Allah and His Blessing’. Umar replied, ‘And upon thee. Who art thou?’. He said, ‘Maan ibn-Zaidah, I have come to thee as a penitent’. Umar said, ‘Woe to thee! Allah will shorten thy life’. And when he had completes the morning devotions, he said to the people, ‘Keep your places’. When the sun rose, he said, ‘This Maan ibn-Zaidah has counterfeited the seal of the Caliphate and thereby obtained money from the kharaf of al’Kufah. What say ye in regard of him?’. One said, ‘Cut off his hand’; another said, ‘Crucify him’. Ali was silent, and Umar said to him, ‘Abu-l-Hasan, what sayest thou?’. Ali replied, ‘O Commander of the Believers, a man who tells a lie is punished by flogging’. So Umar had him flogged and imprisoned.

He was in the prison for a long time. Then he appeared to a friend of his, one of the Kuraish (saying), ‘Speak a word to the Commander of the Believers in regard to setting me free’. The Kuraishi spoke to Umar saying, ‘O Commander of the Believers, Maan ibn-Zaidah has been punished by thee as he deserved. Dost thou not think thou should set him free?’. Umar replied, ‘Thou remindest me of a crime which I had forgotten. Bring Maan to me’. He had him flogged again; then he ordered him back to prison. And Maan sent (this message) to every one of his friends, ‘Do not mention me to the Commander of the Believers’.

He remained in prison a while longer; then Umar remembered him and said, ‘Bring Maan to me’. He was bought to him, and the Caliph gave him a present and set him free.



By khalid abdullah al-khlaywi

“Praise and Glory are due to Allah, Who took His servant for a journey by night from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al-Aqsa which We have blessed, to show him from Our Signs. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.” [17:1]

Thus says Allah in the Qur’an of the miracle of the Israa and Mi’raj, or ‘The Night Journey and the Ascension to Heaven’. It was the most magnificent and dangerous trip ever taken by the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam. At the same time, it was the most splendid trip, it was a journey from Earth to Heaven, from the Lower Assembly to the Exalted Assembly; rather, it was a journey from the created to the CREATOR.

I wonder how great was the happiness that filled the Prophet’s heart in the presence of Allah, subhanahu wa ta’ala, in a place never reached except by him, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam. O Allah! All thanks and praise is unto You for allowing us to be among the followers of this great Prophet, whom You have blessed with this so high a station.

With the Israa and Mi’raj, the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, became the first and only human to cross the barrier between the seen and the unseen. He then returned to tell us about what he saw, and what was made obligatory on us. He returned to confirm the truthfulness of Allah’s previous messages and to tell us of what is going to happen in the distant future, things that would occur on the Last Day and beyond.

And while this miracle represented the first serious trial for the companions’ faith in Allah, it has remained until today a test of all believers’ faith in Allah and in the unseen. Allah says, “And We made not what We showed you but a trial for mankind.” [17:60] A test that ascertains one’s faith. And for those who succeed in it, the Israa and Mi’raj presents an endless source of inspiration and motivation with regard to the deen, this life and the Hereafter.


Anas ibn Malik reported that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said, “I was brought the Buraq, a long white beast slightly bigger than a donkey but smaller than a mule which, when trotting, would place its next step as far as its eyesight can reach.” The Prophet said, “I mounted it till I reached al-Quds, Jerusalem. There, I tied it up to the same ring used by the prophets. Then I entered the masjid, offered two rak’at after which I went out where Jibreel, alayhes salam, came to me with a pot of wine and another of milk. I chose to drink the milk, and Jibreel said, ‘You chose fitrah.’ Then he took me to heaven. Jibreel then asked (for the gate of heaven) to be opened and he was asked who he was. He replied, Jibreel. He was again asked, ‘Who is with you?’ He said, ‘Muhammad.’ It was said, ‘Has he been sent for?’ Jibreel replied, ‘He has indeed been sent for.’ And (the door) was opened for us and then we saw Adam. He welcomed me and prayed for my well being. Then we ascended to the second heaven. Jibreel (alayes salam) asked (for the door of heaven to be opened), and he was asked who he was. He answered, Jibreel. He was again asked, ‘Who is with you?’ He replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been sent for?’ He replied, ‘He has indeed been sent for.’ Then the gate was opened. When I entered, Eesa ibn Maryam and Yahya ibn Zakariya, alayhemus salam, cousins from the maternal side, welcomed me and prayed for my well being. Then I was taken to the third heaven and I saw Yusuf, who had been given half of the (world’s) beauty. He welcomed me and prayed for my well being, and he ascended with us to the fourth heaven, and Idris was there. Allah, the Exalted, and Glorious says about him, “We elevated him (Idris) to the exalted position.” [19:57] Then he ascended with us to the fifth heaven, and then I was with Harun. He welcomed me and prayed for my well being. Then I was taken to the sixth heaven, and there I was with Musa. He welcomed me and prayed for my well being. Then I was taken up to the seventh heaven, and there I found Ibraheem reclining against al-Baitul Ma’mur (the much-frequented House), into which seventy thousand angels (who will never visit it again) enter every day. Then I was taken to Sidratul Muntaha, whose leaves were like elephant ears and its fruit like big earthenware vessels. And when it was covered by the Command of Allah, it underwent such a change that none amongst the creation has the power to praise its beauty. Then Allah revealed to me a revelation, and He made obligatory for me fifty salahs every day and night. Then I went down to Musa who asked, ‘What has your Lord enjoined upon your Ummah?’ I said, ‘Fifty salahs.’ He said, ‘Return to your Lord and beg for reduction (in the number of salah), for your community shall not be able to bear this burden. As I have been put to test by the children of Israel and tried them (and found them too weak to bear such a heavy burden).’ The Prophet said, ‘I went back to my Lord and said, My Lord, make things lighter for my Ummah.’ (The Lord) reduced the number by five salahs. I went down to Musa and said, ‘(The Lord) reduced it by five (salahs) for me,’ He said, ‘Verily your Ummah shall not be able to bear this burden; return to your Lord and ask Him to make things lighter.’ I then kept going back and forth between my Lord, Blessed and Exalted, and Musa, until He said, ‘There are five salahs every day and night O Muhammad, each being credited as ten, so that makes them fifty salahs. He who intends to do a good deed and does not do it will have a good deed recorded for him; and if he does it, it will be recorded for him as ten. Whereas he who intends to do an evil deed and doesn’t, it will not be recorded for him; and if he does it, only one evil deed will be recorded. I then came down and when I came to Musa and informed him, he said, ‘Go back to your Lord and ask Him to make things lighter.’ Upon this the Messenger of Allah remarked, ‘I returned to my Lord until I felt ashamed before Him.'”


israa (night journey): Means betaking the Prophet from Makkah to al-Quds during the night by al-Buraq and then returning him back in the same night. Ibnul Qayyim said, “Allah’s saying ‘took His Servant for a journey by night’ and not ‘sent His Servant’ implies that Allah accompanied the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam. For the letter ‘baa’ in the Arabic language means besides. And this is why the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, when setting out for a journey would say, “O Allah, You are the Companion during (my) travel.”

mi’raj (ascension): Refers to what happened to the Prophet when he ascended from al-Masjid al-Aqsa up to beyond the Seventh Heaven, where salah was prescribed, and then returning back in the same fashion in the same night.

In al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, Imam ibn Katheer said, “Ascension didn’t take place aboard al-Buraq as some people might think, for al-Buraq was tied to the door of Bayt-ul-Maqdis, so that he could ride it back to Makkah. The Prophet ascended from one heaven to another until he passed the Seventh Heaven.”


In the few years that preceded the incident of Israa and Mi’raj, the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, and the believers with him had gone through and suffered from many stressful and sad events.

He, first lost his most beloved wife, Khadijah, the first Muslim and his best friend, supporter and motivator, the woman who spent all of her wealth, used all of her family and tribal relationships to support him, the one who provided the best comfort and consultation he could possibly find. Then he lost protection against the hard aggression of the people of Makkah when his uncle, Abu Talib, died. As long as his uncle was alive, no one in Makkah was able to hurt him, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, and his followers, but after his death, they were forced to take exile in a valley close to Makkah, where there was no food or shelter.

Yet the biggest disappointment came when the Prophet went to Taif seeking their acceptance and help, but they refused him and did all they could to hurt him. Such was the situation. Many of his followers had emigrated to Ethiopia and those who stayed with him were defenseless and hungry. What was most stressful for the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, was the fact that people knew him a person who was truthful at all time but still did not believe in him.

In the midst of all these sorrows, Allah took His Prophet through the Israa and Mi’raj to provide him with inspiration and support by showing him what no other human has ever been blessed with. In the heavens, he witnessed the great Signs of Allah, and the indications of Divine Providence toward him and the dawah, such that he became certain of the success of the dawah and of his victory over his enemies. The miracle of the Israa and Mi’raj proved to the Prophet that if the earth would straiten to him at certain times, then heavens’ gates are open for him at all times, and if some terrestrials would harm him, then the people of heaven would support and stand with him.

NOT AN OUT-OF-BODY-EXPERIENCE Muslims believe that the Israa and Mi’raj was a real journey, not a dream or a vision. It was a physical journey by soul and body. Imam an-Nawawi wrote, in his Commentary on the Sahih of Muslim (2/209) that, “The truth cherished by the majority of people in general, and the Salaf in particular, the scholars of Fiqh and scholars of Hadeeth is that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, went in the journey of Israa physically, i.e., with his body.”

