Prayer

PASSING DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF A WORSHIPPER IN THE SACRED HOUSE IN MAKKAH

By Ash Sheikh Ibn Baz
Fatawa Islamiyyah, Vol. 2, Pgs 147- 148

Question : What is the ruling on passing directly in front of a worshipper in prayer in the Sacred House ( in Makkah ), and is the worshipper allowed to prevent the one who tries to pass in front of him?

Answer:  There is no sin in this, and it is not allowed for someone who is in the Sacred House – I mean the Sacred Mosque- to prevent someone passing in front of him, because of the narrations which prove the righteous Salaf, including Az-Zubair رضي الله عنه, did not prevent those making Tawaf or others from passing in front of them, and because the Sacred Mosque is a place where one expects crowding and difficulty in preventing anyone passing in front of a worshipper it is obligatory to be forbearing and tolerant in this manner.

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SALAT AL-ISTIKHARA

The Prophet (p.b.u.h) used to teach us the way of doing Istikhara (Istikhara means to ask Allah to guide one to the right sort of action concerning any job or a deed), in all matters as he taught us the Suras of the Quran. He said, “If anyone of you thinks of doing any job he should offer a two Rakat prayer other than the compulsory ones and say (after the prayer): ‘Allahumma inni astakhiruka bi’ilmika, Wa astaqdiruka bi-qudratika, Wa as’alaka min fadlika al-‘azlm Fa-innaka taqdiru Wala aqdiru, Wa ta’lamu Wala a’lamu, Wa anta ‘allamu l-ghuyub. Allahumma, in kunta ta’lam anna hadha-l-amra Khairun li fi dini wa ma’ashi wa’aqibati amri (or ‘ajili amri wa’ajilihi) Faqdirhu wa yas-sirhu li thumma barik li Fihi, Wa in kunta ta’lamu anna hadha-lamra shar-run li fi dini wa ma’ashi wa’aqibati amri (or fi’ajili amri wa ajilihi) Fasrifhu anni was-rifni anhu. Waqdir li al-khaira haithu kana Thumma ardini bihi.’ (O Allah! I ask guidance from Your knowledge, and Power from Your Might and I ask for Your great blessings. You are capable and I am not. You know and I do not and You know the unseen. O Allah! If You know that this job is good for my religion and my subsistence and in my Hereafter–(or said: If it is better for my present and later needs)–then You ordain it for me and make it easy for me to get, and then bless me in it, and if You know that this job is harmful to me in my religion and subsistence and in the Hereafter–(or said: If it is worse for my present and later needs)–then keep it away from me and let me be away from it. And ordain for me whatever is good for me, and make me satisfied with it). ” The Prophet added that then the person should name (mention) his need.

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QIYAM UL-LAYL (TAHAJJUD) NIGHT PRAYER

Prepared by Shawanaa Abdul-Aziz associate of http://www.ahya.org

Regarding your question about Qiyam-ul-Layl or Tahajjud prayer or late night prayer, they are all names for the same prayer. The late night prayer (Qiyam) is offered after the obligatory Isha prayer until the time for Fajr (dawn) prayer [before the second Adhan]. According to what Allah’s Messenger said: “Verily, Allah has added a prayer for you, and it is the Witr* prayer, offer this prayer between Isha prayer and the dawn (Fajr) prayer.” [Related by Ahmad with a sahih chain]

* Witr in Arabic means “odd” and refer to the particular prayer described here. and all the night prayer is considered Witr , because its number of Rakaa is witr i.e. an odd number.

It is preferable to offer the night prayer during the latter portion of the night. According to what the Prophet (S.A.W.) said: “Whoever of you fears that he will not be able to wake up during the latter portion of the night, he should make the Witr prayer during the early part of the night. And whoever of you believes that he will be able to wake up during the latter portion of the night, he should make the Witr prayer during the latter portion, as it is the blessed time.” [by Muslim] The last third of the night is blessed because Allah [Azza Wa Jall] descends to the nearest heaven to us every night.

The nature and the no. of Rakaa of Al-Qiyam prayer:

1- The number of Rakaa of the late night prayer is eleven Rakaa. And it is preferred not to exceed this no. following the Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A.W.), because he never exceeded this no. till he died. Aisha (R.A.A.) was asked about the Prophet’s prayer in Ramadan? She replied that the Prophet (S.A.W.) offered only eleven Rakaa at night during the month of Ramadan or any other month. First of all he (S.A.W.) used to offer four Rakaa; but don’t ask how fine, perfect and lengthy these Rakaa used to be.

