AHL UL-KITAB (PEOPLE OF THE BOOK: JEWS/CHRISTIANS)
Narrated by Abu Huraira (Radhiallaho anho): The people of the Scripture used to read the Torah in Hebrew and explain it to the Muslims in Arabic. Then Allah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, “Do not believe the people of the Scripture, and do not disbelieve them, but say, ‘We believe in Allah and whatever has been revealed…’ (Sura: Al-i’Imran : Ver.84) Sahih Al-Bukhari Vol. 9: No. 632
MARRIAGE TO AHL UL-KITAB (Jews & Christians)
By A Student of Darul-Uloom, Bury
Made lawful for you this day are At-Tayyibat (all kinds of lawful foods, which Allah has made lawful. The food (slaughter cattle etc.) of the people of the scripture (Jews and Christians) is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them. (Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the scripture (Jews & Christians) before your time.” (5:5)
The verse clarifies that the Ahl-e-Kitaab are those people to whom the scripture has been revealed from Allah. It also lays down the stipulation for marrying them that they be chaste, and as can be derived from the following verse, marriage is permissible regardless of the contents of the scriptures being changed by the people. For Allah says in the Qurân: “Among those who are Jews, there are some who displace words from (their) places.” On another occasion Allah says: “And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say Messiah is the son of Allah.” The Christian and Jew women who do not believe and practice their own religion can not be considered to be real Christians and Jews. They are either atheist or irreligious. So they are like idolaters and polytheists, these women are not lawful” It has been stated in the books of jurisprudence that to marry Women of the Book is lawful, but it is better not to do so.” (Shaami pg. 397 vol. 2) In the aforementioned verses, it has been specified that Allah granted the Jews and Christians the title of “Ahl-e-Kitaab” despite their accusations and slanders in relation to Jesus, and their performing of evil deeds. Until and unless they leave their respective religions, they will be included as “Ahl-e-Kitaab” If they do by any chance, leave their religion, marriage will not be permissible unless they accept Islam, for Allah says: “Wed not idolaters, till they believe.” Despite the above-mentioned concept, the majority of Ulamahs are of the opinion that marriage is not permissible to a woman of the Ahl-e-Kitaab. By something being permissible, it does not necessitate it being likened by Allah. There are many instances where Shariâh has pronounced an act lawful, but mentioned its implementation undesirable, e.g. divorce, out of genuine necessity divorce has been made permissible, but it being highly disliked by Allah. The lawfulness of eating soil has also been mentioned, but this does not implicate it being praiseworthy and a must for everyone. Similarly, the permissibility to marry an Ahl-e-Kitaab does not imply that such an act is blessed in the eyes of Allah. Whoever has his eyes set on marrying with an Ahl-e-Kitaab should first consider the consequences in respect to his faith and Islamic Beliefs. As husband and wife, they will both sleep under the same covers and sheets. Because of the wife not considering the importance of bathing after intercourse, the sharing of beds will result in the immersing in all forms of impurities. If she has a sudden passion of keeping a pet dog, in order to satisfy her whims he will allow her to keep one in the house, in order to prevent the marriage from deteriorating. The introduction of a dog to the household will culminate in the entire house, the furnishing and the appliances being fouled by dog excretion, urination and saliva. The Angels of Mercy will refrain from such a house and its residents will lose the inspiration for worship. If the marriage, at the least, does not break down and the wife happens to bear a child, then the question arises whether the child will be brought up in an Islamic environment, around Islamic doctrines and values. Every Muslim is ordered to develop through marriage sexual relationships with only those women who are religious and righteous, so that the offspring be of a good, pious nature and beneficial in the hereafter.. What will be the sorry state of the offspring of a man married within the Ahl-e-Kitaab? If the marriage fails and the circumstances lead to a divorce then the children will according to the law of this country will be in the care of the mother. This will lead to continuous influence of Kufr and the father will be held accountable on Judgement Day. If one were to look with an impartial mind and a genuine desire for the truth, the disadvantages and drawbacks for this kind of marriage, the figure will prove to be so great that even our learned predecessors who disapprove of marital ties outside Islam, could not have possibly foreseen its dire consequences. However, for the aforementioned reasons the majority of the Ulamah are strictly of the opinion that marriage to the women of Ahl-e-Kitaab is not permissible. The