And in his commentary on the Sahih of Bukhari (1/460), Imam ibn Hajar wrote that no one should dispute the fact that the Israa happened to the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, while he was awake. This is what the Qur’an clearly said about it, and also because the people of Quraysh disbelieved he did it.

Had it been only a dream, they would not have found it necessary for them to reject and disbelieve what he said about it, for people can dream of whatever they want. But because he told them that he physically went to the heavens, they refused to believe him. In fact, even some of those who claimed to be Muslims reneged and announced their rejection of the story of the Israa and M’iraj.


Imam ath-Thahabi said that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, was taken for the Night Journey to al-Quds one year before Hijrah, the emigration to Madinah. Ibnul Qayyim said in his book, ‘Zad al-Ma’ad (3/42), “Ibn Abd al-Barr and others said that there was a period of fourteen months between the Israa and the Hijrah.” Also, Ibn Katheer quoted in al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah (3/108), a number of different scholarly views concerning defining an exact date of the Israa, and concluded that none had a solid evidence as to the exact date of the Israa. The majority of scholars are in agreement however, that the Israa happened nearly a year before the Hijrah; they not only disagreed about a particular day, but the month as well.


emaan is the criterion: Emaan is belief, and practicing what you believe. One of the distinguishing factors in rank between Muslims, in the Sight of Allah, is the extent to which they believe in, and practice the teachings of Islam. Allah says describing the believers, “And who believe in the revelation sent to you, and sent before your time, and (in their hearts) have assurance of the Hereafter. They are on (true guidance), from their Lord, and it is these who will prosper.” [2:4-5] How could they afford not to believe while knowing for certain that the informer is either Allah, subhanahu wa ta’ala, “And whose word can be truer than Allah’s.” [4:122], or His Messenger, “Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only a Revelation revealed.” [53:3-4] The incident of Israa and Mi’raj was a major test of the companions’ belief in Allah. When they succeeded in overcoming the doubts caused in their minds by the Satan and the pagan Makkans, they felt a strong surge of emaan they had not experienced yet. They now know that their Prophet is a true Messenger of Allah and that Allah will not abandon them to their enemies. They realized that acceptance of the ‘ghaib’ or unseen’ news their Prophet told them of, is the foundation to what belief is all about.

It was belief that distinguished Abu Bakr as-Siddiq and placed him in a rank never to be equaled or surpassed by any of the companions, or those who would come after them. Abu Bakr was known by the nickname ‘as-Siddiq (the believer)’ more than his real name. He gained that nickname because he immediately and unconditionally believed in what the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said about his journey to the heavens. Abu Bakr had based his emaan on his belief and practiced accordingly; Abu Bakr’s belief is that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, is the Informer. His practice of that was based upon the fact that Allah is the Legislator. Allah says, “The Messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. (They say,) “We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers” – and they say, “We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all).” [2-285] The lesson for us, the Muslims, is that if it is in the Qur’an or reported authentically as a Sunnah, then we should believe in it, and act upon it, nothing less, nothing more.

fitrah choosing the way: An-Nawawi said that the reply of Jibreel (to the Prophet), ‘You chose the fitrah’ meant that he, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, had chosen the religion of Islam. That is, “You have chosen the emblem of Islam and Istiqamah (being steadfast on the Straight Path). The milk was a sign, because it is easy to drink, good and tasty, while wine is ‘the mother of all evil’ and it is a cause for different acts of malice.”

Look at the world today and you will see the manifestation of this. People have turned to wine, excelled in manufacturing and serving it; the result is that it has served to corrupt their minds, hearts, and spirit. Despite all of the technological advancements, humanity still witnesses horrible consequences of their anti-fitrah practices; war, decease, depleted resources, wasted minds and efforts, greed, filth and, happy souls going into misery, to say the least. It all happened when the natural Fitrah was rejected, in search of a way of life other than the Way of Allah, the Creator of this life, and the next. Allah says, “But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e., neither believes in this Qur’an nor acts on its teachings) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind.” [20:124] “And whosoever is blind in this world (i.e., does not see Allah’s Signs and believes not in Him), will be blind in the Hereafter, and more astray from the Path.” [17:72]

Fitrah and acts of fitrah should, therefore, be the choice of the Muslim. In fact, fitrah is the state we are all created in but as mentioned in the authentic hadeeth, Satan and his followers work hard to take us away from it. It is very important that Muslims know the characteristics of the acts of fitrah so that they know how to choose. Life, after all and as shown by this incident, is about choice.


An-Nawawi said, “The Prophet’s saying, ‘I was then ascended till a point where I could hear the squeak of the pens.’ The word “squeak” here means the sound made by the pens as they write. Imam al-Khattabi said, ‘It is the sound of what the Angels write of Allah’s Ordinances and Revelations.'” Al-Qadhi Iyadh said, ‘The highness of the Prophet’s rank over that of all the prophets, and his reaching far into the Kingdom of Heaven is an evidence of his higher rank and reverence.”

The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, could not have achieved this high honor, except through the Mercy of Allah ta’ala, with which the Prophet attained the highest level of ‘Uboodyiah,’ worship and also the deepest level of sincerity that can reside inside the heart.

Degrees of worship are shared by lesser individuals, “A multitude of those (foremost) will be from the first generations, and a few of those (foremost) will be from the later generations,” [56:13-14] but the highest degree is only enjoyed by one person. This degree or, Darajah was explained by the Prophet’s saying, “Whenever you hear the muathinn (the caller to the salah), repeat after him, and send your salah and salam to me. Whoever sends salat and salaam to me, Allah will send him salah ten times. Then ask Allah to give me the Wasilah. The Wasilah is a station in Heaven that can only be for one person, and I hope that I am he. Whosoever would ask the Wasilah for me, would be granted shafa’ah, intercession.” (Muslim)


Ibn Hajar said in his commentary on Sahih of Bukhari (1/460), “The wisdom of prescribing the salah during the Mi’raj is that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, was hallowed internally and externally. He was washed with Zamzam water, and was showered with emaan and wisdom. Since salah is preceded by ablution, it was thus appropriate that salah was prescribed in that state, i.e., after the Prophet was purified. This honor was evident to the people of heaven, as he led prophets and angels in salah, and as he was apostrophizing his Lord; hence the person making the salah apostrophizes his Lord, Most High and Most Glorified.”

It is part of worship that we place matters in the position given to them by Allah, and to judge with the ‘Scale of Allah,’ and not with that of the people.

One who really contemplates about the mandating of salah on the very night of the Mi’raj, would come to understand that Allah has glorified the salah and has placed it in a very high position. Yet, many people are still unable to understand this high rank. What should we think of a prescribed worship that Allah had prescribed there above the Seventh Heavens, whereas the rest of our obligations were prescribed here on earth? How should we regard a prescribed worship that the Prophet had received directly from his Lord, without any intercessor, whereas the rest of our obligations were conveyed to the Prophet through a mediator (Jibreel)? There are numerous verses and ahadeeth that talk about the obligation of salah and keeping and watching for it. The bonds of brotherhood even terminate between non-praying brothers, for Allah says, “But if they repent, perform salah and give zakah, then they are your brethren in religion.” [9:11] And he whoever understands and contemplates the truth of the salah, would never hesitate to accept the fact that there is no share of Islam for whosoever has no share of salah. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, states this fact in his saying, “The covenant between us and them is salah; whosoever does not do it is considered a kafir.” (Tirmithi)

LESSENING THE NUMBERS Ibn Hibban said in his Sahih (1/133), “Then he (the Prophet) was obliged with fifty salahs; this order was a trial, one that Allah wanted to test His beloved, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, with. When He prescribed fifty prayers on him, because Allah previously knew that He would only prescribe five salahs for the Ummah of Prophet Muhammed, but the order to pray fifty prayers was a test. This is similar to our saying that Allah might order something while willing that the ordered individual obey His order and not necessarily carry out the order literally. An example of this was when Allah ordered His beloved Ibraheem to slay his own son. Allah’s Will behind this order was to have His Order obeyed and submitted to: when they had both submitted themselves (to the Will of Allah), and Ibraheem had laid his son prostrate on his forehead (for slaughtering), Allah ransomed him with a great sacrifice. Had Allah willed the literal fulfillment of His Order, he (Ibraheem) would have found his son really slaughtered. Similarly, prescribing fifty prayers was meant to have His Order obeyed and submitted to, without having it literally carried out.”

Allah rightly says, “And if you count the Blessings of Allah, never will you be able to count them.” [14:34] What is a greater blessing than having fifty salahs reduced to five, and having the same reward of having made all fifty?

All Praise is due to Allah Most High, Most Generous. Yet, many of the children of Adam, either reject the blessings of Allah, or are unaware of the value of these blessings, or are not thankful to Allah. Such people deserve the displeasure of Allah, and many are described in the following verses: “But few of My slaves are grateful” [34:13]; “Verily, man is ungrateful to his Lord” [100:6]; “Verily, man is indeed an extreme wrongdoer, a disbeliever (an extreme ingrate who denies Allah’s Blessings by disbelief).” [14:34]


In light of what some Muslims practice in the so called Night of Mi’raj there remains a question regarding whether Muslims are required to do a special worship in that night. Part of that question has been dealt with when we discussed the date on which Israa and Mi’raj took place. And the answer was that the exact date is not known. And a logical conclusion would be: if you do not know when it happened, you cannot celebrate on a certain night. But let us further examine the matter of specifying certain worships and associating them with certain times as a matter of religion. Let us discuss what it meant by Ibadah or worship in Islam.