These were followed by another, but don’t ask to how fine decent and lengthy these Rakaa used to be; then he offered three Rakaa. I asked him, O Messenger of Allah! Do you go to sleep before offering Witr prayer? He answered: “Aisha, only my eyes sleep but my heart does not.” [ by Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

2- It could be less than eleven, and one could reduce from it till he confined with the Witr Rakaa only (i.e. to be content with only the Witr Rakaa). He (S.A.W.) used to say: “Witr is truth, who wishes to offer the Witr prayer with five let him do so, and who wishes to offer Witr with three let him do so; and who wishes to offer the Witr prayer with one Rakaa let him do so.” [by Al-Tahawi, and Al-Hakim, with Sahih chain] It can be offered in silence (i.e. low voice) and can be offered with a loud voice. I hope I answered the question, if there is any point which is not clear, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Assalamu-A’alykum. Your Sister in Islam, Shawana

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DELAYING ISHA PRAYER IS SUNNAH

Source http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/law/fiqhussunnah/fus1_06.html

Saiyar bin Salama (ra) narrates: I along with my father went to Abu Barza Al-Aslami and my father asked him, “How Allah’s Apostle used to offer the five compulsory congregational prayers?” Abu Barza said, “The Prophet used to pray the Zuhr prayer which you (people) call the first one at midday when the sun had just declined. The Asr prayer at a time when after the prayer, a man could go to the house at the farthest place in Medina (and arrive) while the sun was still hot. (I forgot about the Maghrib prayer). The Prophet loved to delay the ‘Isha which you call Al-Atama and he disliked sleeping before it and speaking after it. After the Fajr prayer he used to leave when a man could recognize the one sitting beside him and he used to recite between 60 to 100 Ayat (in the Fajr prayer.) Bukhari 1.522

It is most virtuous to delay the night prayer until the end of the preferred time for it, which is half the night. Reported ‘Aishah, “One night the Prophet, upon whom be peace, prayed the night prayer after most of the night had gone and most of the people in the mosque had fallen aleep. Then he came out, prayed, and said, “This would be the proper time if it were not a hardship on my nation.”‘ (Related by Muslim and an-Nasa’i.) The Prophet, upon whom be peace, did not do this on a regular basis, as he heard that it would be a hardship on his nation. He would take into consideration the situation of those in the mosque. Sometimes he would hasten in performing the prayer and at other times he would delay it. Said Jabir, “The Messenger of Allah would pray the noon prayer during the hottest time of noon, the afternoon prayer when the sun was clear, the sunset prayer when the sun had gone down, and the night prayer he would sometimes delay and sometimes hasten if he found people gathered (in the mosque). If he noticed that they were lingering, he would delay it. He would pray the morning prayer while it was still dark.” (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) Fiqh us Sunnah 1.87

The Time of the Night Prayer (‘Isha)

This prayer begins when the red twilight disappears and continues up to half of the night. Reported ‘Aishah, “They used to pray the night prayer between the disappearance of the twilight and the final third of the night’s beginning.” (Related by al-Bukhari.) Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, “If it were not to be a hardship upon my nation, I would order them to delay the night prayer until a third or a half of the night had passed.” (Related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah and at-Tirmidhi, who said it is sahih.) Reported Abu Sa’eed, “Once, we waited for the Messenger of Allah to lead the night prayer until half the night had passed, at which time he came and prayed with us. He said, ‘Stay in your places of sitting while the people have gone to their places of lying down (for sleep), for you are in prayer as long as you are waiting for the prayer. If it were not for the weakness of the weak, the illness of the ill and the need of those who have needs, I would have delayed the time of this prayer to a half of the night.” As to the authenticity of this report, it is recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, an-Nasa’i and Ibn Khuzaimah. Its chain is sahih).

The hadith describes the best time to pray. As for the allowable time and the time due to need, it lasts until dawn. Abu Qatadah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, “There is no negligence in sleeping, but the negligence lies in not praying a prayer until the time of the next prayer has come.” (Related by Muslim.) This hadith shows that the time of every prayer continues until the beginning of the time for the next prayer, except for the morning prayer, as all scholars agree that its time lasts only until sunrise. (Arshad at http://members.home.net/arshad)

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FATWA SALAT AL-WITR

Question of Fatwa How we perform salat al-witr?