great scholar Abu Bakr Jasass narrates in “Quranic Decrees” through Hadhrat Shaqeeq bin Salmah that Hadhrat Huzaifah bin Al-Yaman (raa), during the Caliphate of Umar (raa) travelled to an area known as Madain, where he married a Jewish woman. When this information was reported to Hadhrat Umar (raa) he wrote a letter to him ordering him to divorce her. Hadhrat Huzaifah (raa) upon receiving the letter divorced the woman and wrote back enquiring whether the Jewish woman was unlawful for him. The Leader of the Faithful, Umar (raa) replied, ”I do not claim that the Ahl-e-Kitaab women are unlawful on Muslim men, but because chastity and modesty are rarely to be found within them I fear that their repulsive qualities will filter into Muslim homes.” Imaam Tahawi has also stated, regarding this narration, through Imaam Abu Hanifah, concluding that the specialists in Islamic Jurisprudence are of the same opinion that this Nikah is not forbidden, but because of its repercussions it is extremely disliked (Makrooh-e-Tahrimi). Allamaah ibn Humaam has stated in Fatâhul Qadeer that besides the case of Hazrat Huzaifa similar incidents of marriage with the “Ahl-e-Kitaab” have also been reported in relation to Hazrat Kaab bin Malik (raa) and Hazrat Talha (raa) Hazart Umar (raa) time was renown for being one with hardly any form of corruption at all, but he still feared the women of Ahl-e-Kitaab as a source of corruption. We live in era where corruption is widespread and where the Ahl-e-Kitaab are anything but true Ahl-e-Kitaab. They who believe in no constraints in following more then one religion and say, “We are innocent, we can commit any sin we like because Jesus came into this world to repent for our sins, etc.” They no longer believe in the Books of Allah and neither do they see Jesus as a Prophet, but rather as the Son of God. The corruption is, however, not the only factor in deciding the ruling. The “Ahle-Kitaab” of today cannot even be classified as such due to their mass conversion to atheism, many incidents of which newspapers have reported. Furthermore, to find a woman from the “Ahle-Kitaab”who can be termed as chaste in Islamic ideology is also a virtual impossibility. Hazrat Umar’s (raa) words regarding their modesty ring infinitely true in this age where corruption has accelerated to unbelievable heights. Anyone who adopts such women in his family is certainly inviting Kufr and corruption within his home. Therefore it is imperative on Muslims not to marry such women if they wish to follow the ways of the Holy Prophet s(saws) and the Sahabah.
INTERACTING WITH NON-MUSLIMS IN WESTERN COUNTRIES
By Shaikh Ibn Uthaimeen
The Shaikh stated, during a tele-link, on the 28th July 2000:
…Likewise I invite you to have respect for those people who have the right that they should be respected, from those between you and whom there is and agreement (of protection) [i.e. Non-Muslims]. For the land which you are living is such that there is an agreement between you and them. If this were not the case they would have killed you or expelled you. So preserve this agreement, and do not prove treacherous to it, since treachery is a sign of the hypocrites, and it is not from the way of the Believers.
And know that it is authentically reported from the Prophet that he said : “Whoever kills one who is under and agreement of protection will not smell the fragrance of Paradise.”
Do not be fooled by those sayings of the foolish people : those who say : ‘Those people are Non-Muslims, so their wealth is lawful for us [i.e. to misappropriate or take by way of murder and killing].’ For by Allaah – this is a lie. A lie about Allaah’s Religion, and a lie in Islamic societies.
So we may not say that it is lawful to be treacherous towards people whom we have an agreement with.
O my brothers. O youth. O Muslims. Be truthful in your buying and selling, and renting, and leasing, and in all mutual transactions. Because truthfulness is from the characteristics of the Believers, and Allaah – the Most High – has commanded truthfulness – in the saying of Allaah – the Most High – “O you who believe – fear and keep you duty to Allaah and be with the truthful”
And the Prophet encouraged truthfulness and said : “Adhere to truthfulness, because truthfulness leads to goodness, and goodness leads to Paradise; and a person will continue to be truthful, and strive to be truthful until he will be written down with Allaah as a truthful person”.
And he warned against falsehood, and said : “Beware of falsehood, because falsehood leads to wickedness, and wickedness leads to the Fire. And a person will continue lying, and striving to lie until he is written down with Allaah as a great liar.”
O my brother Muslims. O youth. Be true in your sayings with your brothers, and with those Non-Muslims whom you live along with – so that you will be inviters to the Religion of Islaam, by your actions and in reality. So how many people there are who first entered into Islaam because of the behaviour and manners of the Muslims, and their truthfulness, and their being true in their dealings.