Allah has decided the purpose of our creation, “And I (Allah) created not the jinn and the mankind except that they should worship Me (alone).” [51:56] Man would never attain this purpose unless he fulfills two requirements: First, he should find the right way to worship Allah, the way that Allah has promised its followers safety, success and happiness in this life and in the Hereafter; and promised its non-followers quite the opposite. Man would never find this Path among other deviating paths except through the Guidance of Allah. Second, following and holding to this Right Path in worshipping Allah is in want of Allah’s Support and Help to the worshipper. Allah has joined these two (requirements) in the greatest chapter of the Qur’an, “You (alone) we worship, and Your Help alone we seek.” [1:4]

Those who claim that Muslims should have a special celebration on the Night of M’iraj usually compare it to the Night of al-Qadr. They say that the Night of Israa is better than the Night of al-Qadr. Some say the opposite. If those who said the Night of Israa is better than the Night of al-Qadr, claim that the Night of M’iraj is better for the Muslims so that the spending of that night in salah and duaa would be better than doing the same during the Night of al-Qadr, then such saying is wrong, and such was never claimed by any of the scholars. Such a claim is wrong Islamically and logically for as mentioned earlier, it does not make sense to celebrate an occasion the date of which is not known. And as it is clearly known, this is not the case with the Night of al-Qadr, for it is reported in Bukhari and Muslim that, “Wait for (i.e., expect) the Night of al-Qadr during the last ten days of Ramadhan.” Also, Allah, ta’aala says in the Qur’an that it is better than one thousand nights, and that the Qur’an was revealed during it.

If on the other hand, those who have such a claim mean that the specific night on which the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, was taken for Israa, and during which the Prophet encountered what he had never experienced before or after, without specifying any night salah or worship for that night, then such a claim is correct. When Allah gives His Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, a blessed and an honored occasion, place or time, this does not make such an occasion, place or time better than all other occasions, places and times. Specifying and associating such an honor with certain occasions, places, or times require knowledge about the heart of these matters, and the value of blessings which can only be known through revelation ‘Wahy’. Thus, no such a claim should be accepted unless it had evidence from the Qur’an and the sunnah.

That is why we do not known of any evidence that the Night of Mi’raj was to be better than other nights, and particularly, the Night of al-Qadr. Neither the companions, nor their rightful successors “the Tab’een,” made a point of associating certain doings during that night. They have never told us of its exact date. Even if the Israa and M’iraj was the best blessing for the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, the fact remains that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, and his companions were reported to have not prescribed any particular form of worship for that night nor that place. Why should we? There are many blessed occasions, places, and times in Islam for which we have no prescribed worships associated with. The incident of Israa and Mi’raj is one of them and it should remain as such.

The incident of Israa and M’iraj represents a great occasion in the history of Islam. Its story and the circumstances that surrounded it at the time touches the heart and the mind of every Muslim willing to ponder and contemplate it. Muslims should celebrate it by studying it, learning from it and by exerting themselves to find inspiration and motivation in it so that they can keep steadfast on the way of Islam and struggle even harder in the Path of Allah.



Volume 4, number 747. Narrated Rabia bin Abi Abdur Rahman: I heard Anas bin Malik describing the Prophet(saw) saying, “He was of medium height amongst the people, neither tall nor short; he had a rosy color, neither absolutely white nor deep brown; his hair was neither completely curly nor quite lank. Divine Inspiration was revealed to him when he was forty years old. He stayed ten years in Mecca receiving the Divine Inspiration, and stayed in Medina for ten more years. When he expired, he had scarcely twenty white hairs in his head and beard.” Rabi’a said, “I saw some of his hairs and it was red. When I asked about that, I was told that it turned red because of scent.” (Bukhari)

Volume 4, number 748. Narrated Anas: Allah’s Apostle(saw) was neither very tall nor short, neither absolutely white nor deep brown. His hair was neither curly nor lank. Allah sent him (as an Apostle) when he was forty years old. Afterwards he resided in Mecca for ten years and in Medina for ten more years. When Allah took him unto Him, there was scarcely twenty white hairs in his head and beard. (Bukhari)

Volume 49, number 1. Yahya related to me from Malik that Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman heard Anas ibn Malik say, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was not excessively tall or short. He was not very pallid nor dark. He did not have curly hair or lank hair. Allah commissioned him at the age of forty. He stayed in Makka ten years and at Madina for ten years and Allah the Mighty, the Majestic made him die when he was sixty. There were not twenty white hairs in his hair or beard, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.”( al-Muwatta)

Number 1524. Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: When Ali described the Prophet (peace be upon him) he said: He was neither very tall nor excessively short, but was a man of medium size. He had neither very curly nor flowing hair but a mixture of both. He was not obese, he did not have a very round face, but it was so to some extent. He was reddish-white, he had wide black eyes and long eyelashes. He had protruding joints and shoulder-blades, he was not hairy but had some hair on his chest, and the palms of his hands and his feet were calloused. When he walked he raised his feet as though he were walking on a slope; when he turned round he turned completely. Between his shoulders was the seal of prophecy and he was the seal of the prophets. He had a finer chest than anyone else, was truer in utterance than anyone else, had the gentlest nature and the noblest tribe. Those who saw him suddenly stood in awe of him and those who shared his acquaintanceship loved him. Those who described him said they had never seen anyone like him before or since. ( Tirmidhi transmitted it.)



By Dr. Siddiqi

In the Qur’an Allah -subhanahu wa ta’ala- says, “To those who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no distinction between any of the Messengers, We shall soon give their due rewards… (al-Nisa’ 4:152). In the Sahih of al-Bukhari there is also a Hadith reported by Abu Hurrah -may Allah be pleased with him: Once while a Jew was selling something, he was offered a price that he was not pleased with, so he said, ‘No, by Him Who gave Moses superiority over all human beings!’ Hearing him, a man from Ansar got up and slapped him on his face and said, ‘You say, By Him Who gave Moses superiority over all human beings although the Prophet (Muhammad) is present among us!’ The Jew went to the Prophet and said, ‘O Abul Qasim, I am under the assurance and contract of security , so what right does so and so have to slap me?’ The Prophet asked the other, ‘Why did you slap him?’ He told him the whole story. The Prophet became angry so much so that the anger appeared on his face, and he said, ‘Do not give superiority to any amongst Allah’s prophets, for when the trumpet will be blown, every one on the earth and the heavens will become unconscious except those whom Allah will exempt. The trumpet will be blown second time and I will be the first to be resurrected to see Moses holding Allah’s Throne. I will not know whether the unconsciousness which Moses received on the Day of Tur has been sufficient for him, or has he got up before me. And I do not know that there is any body better than Yunus ibn Matta. (Al-Bukhari, vol. 4, Hadith 626) (Anonymous, Houston, Texas)

A 1. There is not doubt that Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him- is the best among all the creation of Allah. He has superiority over all human beings including all the Messengers and the Prophets of Allah. Allah himself says in the Qur’an, “Those Messengers, We gave superiority (faddalna) to some over the others…” (Al-Baqarah 2:253). Prophet Muhammad is also reported to have said in a number of authentic Ahadith, “Ana sayyid wuld Adam, wa la fakhr” meaning “I am the Leader of all the children of Adam, but I do not boast about it.” Allah gave Prophet Muhammad this honor. All prophets were sent to their own people for their own time (Ibrahim 14:4), but Prophet Muhammad was sent to all people for all time to come (Saba’ 34:28). Allah sent Prophet Muhammad as a mercy to all the worlds (al-Anbiya’ 21:107), no other Prophet or Messenger of Allah was given this honor. During the Isra’ and Mi’raj, Allah gave Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him- the honor to be the Imam of His Prophets and Messengers.

There is no contradiction between this and the Qur’anic verse that you have quoted. The verse 4:152 is not talking about the superiority (tafdil) among Allah’s prophets and messengers. It uses the word “yufarriq” which means making distinction or making discrimination, i.e. believing in some and not believing in others”. This is explained before in 4:150-151 where Allah says, “Those who deny Allah and His Messengers, and those who wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers and say ‘we believe in some but reject others’ and those who wish to take a way in between, they are in truth unbelievers and We have prepared for unbelievers a humiliating punishment.”

Islam teaches us that we must believe in all the Prophets and Messengers of Allah. We should not discriminate between them by accepting some and rejecting others, but this does not mean that all prophets were of the same status. To say this will be against the verse 2:253 in which Allah has mentioned that He Himself has given superiority to some Messengers over the others.

The Hadith that you have mentioned is very beautiful. It is not contradicting the Qur’an, but it is giving us another important lesson of mannerism (adab) that we Muslims must have when we speak about the Prophets and the Messengers of Allah. The Prophet -peace be upon him- taught us that we should not speak about him in such a manner that we show any disrespect to other Prophets and Messengers. He gave the example of Prophet Yunus (Jonah) -peace be upon him. His story is mentioned in the Qur’an and it is mentioned that he left his people and ran away from his duty. He was swallowed by a whale and lived in the whale’s belly for several days. Then he repented and Allah accepted his repentance. Even this Prophet should not be spoke in a derogatory manner. He also deserves our full respect and honor as a Prophet of Allah.

Especially in our inter-religious dialogue when we talk to the people of other faiths we should use our language very carefully. Imam Ibn Hajar has explained this Hadith very beautifully and said, “The Prophet -peace be upon him- forbade from talking about the superiority of one Prophet over another according to one’s personal opinion, but it must be based on a proof (dalil) and it should not be done to put down the other prophets or to create animosity, dissent and divisions.” (see Fath al-Bari, vol. 6, p. 446).



By Akhoukom Muslim haq

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. May Allah raise the rank of our master Muhammad and his Al and Companions and protect his nation from that which he fears for it. Thereafter:

Allah, the Exalted, put a blessing in the self, doings, sayings, and traces of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. The Companions, may Allah raise their ranks, used to seek blessings from the traces of the Prophet during his lifetime and after his death. Following their example, Muslims of today continue to do the same. There are several proofs that make us know that seeking benefit from the traces of the Prophet (tabarruk) is permissible.

Narrations from al-Bukhariyy and Muslim confirm that during the last Pilgrimage performed by the Prophet (Hijjat-ul- Wada^), the Prophet distributed his shorn hair. The Prophet threw the pebbles at Jamrat- ul-^Aqabah,slaughtered a sheep and distributed its meat among the poor, then shaved his head. He shaved the right side of his head and gave his hair to Abu Talhah al-Ansariyy; then he shaved the left side of his head, gave the hair to Abu Talhah,and told him to distribute it among the people. Some received one hair, others two, and so on.

The Prophet personally handed some of his hair to people near him, including Umm Sulaym (one of the female Companions) and Abu Talhah,for them to distribute among the people. In this way, the hair of the Prophet was spread in the Muslim countries. The Prophet distributed his hair among the people in order for them to seek blessings (barakah) from it. Likewise, the Prophet distributed his nail clippings among the people, as stated by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad. These actions clearly indicate the permissibility of seeking benefit from the traces of the Prophet.

The Companions sought blessings from other traces of the Prophet as well. Imam Muslim related in his Sahih that Asma’, the daughter of Abu Bakr, showed some people an article of clothing (jubbah) worn by the Prophet which had been at the house of her sister, ^A’ishah, the wife of the Prophet. When ^A’ishah died, Asma’ got the jubbah. The Companions sought the blessings from this jubbah of the Prophet by using the water in which it had been soaked to treat the sick and cure his illness.



By Imaam ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah

From the book Ar-Risaalat ut-Tabukiyyah

Translation & Comments by Muhammad al-Jibaali

Decisions of Allaah and His Messenger

Allah (T) said: “It is not befitting for a believing man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allaah and His Messenger, to have any option about their decision.” [al-Ahzaab 33:36]

This ayah indicates that when it is confirmed that Allah (T) or His Messenger (S) have made a decision or have informed about a particular matter, then no believer, male or female, may choose differently. Any opposing choice would contradict Iman.

Ash-Shafi’ee (r) reported a consensus among the scholars of the Sahaabah, the Tabi’een, and their followers, that: “If a sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (S) becomes manifest to a person, he does not have any choice but to follow it, regardless of what other people say.”

No Muslim scholar disputes or doubts the truth of this statement. The only evidence that people are required to follow [besides Allah’s Book] is the words of the Infallible (Muhammad (S)) “who does not say anything out of (his own) desire” [an-Najm 53:3)]

Other people’s talks could, at best, be acceptable to follow. But in no way may they oppose or outweigh the Texts (of the Quraan and Sunnah). We ask Allah (T) to protect us from the failure [incurred on those who do not abide by this].

The Guidance Is in Obeying the Messenger

Also, Allah (T) said: “Say: Obey Allah and obey the Messenger: but if you turn away then he (the Messenger) is only responsible for the duty placed on him, and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is only clear deliverance [of the Message]” [an-Nur 24:54]

Note that repeating the verb “obey” here has an important significance that will be discussed below.

Here Allah (T) makes obeying the Messenger (S) a condition for guidance; guidance cannot be acquired without this obedience. The duty of the Messenger (S) is to deliver the Message; and people’s duty is to follow, obey, and submit to him. Al-Bukhari (r) reported that Az-Zuhri1 said: “From Allah [comes] the knowledge; from the Messenger (S) [comes] the deliverance [of the knowledge]; and from us [comes] the submission [to the Message].”

Thus if people neglect their duty of belief and obedience, they would harm themselves not him; his responsibility is not to make them believe, but only to deliver the Message to them; it is not required from him that people be guided and successful.

Addressing the Believers

And Allah (T) said: “Believers! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you; if you differ in anything, refer it to Allaah and the Messenger (for judgment) if you (truly) believe in Allaah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination” [an-Nisa’ 4:59]

Allah (T) is requiring obedience to Him and to His Messenger (S). He starts the ayah with an address to the “believers”, hinting that what is required thereafter is a consequence of that name with which they are addressed. This is similar to saying, “You whom Allah has favoured and enriched with His bounties, be good to others as Allah has been good to you.” And like, “Learned man, teach people what would benefit them.” And, “Ruler, rule with justice.” And so on.

For this reason, legislative matters in the Qur’an are frequently addressed to the believers, starting the address with “Believers”. For example Allah says: “Believers, fasting is prescribed for you…” [al-Baqarah 2:183]

And He says: “Believer, when the call is proclaimed for prayer on Friday, hasten earnestly to the remembrance of Allaah…” [al-Jumu’ah 62:9]

And He says: “Believers, fulfill the contracts…” [al-Ma’idah 5:1]

Addressing the believers like this carries the implication that: “If you are true believers, you should perform the following action, because it is a requirement for the integrity and sincerity of Iman.”

To Obey the Messenger Is to Obey Allaah

In the above ayah (an-Nisaa’ 59), Allah demands obedience to Him, the Messenger, and those of authority. The verb “obey” is applied only once in regard to the Messenger and those of authority. One might expect the opposite – [that it would be applied only once in regard to both Allah and the Messenger] because: “He who obeys the Messenger obeys Allaah indeed” [an-Nisa’ 4:80]

However, this usage here has a subtle meaning. It implies that the Messenger must be obeyed in all that he commands, even if it were not something specifically required in Qur’an.

Let one then not imagine that the Messenger (S) should only be obeyed when his commands confirm the Qur’an, otherwise he need not be obeyed. [In refutation of such fallacy, al-Miqdam bin Ma’di Yakrib (R) narrated that] he (S) said : “There will be a man with full stomach, reclining on his pillow, who will hear a command from me and say, “Let the judge between us (in this matter) be Allah’s Book: we obey whatever we find in it.” [Know that] indeed, I have been given the Book and, with it, that which is similar to it (the Sunnah).” 2

However, obeying the people of authority is not required independently, but as part of obeying the Messenger (S). This fact is confirmed by the hadith (narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (R)): “One should listen and obey (those charged with authority) whether it were something he liked or hated, as long as he is not commanded to disobey Allaah (T). If he is commanded to disobey Allaah, he should neither listen nor obey.”3

Toward the end of this ayah (an-Nisa’ 59), Allah emphasizes obeying the Messenger (S) by saying (what means), “… refer it to Allaah and the Messenger ….” rather than saying, “… and to the Messenger …”. Referring matters to the Qur’an is equivalent to referring them to Allah and the Messenger. Also, Allah’s judgement is the same as His Messenger’s; and the Messenger’s judgment is the same as Allah’s.

Thus if you refer your disputes to Allah, i.e. to His Book, then you refer to His Messenger (S) as well. And if you refer to His Messenger (S), then you refer to Allah as well. This is one of the subtleties of the Qur’an.

The People of Authority

Two views have been expressed by the Sahaabah and the ‘ulama (scholars) as to who are the ones “charged with authority”. The first is that they are the ‘ulama and the other is that they are the rulers. In reality, it applies to both groups, because both the ‘ulama and the rulers are in charge of the affairs concerning which Allah has sent His Messenger. As for the ‘ulama, they are charged with protecting the Deen, explaining it, teaching it, and refuting those who deviate from it or try to alter it. Allah (T) gave them this charge, as He said: “These [prophets] were the men to whom We granted the Book and Judgement and Prophethood; if these people [of the Scripture] reject them, behold! We shall entrust their charge to a new people who do not reject them…” [al-An’aam 6:89]

This is indeed a great assignment to the ‘ulama that requires from people to obey and follow them. And as for the rulers, they are charged with establishing the Deen, safeguarding it, compelling people to adhere to it, and punishing those who deviate from it. Thus these two groups are in charge of the affairs of people, and other people are their followers and subjects.

Matters of Dispute

Furthermore, there is in the above ayah (an-Nisa’ 59) a clear evidence that all matters of disagreement, in all aspects of the Deen, should be referred to Allah and His Messenger (S) – and to no one else.

Anyone referring disputes to other than Allah and His Messenger opposes this command by Allah. And anyone who calls to other than Allah’s and His Messenger’s judgment to resolve disagreements, calls indeed with the call of Jahiliyyah4 .

One does not truly enter the realm of Iman until he refers all differences arising among people to Allah and His Messenger. For this reason, this ayah continues as, “… if you believe in Allah and the Last Day…”

Thus if this condition (of referring disputes to Allah and His Messenger) is not satisfied by a person, this implies the absence of Iman in him.

This ayah should be a sufficient clarification and guidance in this matter (of obeying the Messenger). It constitutes a protection and a support for those who abide by it; and it is a powerful refutation and attack against those who deny it, as Allah (T) said: “… That he who would perish might perish in clear evidence [of the truth], and that he who would remain alive might live in clear evidence [of the truth]. And verily Allaah is All-Hearing, All Knowing…” [al-Anfaal 8:42]

The earlier and later Muslims agreed that referring matters to Allah means referring them to His Book, and referring matters to the Messenger(S) means referring them to him personally during his life, and to his Sunnah after his death.

The Excellence of Obeying the Messenger

The above ayah (an-Nisa’ 59) ends with, “… that is best, and most suitable for final determination…” This means, “That with which I commanded you (to obey Me and obey My Messenger and the people of authority, and to refer disputes to Me and My Messenger) is better for you in this life and in the Hereafter; it leads to your happiness in both lives. Therefore, it is best and most rewarding for you.”

This indicates that obeying Allah (T) and His Messenger (S), and taking them as the referees, is the means to immediate and continued happiness. Anyone who examines closely the evils of the world will find that each of them is caused by disobeying the Messenger (S). Similarly, every good in the world results from obeying him. Furthermore, all the evils and pains in the Hereafter result from disobeying him (S).

Thus, all the evils in both lives are caused by disobeying the Messenger (S) and by its consequences. If people obeyed him (S) properly, there would be no evil on earth. This applies equally to the general natural catastrophes and calamities, and to the personal evils, pains, and sorrow that occur to people.

In obeying him (S) is a refuge and a protection for those who want to prosper and be happy. And this prosperity and happiness cannot be achieved until one strives first to learn what the Messenger (S) taught, and then confirm it with true actions.

The Human Excellence

There are two additional actions which complete the happiness arising from truly obeying the Messenger (S). The first is to invite people to obey him (S), and the second is to have patience and perseverance in fulfilling this mission.

Thus the human excellence is confined to four matters:

First, knowing the Message of Messenger (S).

Second, acting in accordance with this knowledge.

Third, spreading this knowledge among people and inviting them to it.

Fourth, persevering and striving in accomplishing all this.

One who seeks to learn how the Sahaabah (R) lived and who want to follow them should know that this was indeed their way [so let him follow it). A poet once said: “If you want to reach those folk, follow their way: It is quite manifest for those who aspire to it.”


  1. 1. One of the Tabi’een. He is a famous scholar of Hadith and one of the important teachers of al-Bukhari.
  2. 2. Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and others; judged authentic by al-Albani (Sahih ul-Jaami no. 2640).
  3. 3. Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
  4. 4. Jaahiliyyah: The state of ignorance and disbelief which prevailed in the Arab Peninsula before Islam.



Author Unknown

According to the Bible, God said to Moses, on whom be peace: “I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers ; I will put my words in his mouth and he will tell them everything I command him.” (The Holy Bible, New International Version, Deuteronomy chapter 18, verse 18).

The prophet described in the above verse must have the following three characteristics: 1.. He will be like Moses 2.. He will come from among the brotherrs of the Israelities, i.e. the Ishmaelities 3.. God will put His words in the mouth of that prophet and he will declare what God commanded him.

Let us see which prophet God was speaking of.

1. The prophet like Moses (pbuh). Some people feel that this prophecy refers to the prophet Jesus, on whom be peace. But, although Jesus (pbuh) was truly a prophet of God, he is not the prophet spoken of here. He was born miraculously, and finally, God raised him up miraculously. On the other hand, Muhammad is more like Moses; both were born in a natural way and died natural deaths.

2. From among the Ishmaelities. Abraham (pbuh) had two sons, Ishmael (pbuh) and Isaac (pbuh) as revealed in Genesis, chapter 21. Ishmael became the grandfather of the Arab nation, and Isaac became the granfather of the Jewish nation. The prophet spoken of was to come not from among the Jews themselves, but from among their brothers, the Ishmaelities. Muhammad (pbuh), a descendant of Ishmael, is indeed that prophet.

3. God will put His words in his mouth. ” Neither the content of the revelation, nor its form, were of Mohammed’s devising. Both were given by the angel, and Mohammed’s task was only to repeat what he heard. “(World Religions from Ancient History to the Present, by Geoffrey parrinder, p.472)

God sent the angel Gabriel (pbuh) to teach Muhammad the exact words that he should repeat to the people. The words are therefore not his own; they did not come from his own thoughts, but were put into his mouth by the angel. These are written down in the Qur’an word for word exactly as they came from God.

Now that we know that prophet we must listen to him, for, according to the Bible, God says : “I will punish anyone who refuses to obey him” (Good News Bible, Deut. 18:19).




‘Allah created mankind and chose me the best there of. He chose the tribes and selected me from the best there of. And he chose families and selected me from the best thereof. I am the very best person and family’. [Tirmidhi]

Doubtlessly we look to the Imam of the all the Nabi’s (as) as the best of examples (Uswatun Hasanah). He is the one we turn to when we have personal problems, difficulties with our friends and family or dilemmas in society. He was the great man who was for his Ummah the best husband with his wives, the best father with his children, the best leader for his companions and the best ruler for the Muslims and non-Muslims alike in the Islamic State.

It is mentioned in the Qur’an with crystal clarity, ‘Whatever the Messenger (Muhammad (saw) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain from it.’ [TMQ Hashr: 57]

When the Muslim looks to this ayah, his heart opens to the words of the revelation. He realises that all his wants and desires should be according to the revelations from Allah (swt). This ayah of the Qur’an is general, which means that when Allah (swt) says ‘whatever’ it means that whatever is given to us by Islam we will rush to accept it and ‘whatever’ Allah (swt) tells us to abstain from, we abstain from it and more so we are happy with the fact that we abstained from it. So it is clear that this ayah encompasses everything which has legislative standing in the Shariah. Therefore we must view the whole of our Nabi’s (saws) life holistically. From this we will discover those issues we will accept and those issues which we will reject, never looking to anything else.

Who can ignore the heart rendering day when the Prophet (saws) heard that his beloved Ibrahim, the son he was given through his wife Mariyah Qibtia, had died. Those tears shed when he said, ‘it is my humanness’. It shakes the strongest of men to recount the scene of the Prophet (saw) burying his child, but then at that moment there was a lunar eclipse. We hear that some people considered it was caused by the death of the Prophet’s (saws) child’s death, but we see how he turned to society to make sure they did not remain ignorant. ‘The sun and the moon are two of Allah’s signs, they are not eclipsed because of anyone’s birth or death. When you see these signs, make haste to remember Allah in prayer.’

We take from the Messenger (saws) his physical leadership in the battles of Badr and Uhud, battles he fought against the rule of kufr. We take from the Messenger (saws) this example in the same manner we take his example as a father or husband. This is because Allah (saw) is one, the Qur’an is one and the example of our Messenger is also one.

‘Those who believe say, “why is a surah not sent down (for us)?” But when a decisive surah (explaining and ordering things) is sent down, and fighting (Qitaal) is mentioned (ordained) therein, you will see those in whose hearts is a disease (of hypocrisy) looking at you with a look of one fainting death’. [Muhammad: 20]

And so we take from the Messenger fighting. Just like he fought in the battle of Uhud – so Salahudeen fought for Palestine, and so will we fight for Al-Quds.

Was it not the husband of Ayesha (ra), who made Amr bin Al-A’ass the Wali over Oman and Mu’adh ibn Jabal Khazrage the Wali over Yemen? When Muhammad (saws) the father of Ibrahim asked Muadh, ‘by what will you judge?’ he said, ‘by the book of Allah’. The father of Fatima (ra), said ‘What if you do not find it (the hukm)?’ he said, ‘by the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (saw).’ He, the father of Ruqaiya (r) asked, ‘what if you do not find it?’ he said, ‘I will exercise my own ijtihad’. Muhammad, the father of Zaynab (ra) said, ‘Praise be to Allah’.

Or was it not the son-in-law of Abu-Bakr (ra) and the son-in-law of Umar (r), who would rule over the Muslims and non-Muslims? He (saw) said, ‘My two ministers among the people of the earth are Abu-Bakr and Umar’. So his (saws) father-in-laws were also the two men whom would assist him to run the Khilafah State.

And lest we forget, it was the cousin of Ali (ra), Muhammad (saws), who appointed his cousin as the secretary of agreements and peace treaties when they were made.

It was the husband of Umm Habiba (ra), who was the Amir of Jihad. So it he (saws) who lead the Sahaba in the battle of Ahzab. It is narrated by Ibn Hisham, that when the Muslims were unable to move a stone out of the ditch being dug for this battle, he (saws) took the spade and struck the rock saying, ‘in the name of Allah, Allah is great, the keys of Syria are mine, I swear by Allah, I can see its palaces at the moment.’ On the second strike he said, ‘Allah is Great, Persia is mine, I swear by Allah, I can now see the white palaces of Madain.’ And for the third time he struck the rock, which turned into very small pieces, he said, ‘Allah is Great, I have been given the keys of Yemen, I swear by Allah, I can see the gates of San’a while I am in my place.’ This was the political leader and military commander, who saw the world bowing into submission to Islam.

He (saws) was the leader of the Islamic State who sent the letter to the Ruler of Egypt and Alexandria saying, ‘In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. From Muhammad slave of Allah and His Messenger to Maqawqas, vicegerent of Egypt. Peace be upon him who follows true guidance. Thereafter I invite you to accept Islam. Therefore if you want security, accept Islam. If you accept Islam, Allah, the Sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to so, you will bear the burden of the transgression of all the Copts. “Say [Oh Muhammad (saws)]: Oh people of the Scriptures [Jews and Christians], come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah. Then if they turn away, say: bear witness that we are Muslim.’ [Al-Imran: 64]

How powerful a letter. When Maqawqas read this letter, he sent the Prophet (saws) a lady of noble descent called Mariyah, this is the same Mariyah Qibtia from whom was born Ibrahim the son of Muhammad (saws), for whom he would shed tears at the time of his death; father, husband and political leader in one.

Indeed Muhammad was the best of creation. An example that has been distorted so that we only look to him when we have problems as parents or individuals. But without doubt the role of father, husband and leader in the political affairs of the Muslims are all embedded in the Seerah of Muhammad. To split the Prophet (saw) is a horrifying trap to fall into, to look upon the Prophet (saw) as the example only in his role as husband or father is to reject the ayaat of Allah, ‘whatever the Messenger (Muhammad (saws) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain from it.’ [TMQ Hashr: 57]

Indeed we are not of those who reject verses of Allah (swt).

All Praise is to Allah (swt), and Salaam to the father, the husband, the Amir of Jihad, the Judge and the Ruler – our Nabi Kareem, Muhammad (saws).



Author Unknown

To proceed: Allah has commanded in the Qur’an (what means): “O you who believe! Have Taqwah (true fear of Allah) according to His right and die not except that you are a Muslim. O Mankind! Have Taqwah of your Lord. The One Who created you from a single soul and from him He created his mate and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual rights and do not cut off the ties of kinship; surely Allah is ever a Raqeeb (All-Watcher) over you. O you who believe! Have Taqwah of Allah and always speak the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (SAAW) he has indeed achieved a great achievement.”

Verily, the best speech is the Book of Allah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad ibnu ‘Abd Allah (SAAW). The worst of all affairs in this Diyn are innovations. Every innovation is a Bid’ah and every Bid’ah is a going astray and every going astray is in the Hell Fire.


Having the proper love for Allah’s Messenger (SAAW) is a must for any Muslim who is striving to please his/her Lord and who seeks his/her Lord’s Forgiveness. Learning how to properly apply this love for the last Nabee (SAAW) is to properly implement the testimony: wa ash hadu ana Muhammadan rusulu Allah (SAAW). Indeed, one cannot just say he/she loves the Prophet (SAAW) while his/her actions and ‘Aqeedah are fundamentaly against what the Prophet (SAAW) brought (i.e. the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah). Hence, the first step in the process of developing this love is to acknowledge that the Prophet (SAAW) has a claim over the believers.

Allah has said in the Qur’an (what means): “The Prophet (SAAW) is closer to the believers than their ownselves…” [Al-Ahzab: 6].

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah (Rahimullah), one of the great scholars of this Ummah, relates that this Ayah means the Prophet (SAAW) has a “higher claim” on the believers than they have on themselves. This claim involves two important matters:


This is so because this claim is based on love. One has the most claim to oneself for one loves oneself more than anything. Thus, a person knows what types of foods, clothing, etc. he/she likes to eat, drink, etc. more than all others. However, when it comes to Islam, we know that Allah knows us better than we know ourselves; thus, we submit to Him and His Orders. We it comes to the Prophet (SAAW), we are to love him more than our own selves; thus, we too put his commandments above our own opinions, logic, etc.

Once this true love is established, compliance, obedience, satisfication with his (SAAW) jugdements, and other matters related to true love will follow. This is confirmed in the following authentic Haadith found in Sahih Al-Bukhari: Narrated ‘Abd Allah bin Hisham: ‘We were with the Prophet (SAAW) and he was holding the hand of ‘Umar ibnu Al-Khattab (RAA). ‘Umar said to him, “O Allah’s Messenger (SAAW)! You are dearer to me than everything except my ownself.” Allah’s Messenger (SAAW) said: “No, by Him in Whose Hand my soul is, (you will not have complete Faith) untill I am dearer to you than your ownself.” Then ‘Umar (RAA) said: “However, now, by Allah, you are dearer to me than my ownself.” He (SAAW) then said: “Now, O ‘Umar, (now you are a believer).”


A. The Negation and Affirmation: The Prophet (SAAW) negates (i.e. rejects, denies) that a person can have complete Imaan with his statement, “No, by Him in Whose Hand my soul is…”. Thus, the affirmation, or condition of having complete Imaan, follows: “…until I am dearer to you than your ownself…”. Therefore, the Muslim will never attain true Imaan unless he/she considers the Prophet (SAAW) to be dearer to him/her than everything including one’s ownself.

B. Character of the Sahabah: Upon hearing that true Imaan can only be achieved through loving the Messenger (SAAW) more than everything, including one’s self, ‘Umar (RAA) quickly complied with the commandment of the Prophet (SAAW). The Sahabah wasted no time in doing those acts which were pleasing to Allah and His Messeger (SAAW).


The Messenger (SAAW) has more rule over an individual than that individual has over his/herself. This means that a person only does those actions which are in accordance with the Book of Allah and the authentic Sunnah of His Messenger (SAAW).

Therefore, three critical conditions must be fulfilled in order for a deed to be accepted:

a. One must confess his/her belief in Islam (i.e. one must be a Muslim). b. One must have Ikhlaas of the Niyah (i.e. purity of the intention). c. One must do that deed in accordance with the Book of Allah and the authentic Sunnah of His Messenger (SAAW).

If one of these conditions are not meet, that person’s deed will not benefit him/her in the least. Of course, absence of knowledge is always an exception (eg. a person may make Wudhu but does not know the specific parts of the body that are to be washed; thus, he/she washes those parts which he/she thinks to be significant. His/her Wudhu was not done in accordance with the Book and the Sunnah; however, he/she did not know the way to make Wudhu according to the Book and the Sunnah; hence, their Wudhu would be accepted for a and b were fulfilled, wa Allahu ‘alam). These are the conditions which the Salaaf As-Salih (Pious Predecessors) understood with regards to the acceptance and rejection of a deed.

Another implications of the testimony: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (SAAW).


Verily, Allah, azza wa jall, has said in the Qur’an (what means): “Say (O Muhammad SAAW): O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah – to Whom belongs the dominion of the Heavens and the Earth. La illaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). It is He Who gives life and causes death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger (SAAW), the Prophet who can neither read nor write, who believes in Allah and His Words, and follow him so that you may be guided.” [Al-A’raf: 158].

The prophet (SAAW) said (what means): “And the Prophets were formerly sent to their people only, whereas I have been sent to all mankind.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Therefore, recognizing that he (SAAW) was sent as a mercy to all of mankind will, Inshallah, help kindle the proper love for him which will be manifested through obedience to his rulings.


Indeed, there is no Messenger/Prophet after Muhammd ibnu ‘Abd Allah (SAAW) as Allah, Ta ‘Ala, says in His Book (what means): “Muhammad (SAAW) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah, and the last (end) of the Prophets. Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.” [Al-Ahzab: 40].

The Prophet (SAAW) has said (what means): “And the line of the Prophets is closed with me.” [Muslim].

Believing that Muhammad (SAAW) is the final Messenger of Allah confirms Allah’s statement (what means): “…This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed my Favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…” [Al-Ma’idah:3 (in part)]. Thus, if Islam were not a complete way of life, then this religion would need to be constantly updated. In order to update this religion, there would have to be another Prophet after Muhammad (SAAW). However, this is not so as Allah completed this Diyn and it can never be changed from its true form.


Al-Hamdulilah, Allah, azza wa jall, has give the Prophet (SAAW) two revelations as understood by the Minhaj of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Juma’ah. These are, of course, the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah. Allah confirms this with His saying (what means): “Nor does he (Muhammad SAAW) speak of his own desire. It is only an Inspiration that is inspired.” [An-Najm: 3-4].

“Indeed, Allah conferred a great favour on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (Muhammad SAAW) from among themselves, reciting unto them His Verses (the Qur’an), and purifying them (from sins by their following him), and instructing them (in) the Book (the Qur’an) and Al-Hikmah (the wisdom and the Sunnah of the Prophet SAAW -i.e. his legal ways, statements, actions, etc.), while before that they had been in manifest error.” [Al-‘Imran: 164].

The Prophet (SAAW) has also said (what means): “I have, indeed, been given the Qur’an and something like it along with it (i.e. his Sunnah).” [Abu Dawud].

Thus, there is no mere choice between following the Sunnah and not following it. It has been sent down as part of revelation; thus, it must be adhered to in full. It is adhered to the way the Prophet (SAAW) explained it and the way the Sahabah understood it. Allah confirms this with His saying (what means): “We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by the permission of Allah.”

“Obey Allah, and the Messenger (SAAW). But if they turn away (then know), that Allah loves not the infidels.” [Al-‘Imran: 31-32].


These rights are:

1. We believe in what the Prophet Muhammad (SAAW) has said.

2. We obey him in what has been commanded and forsake what he has forbidden or discouraged.

3. We worship Allah according to the Shar’iah of His Messenger (SAAW), not by whims and Bid’ah (innovations).

4. We judge ourselves by the Shar’iah of Prophet Muhammad (SAAW), and not by any other law.

5. We love Allah’s Messenger (SAAW) more than our parents, children, all of mankind, indeed our very selves.

Allah has confirmed the above with His statement (what means): “Say (to them O Muhammad SAAW): If you love Allah, follow me, and Allah will love you, and forgive you your sins; Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful. Say: Obey Allah, and the Messenger (SAAW), but if they turn away (then know), that Allah loves not the infidels.” [Al-‘Imran: 31-32].

“And let those who oppose his (Muhammad’s SAAW) command beware, lest a trail befall them (that will lead them to Kuffur) or a painful punishment be inflicted on them.” [An-Nur: 63].

“You have indeed a good example in the Messenger of Allah (SAAW) for whosoever hopes for Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.” [Al-Ahzab: 21].

“It is not for any believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger (SAAW) have decreed a matter, to have the choice in their affair. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (SAAW) he has gone astray into manifest error.” [Al-Ahzab: 36].

“But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad SAAW) judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions, but accept (them) fully with submission.” [An-Nisa: 65].

Thus, we see in this last Ayah that Allah negates that a person can have Imaan unless that person makes the Prophet (SAAW) judge in *all* affairs and that we accept his (SAAW) decisions with submission. This Ayah is indeed serious as Allah swears to this negation with His saying (what means), “But no, by your Lord…”.

The Prophet (SAAW) stressed the importance of obeying and following his Sunnah with his saying (what means): “All of my people will enter Jennah except those who refuse.” When asked about those who refuse, he said: “He who obeys me will enter Jennah, while he who disobeys me has refused.” [Al-Bukhari].

He (SAAW) also said (what means): “If anyone introduces into this affair of ours anything which does not belong to it, it is rejected.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

And: “None of you believes untill I am dearer to him than his father, his child, and all of mankind.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

And: “There are qualities for which anyone who is characterized by them will experiece the sweetness of Imaan: he to whom Allah and His Messenger (SAAW) are dearer than all else; he who loves a human being for Allah’s Sake alone; and who has as great an abhorrence of returning to Kuffur (disbelief) after Allah has rescued him from it as he has being cast into the Hell Fire.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Although the Prophet (SAAW) is the best of examples and following his Sunnah is obligatory, we must remember that it is not right to overpraise him (SAAW) as he was not divine, but a man. Some deviant sects of Islam direct their ‘Ibaadah to the Prophet (SAAW); however, this is Shirk Al-Akbar (association in the highest degree) which will not be forgiven unless that person makes sincere Tawbah before his/her death.


Allah says (what means): “Say (O Muhammad SAAW): I am only a man like you: it is revealed to me that your God is One God: So, let him who hopes for the meeting with his Lord, do righteousness, and not associate anything in the worship of hsi Lord.” [Al-Kahf: 111].

The Prophet (SAAW) said (what means): “Do not overpraise me as the Christians overpraised the son of Mary (i.e. ‘Isa AS). I am His slave, so say: Allah’s slave and Messenger.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].


This is an action which the believer are commanded to do as Allah says in the Qur’an (what means): “Indeed, Allah and His angels send Salaat (i.e. Allah mentions the Prophet’s SAAW name in the presence of the angels) upon the Prophet (SAAW). O you who believe! Send your Salaat and your Salaam upon him (ie. by saying Salla Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, etc.).” [Al-Ahzab: 56].



Biblical evidence of Jesus being a servant of God and having no share in Divinity

By Dr. M. Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali, Ph.D.

Professor of Islamic Faith and Teachings, Islamic University, Al-Madina

(Rendered into English by Adam M. Makda)


All praise be to the One to Whom all Dignity, Honor and Glory are due; the Unique with perfect attributes, Who begets not, nor is He begotten. He has no equal but He is the Almighty, Omnipotent. He sent His Messengers and Prophets to guide humanity towards monotheism; to worship Him Alone, the only One Worthy of worship, and to warn them of the eternal dire consequences of polytheism; associating partners with One Allah and the worship of creatures.

Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon all the Prophets and Messengers, especially on Muhammad, the last of the Prophets, and on all who follow him in righteousness until the Day of Recompense.



A Muslim never lacks proofs about the purity and truthfulness of his religion, but what he lacks are those truthful brothers who stand for Allah and His Prophet SAW testifying to the truth. Indeed, in this age, Islam is a religion without men (custodians and propagators) whereas Christianity is men without a religion; yet, by their endeavor, adventurous spirit, patience and monetary contributions they are able to falsify truth and make falsehood appear true. In this materialistic age most of humanity have become slaves to wealth, fashions, and mansions.

There is none worthy of worship but Allah and in Him (Alone) do I put my trust, and towards Him am I destined.


In the New Testament of the Bible, in the fourth chapter of the Gospel according to Matthew, the sixth and seventh verses clearly indicate that Jesus is an obedient mortal and God is the Master and Lord according to his saying in the seventh verse:

“It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord, thy God.”

In this chapter we read that the Devil actually carried the Messiah, and took him from place to place. How can the Devil carry God? Glory be to Allah; He is above such blasphemy!

Then the Devil orders him to prostrate before him and worship him, even tempting him with worldly possessions. How can the Devil even dare such an audacity with God? When the Devil wanted Jesus to comply with his orders, he (Jesus) replied by saying that it was written (in the previous Books):

“Thou shalt worship the Lord, thy God; And Him only shalt thou serve.” Matthew 4:10.


Jesus never called himself Son of God as far as I know but he used to call himself the ‘Son of Man’ (ref. Mark 2:10) although he heard himself being called by that name he did not object as assumed in the Bible and did not consider the title exclusively for him.

According to the Biblical term in the Old and New Testaments, every God- fearing righteous person is called ‘Son of God’. In Matthew 5:9 we read:

“Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be called the children of God.”

In Matthew 5:45 –

“That ye may be children of your Father which is in heaven…”


In Matthew 5:48 –

“Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.”

In Matthew 6:1 –

“… otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven.”

Matthew 7:21 –

“Not every one that sayeth unto me (Jesus), Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven: but he that doeth the will of my Father, which is in heaven.”

N.B. The word ‘Lord’ here was translated as Rabb in the Arabic version of the Bible so that people may be convinced that Jesus is God! But if one studies the rest of the verse, one will note that the verse bears testimony to the subservience (to God’s Will) of the Messiah (Jesus). Therefore the correct translation should be:

“Not every one that sayeth to me, O my Master, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.”

It is obvious from the above readings from the Bible that the term ‘Father’ is used for God in numerous places in the Bible. It is never used exclusively for the Messiah (Jesus).

Matthew 11:25 –

“At that time Jesus answered and said, ‘I thank Thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because Thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent and has revealed them unto babes.'”


Matthew 14:23 –

“And when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into a mountain apart to pray…..”

I say: If he (Jesus) is God or a part of God then why did he pray? In fact, prayer is always from a submitting, needy and dependent one for the Mercy of Almighty Allah as mentioned in the Quran. (V. 35:15):- “O mankind! it is you who stand in need of Allah but Allah is Rich (Free of all wants and needs), Worthy of all praise” (35:15).

And in (V. 19:93) of Quran: “There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Beneficent (Allah) as a slave.”


Matthew 15:22-28 –

“And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts and cried unto him, saying, ‘Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou son of David: my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.’ But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying; ‘Send her away, for she crieth after us.’ But he answered and said, ‘I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.’ Then came she and worshipped him, saying, ‘Lord, help me.’ But he answered and said, ‘It is not meet to take the children’s bread and to cast it to dogs.’ And she said, ‘Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters’ table.’ Then Jesus answered and said unto her, ‘O woman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou wilt. And her daughter was made whole from that very hour.’ ”

In this story about a woman from Canaan there are noteworthy points:

(1) Lack of mercy and love charged against Jesus (if the incident is reported correctly).

(2) Degraded discrimination in regard to the uplifting of his tribe and not for the others.

(3) Tribal pride of descendance and prejudice against others and calling them dogs.

(4) An ignorant polytheist woman debated with him and won him over.


Matthew 19:16-17 –

“And behold, one came and said unto him, ‘Good master, what good thing shall I do that I may have eternal life?’ And he said unto him, ‘Why callest thou me good? (There is) none good but one, (i.e.) God, but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.’ ”

In the above verses we note this acknowledgment of his submissiveness (to Allah’s Will).

Matthew 21:45-46 –

“And when the chief priests and pharisees had heard his parable, they perceived that he spoke of them. But when they sought to lay hands on him, they feared the multitude because they took him for a Prophet.”

Here it is proved that all those who believed in Jesus during his life-time did not believe in him being God or the Son of God or one in the doctrine of Trinity; but they believed in him as being a Prophet only. This is indeed one of the strongest points of evidence against those who believe in the Divinity of Jesus (Incarnation of God) if only they pondered.


Matthew 23:8 – ‘But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your master, even Jesus,

and all ye are brethen.”

Here it is clearly proved that Jesus was servant of Allah, and that there is only One Master and He is Allah. In the Arabic version of the Bible this verse has been translated so that Jesus is meant to be the master whereas the English rendering is nearer the original sense.

Matthew 23:9 –

“And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father which is in heaven.”

From this you will note that fatherhood and sonship is meant to be the relationship between the Lord and His servants: it is meant in a general sense and not specifically for Jesus.

Matthew 24:36 –

“But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.”

This is a definite proof that the Final Hour is unknown to any but Allah, thus Jesus’ knowledge is imperfect like all other men; Allah Alone is All-Knowing, Omniscient.

Matthew 26:39 –

“And he (Jesus) went a little farther, and fell on his face and prayed, saying, ‘O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as Thou wilt.’ ”

We note here that the person speaking is unaware of Allah’s Will and realizes the fact that he is a servant of Allah. He (Allah) Alone can cause the change.


Matthew 27:7-8 –

“And they took counsel and bought with them the potter’s field to bury strangers in. Wherefore that field was called the Field of Blood, unto this day.”

From these verses we understand that the Bible (the New Testament) was not written during Jesus’ life-time but long after the occurrence of the events described, having been retained in the memory of the people.

Matthew 27:46 –

“And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, ‘Eli,Eli, lama sabachthani? (My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?’)”

This is according to their (Christians’) assumption that Jesus cried in a loud voice saying the above words while he was being crucified. This is a great insult as such words could only come from unbelievers in Allah. Further, it is incredible that such words should come out from a Prophet of Allah because Allah never breaks His Promise and His Prophets never complained against His Promise.


In John 17:3 –

“And this is life eternal, that they might know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou has sent.”

In Mark 12:28-30 –

“And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, ‘Which is the first commandment of all?’ And Jesus answered him: ‘The first of all the commandments is; hear O Israel, the Lord thy God is One Lord: and thou shalt love the Lord, thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.’ ”

In Mark 12:32 –

“And the scribe said unto him, ‘Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is One God; and there is none other but He.’ ”

In Mark 12:34 –

“…he (Jesus) said unto him, ‘Thou art not far from the kingdom of God…’ ”

In these verses, Jesus (peace be upon him) himself had testified that Allah is the One God, there is none other than Him, and that whoever believes in His Oneness, he is near the Kingdom of Allah. Therefore whoever associates partners with Allah or believes in the Trinity is far away from the Kingdom of Allah, and whoever is far away from the Kingdom of Allah he is the enemy of Allah.

In Matthew 24:36 –

“But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of the heaven, but my Father only.”

I say: A similar text was quoted from S.Matthew which is exactly as proclaimed by the Qur’?n in that none knows when the Hour will come except Allah. This establishes the fact that Jesus was subservient to Allah and that he had no share in Divinity: that he was an incarnation of God, was an innovation by the people of Canaan.

In John 20:16 –

“Jesus said unto her, ‘Mary’. She turned herself, and sayeth unto him, ‘Rabboni’, which is to say, Master, Jesus saith unto her, ‘Touch me not: For I am not yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father; and to my God and your God.’ Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she has seen the Lord, and that He had spoken these things unto her.”

In the above narrative Jesus clearly testified that Allah is his God and their God, making no difference between him and them in the worship of the One Allah. Whoever believes that Jesus is God has indeed blasphemed against Allah and betrayed the Messiah (Jesus) and all the Prophets and Messengers of Allah.


John 14:15-16 –

“If you love me, keep my commandments. And I will pray the Father and He shall give you another Comforter that he may abide with you forever.”

Muslim theologians have said that “another Comforter” is Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah; and him to “abide forever” means the perpetuity of his laws and way of life (Sharia’) and the Book (Qur’?n) which was rreviewed to him.

John 15:26-27 –

“But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me: And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning.”

John 16:5-8 –

“But now I go my way to Him that sent me and none of you asketh me ‘Whither goest thou?’ But because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart. Nevertheless I tell you the truth; for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and approve righteousness and judgment.”

John 16:12-14 –

“I have yet many things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them now. How be it when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak; and he will shew you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and he shall shew it unto you.”

John 16:16 –

“A little while and ye shall not see me: and again a little while, ye shall see me, because I go to the Father.”

Muslim theologians have stated that the person who is described by Jesus to come after him in the above verses does not comply with any other person but Muhammad SAW the Messenger of Allah. This ‘person’ whom Jesus prophesied will come after him is called in the Bible ‘Parqaleeta’ This word was deleted by later interpreters and translators and changed at times to ‘Spirit of Truth’, and at other times, to ‘Comforter’ and sometimes to ‘Holy Spirit’. The original word is Greek and its meaning is ‘one whom people praise exceedingly.’ The sense of the word is applicable to the word ‘Muhammad’ (in Arabic).


(1) The Bible testifies to the fact that Jesus was known among the Jews; he used to preach and deliver sermons in the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. It was therefore, unnecessary to hire a Jew for thirty pieces of silver to direct them to him as related in S. Matthew.

(2) It is related that one of the twelve disciples named Judas Iscariot was hired to direct the Jews to Jesus. They then sentenced him after which Judas was greatly ashamed and dissociated himself from their act and then committed suicide. All this took place within twenty four hours. The contradictions are obvious.

(3) The clearest proof which alone is sufficient to discredit this story is when the Jews passed the sentence of death against Jesus and intended to get the approval of the governor, Pontious Pilate.

Matthew 27:11-14 –

‘And Jesus stood before the governor: The governor asked him, saying, ‘Art thou the king of the Jews!’ And Jesus said unto him, ‘Thou sayeth (sayest)’: And when he was accused of (by) the chief priests and elders. He answered nothing. Then said Pilate unto him, ‘Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee?’ And he answered him never (to) a word…”

The Christians will interpret the above verse to mean that Jesus wanted to die on the Cross for the redemption of mankind and for the forgiveness of their sins: if so, then why did he ask to turn away that cup from him (i.e. death)? Why did he cry out while on the Cross (as they assume): “O Lord, why hast thou forsaken me?” How could he have remained silent when the truth was being challenged? He was known for his soul-inspiring sermons challenging the learned Jewish Rabbis. No sane person can believe in this. If the story of the Cross is disproved then the very foundation on which Christianity is based, will be demolished.

Muslims believe that Jesus was not crucified by the Jews as revealed in the Holy Qur’?n by Allah in a crystal clear manner: V. 4:157,158.-

“And because of their saying (in boast): ‘We killed Messiah Jesus, son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah’; – but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of Jesus was put over another man (and they killed that man), and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely, they killed him not (i.e., Jesus, son of Mary). But Allah raised him (Jesus) up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he alai-hiss-salaam is in the heavens).. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.”

The Jews themselves, together with the entire Christian world, believe that he was crucified. As proofs against their views and to prove the truth of the Muslim verdict through the Bible, I prepared the following set of questions based on the Book of S. Matthew in the New Testament of Bible. (Chapters 26 and 27):

(1) Did those who captured Jesus (according to their assumption) know him in person? or did they not know him?

S. Matthew testifies that they did not know him.

(2) Was it during the day or night that he was captured?

S.Matthew says it was during the night.

(3) Who was the one that directed them to him?

S. Matthew says: He was one of his twelve disciples called Judas lscariot.

(4) Did he direct them free of charge or for a fixed reward which they specified, for him?

S. Matthew says: He directed them to him for a fixed reward of thirty pieces of silver.

(5) What was the condition of Jesus during that night?

S. Matthew says: He was fearful and prostrated in prayer saying: “O God, if it is possible for You to let this cup pass from me, then let it pass.” It is incredible that such words could come from a believer in God, let alone a Prophet of God, because all believers believe that God has power over all things.

(6) What was the condition of his eleven disciples?

S. Matthew says: Sleep overcame them that night together with their teacher (according to their assumption) out of fear.

(7) Was Jesus contented with their condition?

S. Matthew says (verses 40-46): He was not satisfied. He used to come to them to wake them up saying: “Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation; the spirit indeed is willing but the flesh is weak.” Then he would come again to find them asleep and he would again wake them up and say the same thing. This weakness could not have been spoken of righteous pupils even if they were pupils of an ordinary pious teacher, let alone the disciples of Jesus, son of Mary.

(8) Did they help him when those ruffians captured him?

S. Matthew says: They forsook him and fled.

(9) Did Jesus have confidence in his disciples that night?

S. Matthew says: Jesus informed them that they will all forsake him. Then Jesus said unto them: “Verily I say unto thee that this night before the cock crows, thou shall deny me thrice.” Peter said unto him, “Although I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee.” Likewise also said all the disciples. And so it happened.

(10) How did those ruffians capture him?

S. Matthew says: They came to him with swords and staves after they were directed to him by a Jew, then they captured him as described in verse 57:

“And they that had laid hold on Jesus, led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the elders were assembled.”

There they passed the sentence of death on him. The ruffians then took him away, spat on his face and struck him with their hands after which they stripped him of his clothes and clad him in scarlet robes, then placed a crown of thorns on his head and took him about, teasing and mocking him. They said to him: ‘You are the king of Israel according to your claim.’ They severely degraded him.

(11) Who finally decided to pass the death sentence against him?

S. Matthew says: He was Pontious Pilate, a Greek Roman, who was at that time the governor of Palestine.

(12) When the ruffians brought that man before the governor and informed him that the priest of the Jews passed the sentence of death by crucifixion according to their law (Torah), did he believe in them without investigation?

S. Matthew says: He did not believe them but asked that man: “Is it true what they have said?” He remained silent. The question was repeated and he continued to remain silent. He remained silent in view of the truth; it was essential for him even if he was not a Prophet to clarify the truth and deny the false accusation of the Jews. The governor’s wife went to the governor and she said to him: “Have thou nothing to do with that just man? for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.”

The Bible states that Jesus delivered lengthy speeches to the Jews rebuking and warning them which amounted to defaming them. Then why was he silent that day? The governor’s intention for asking him was to stand for the truth.

(13) How was he crucified according to their assumption?

S. Matthew says: They crucified him between two thieves both of whom abused him by saying to him, “If you are truthful then save yourself.”

(14) This was a great calamity. What did he say while on the cross (according to their assumption)?

S. Matthew says (27:46):

Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, “Eli, Eli, Iama sabachthani? (that is to say,) my God, my God, why has Thou forsaken me?”

This is a blatant declaration of disbelief according to all theological authorities. Whoever relates it to a Prophet is a disbeliever according to the revealed religions.

Almighty Allah, in the Qur’?n warns, the Jews and the Christians against their blasphemy; that Jesus is an incarnation of God (Allah) or the son of God (Allah) or in rejecting him totally; and that they must believe in him as a Messenger of Allah only:

“And there is none of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), but must believe in him (Jesus, son of Mary, as only a Messenger of Allah and a human being), before his (Jesus alai-hiss-salaam or a Jew’s or a Christian’s) death (at the time of the appearance of the angel of death). And on the Day of Resurrection, he (Jesus) will be a witness against them.” (V.4:159).


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