Name of Mufti Sayyed Sabiq

Its excellence and justification: The witr prayer is one that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam practiced and which he encouraged others to practice. As such, praying witr comes under as-sunnah al-mu’akkadah. ‘Ali says: “The witr prayer is not required like your obligatory prayers, but the Prophet would perform the witr prayer and say: ‘O you people [followers] of the Qur’an, perform the witr prayer, for Allah is one and He loves the witr.'” This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, at-Tirmidhi who calls it hasan, and al-Hakim who grades it sahih. The opinion of Abu Hanifah that the witr prayer is obligatory is a weak opinion. Ibn al-Mundhir says: “I don’t know anyone who agrees with Abu Hanifah on this point.” Ahmad, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i, and Ibn Majah record that Al-Mukhdaji [a person of the Kinana tribe] heard from one of the Ansar, nicknamed Abu Muhammad, that the witr prayer is obligatory. He went to ‘Ibadah ibn as-Samit and mentioned to him what Abu Muhammad had said. ‘Ibadah observed: “Abu Muhammad is mistaken for I heard the Messenger of Allah say: ‘Five prayers are ordained by Allah for his slaves. Whoever fulfills them properly without any shortcoming, he will have a pact with Allah that He will admit him into paradise. Whoever does not do them, he will have no pact with Allah, and if He wills He may punish him and if He wills He may forgive him.'” Also al-Bukhari and Muslim record from Talhah ibn ‘Ubaidullah that the Prophet said: “Five prayers during the day and night have been prescribed by Allah.” Hearing this a bedouin asked the Prophet: “Is there anything else upon me [in the way of prayer]?” The Prophet said: “No, unless you want to do more voluntarily.” Time for witr prayer: All the scholars agree that the time for the witr prayer does not begin until after salatul ‘isha and it continues until the time of salatul fajr. Abu Tamim al-Jishani relates that ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas was addressing the people during a Friday Khutbah and he said: “Abu Basra related to me that the Prophet said: ‘Verily, Allah has added a prayer for you, and it is the witr prayer. Pray it between salatul ‘isha and salatul fajr.'” Abu Tamim said: “Abu Dharr took me by my hand and we went in the mosque to Abu Basra and [Abu Dharr] said: ‘Did you hear what ‘Amr just said from the Messenger of Allah?’ He answered: ‘I heard it from the Messenger of Allah!”‘ This is related by Ahmad with a sahih chain. Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari relates: “The Prophet sallellahu alehi wasallam would make the witr prayer in the first part of the night or the middle of it or the latter part of it.” Ahmad has reported it with a sound chain. ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Qais relates that he asked ‘Aishah about the witr prayer of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and she said: “Sometimes he would make the witr prayer in the first part of the night and sometimes he would make the witr prayer in the latter portion of the night.” Then ‘Abdullah asked: “How was his recitation, audible or inaudible?” She replied: “He did both. Sometimes he would be inaudible and sometimes audible. Sometimes he would make ghusl and sleep and sometimes he would make ablution and sleep [i.e., when he was sexually defiled].” This is related by Abu Dawud, Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmidhi. It is preferred to pray it early if one suspects that one will not wake during the latter portion of the night. It is, on the other hand, advisable to delay it if one believes that one will be able to wake up during the latter portion of the night. If one suspects that one will not be able to perform the prayer in the latter portion of the night, it should be prayed during the early portion of the night (before sleeping). Jabir reports that the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever of you fears that he will not be able to wake during the latter portion [of the night], he should make the witr prayer during the early part [of the night]. And whoever of you believes that he will be able to wake during the latter portion of the night, he should make the witr prayer during that latter portion as it is the blessed time [the angels are attentive to the prayers in the last portion of the night].” This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, atTirmidhi, and Ibn Majah. Jabir also narrates that the Messenger of Allah inquired of Abu Bakr: “When do you perform the witr prayer?” Abu Bakr replied: “In the early portion of the night after the night prayer” Then the Prophet said: “And you, O ‘Umar?” He answered: “During the latter portion of the night.” The Prophet said: “As for you, O Abu Bakr, you have taken the careful way. As for you, ‘Umar, you have taken the way of hardship and firm will.” This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and al-Hakim who says it is sahih according to Muslim’s criterion. However, the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray the witr prayer near dawn time for it is the most blessed time, as mentioned previously. ‘Aisha reports: “Out of the entire night, the Messenger of Allah would sometimes perform the witr prayer during the early portion; sometimes he would perform it during the middle portion; and sometimes in the latter portion of the night, just before dawn.” This is related by the group. Nevertheless, considering the possibility of losing witr, the Prophet advised some of his companions not to sleep until they had performed the witr prayer in order to be on the safe side. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas would pray salatul ‘isha in the Prophet’s mosque and then would pray one rak’ah of witr without making any addition to it. The people said to him: “Abu Ishaq, do you make the witr with just one rak’ah without adding any (other rak’ah) to it?” He said: “Yes, for I heard the Messenger of Allah say: ‘The one who does not sleep until he makes the witr prayer is prudent.'” This was related by Ahmad and its narrators are trustworthy. Nature and number of rak’at for witr: It is permissible to perform the witr by praying two rak’at [and concluding them] and then praying one rak’ah with a tashahud and taslim. Likewise, it is allowed to pray all the rak’at with two tashahuds and one taslim. One may pray a number of rak’at, one after another, without making any tashahud, save in the one before the last rak’ah in which case one makes the tashahud and then stands to perform the last rak’ah wherein one will make another tashahud and end the prayer with the taslim. One may also make only one tashahud and the taslim, in the last rak’ah of witr. All of that is permissible and can be traced to the Prophet. Talking about the thirteen rak’at in witr, at-Tirmidhi says: “It has been related from the Prophet that he would perform the witr prayer with thirteen, nine, seven, five, three rak’at or one rak’ah.” On the other hand, Ishaq ibn Ibrahim holds: “The meaning of the statement that the Prophet prayed thirteen rak’at of witr is that during the night he would pray thirteen rak’at including the witr prayer, and so all of the night prayer came to be known as witr.” Ibn al-Qayyim’s view is that “the clear, authentic sunnah is to pray the witr with five or seven connected rak’at as reported by Umm Salamah in her hadith. [She says] that the Prophet would perform the witr with five or seven rak’at without breaking them apart with taslim or any speech.” This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa’i, and Ibn Majah with a good chain. As previously mentioned, al-Bukhari and Muslim quote ‘Aishah saying that the Prophet would perform thirteen rak’at during the night and would make the witr prayer with five of them, and he would not ‘sit’ [during those five] except in the last rak’ah of them. In another hadith, ‘Aishah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would perform nine rak’at during the night and that he would not sit during them until the eighth rak’ah in which he would make remembrance of Allah, praising Him, and would make supplication. Then, he would stand without making the taslim and pray the ninth rak’ah, after which he would sit, make the tashahud and make the taslim in such a manner that we could hear him. Then, he would pray two rak’at after the taslim while sitting, and that would make eleven rak’at. When he became older and heavier, he would make the witr with seven rak’at, performing the (last) two rak’at like the first one. In another version from her, it is stated: “When he became older and bulkier, he would make the witr with seven rak’at, and he would not sit during them, save in the sixth and seventh rak’ah and he would not make the taslim, save in the seventh rak’ah.” In yet another version, it is stated: “He would pray seven rak’at and would not sit, save in the last of them.” This is related by the group. All of the preceding ahadith are authentic and clear and there is no contradiction in them. As to the Prophet’s statement: “The night prayer is in sets of two [rak’at],” it is not relevant here. This is an authentic hadith, and the statement that he observed witr with seven or five rak’at is equally true. Both statements confirm each other. The seven, five, nine, and one rak’ah constitute the witr prayer, for witr is the name given to the one rak’ah offered in conclusion of whatever is offered prior to it. And the witr of the five, seven and nine rak’at are all connected like the maghrib which is described as three connected rak’at. If one breaks apart the five or seven rak’at with two taslim, like in the eleven rak’at, it will all be called witr due to the last odd rak’ah. This is supported by the Prophet’s statement: ‘The night prayer is sets of two rak’at. If one fears the coming of the dawn, he should perform one rak’ah, thereby making all of them odd [witr].’ Therefore, the Prophet’s actions and statements are in agreement, each part confirming the other.” The fact is that the Prophet was responding to a question about the night prayer when he said: “it is in pairs of two.” He was not speaking about witr, for the man had asked him about night prayer, and not about the witr. Recitation in the witr: It is permissible to recite after al-Fatihah any surah which one wishes to recite. ‘Ali says: “There is not a part of the Qur’an that is obsolete, so make the witr prayer of whatever you wish from it.” However, it is preferred to recite, in the first of the three rak’at of witr, al-A’la after reciting al-Fatihah. In the second rak’ah, it is preferred to recite al-Kafirun. In the third rak’ah, it is proper to recite the last three surahs of the Qur’an. This is narrated by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi, who relate from ‘Aishah, on sound authority saying: The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite Ala’la in the first rak’ah, Al-Kafirun in the second and the last three surahs in the third rak’ah. Al-Qunut in the Witr: It is part of sunnah to supplicate with qunut in the witr prayer during the entire year. Ahmad, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and others record that al-Hassan ibn ‘Ali said: “The Messenger of Allah taught me the [following] words to say in the witr prayer: ‘O Allah, guide me among those whom You have guided. Grant me safety among those whom You have granted safety. Take me into Your charge among those whom You have taken into Your charge. Bless me in what You have given me. Protect me from the evil that You have decreed, for You decree and nothing is decreed for You. And there is no humiliation for whom You take as a ward. Blessed and Exalted are You, our Lord. ‘ ” At-Tirmidhi grades this hadith as hasan, and says: “… nothing is known from the Prophet concerning qunut more authentic than that.” Commenting on its status, an-Nawawi says that its chain is sahih. Ibn Hazm has some reservations about its soundness, but says: “This hadith, although it is not one that can be used as a proof, is all that we have from the Prophet, and a weak hadith is dearer to me than mere opinion.” Ahmad says this is also the view of Abu Musa, Ibn Mas’ud, Ibn ‘Abbas, al-Bara’, Anas, al-Hassan al-Basri, ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul’aziz, al-Thauri, Ibn al-Mubarak, and the Hanafi school. This, an-Nawawi says, gives credibility to the report. Ash-Shaf’i and others are of the opinion that the qunut in the witr prayer should be made during the latter half of the month of Ramadan. This is based on what Abu Dawud records that, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab convoked the people in prayer, under the leadership of Ubayy ibn Ka’b, and they prayed together for twenty nights, and he did not make the qunut except for during the latter half of the month of Ramadan. It is moreover related that Muhammad ibn Nasr asked Sa’id ibn Jubair about the qunut in the witr prayer. Sa’id answered: ” ‘Umar sent an army that suffered serious setback, which caused ‘Umar to be alarmed, so, when it was the latter half of Ramadan, he made the qunut to supplicate for them.” How to perform the qunut: It is permissible to make the qunut before going into ruku’ (bowing), or lt may be recited when one stands up straight after the ruku’. Humaid says: “I asked Anas: ‘Is the qunut before or after the ruku’?’ He said: ‘We would do it before or after.'” This was related by Ibn Majah and Muhammad ibn Nasr. In Fath al-Bari, Ibn Hajar comments that its chain is faultless. If one makes the qunut before the ruku’, one should make the takbir and raise one’s hands after the recital, and similarly make another takbir after the qunut, and then bow. This has been related from some companions. Some scholars hold that it is preferable to raise one’s hands in supplication during the qunut, while others disagree. As to wiping face with hands after the qunut, al-Baihaqi writes: “It is preferred not to do so and to confine one’s self to what the early generations did. They raised their hands but did not wipe their faces during the prayer.” Supplications after the witr: It is preferred for a person to say after the taslim: “Glory be to the Master, the Holy,” three times aloud, saying the third time: “Lord of the angels and the souls.” Abu Dawud and anNasa’i record that Ubayy ibn Ka’b said: “The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite al-A’la and al-Kafirun in the witr prayer. When he made the taslim, he would say: ‘Glory be to the Master, the Holy ,’ three times, prolonging the third repetition and saying it aloud.” This is the wording in which an-Nasa’i recorded it. Ad-Daraqutni has the addition: “And he would say, ‘Lord of the angels and the spirits. “‘ He would then make supplications and, according to what Ahmad, anNasa’i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmidhi record from ‘Ali, he would say at the end of his witr: “O Allah, I seek refuge in Your pleasure from your anger. And I seek refuge in Your granting well being from Your punishment. And I seek refuge in You from You. I cannot reckon Your praise: You are as You have praised Yourself.” Prohibition of two witr prayers in one night: Whoever has performed the witr prayer and then wishes to do some more, he may do so but he is not to repeat the witr. Abu Dawud, an-Nasa’i, and at-Tirmidhi have recorded from ‘Ali that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: “There are no two witr prayers in one night.” At-Tirmidhi grades it hasan. ‘Aishah relates that the Prophet would make the taslim in such a manner that we could hear him and then, he would pray two rak’at while sitting. This is related by Muslim. Umm Salamah also narrates that he prayed two rak’at while sitting, after the witr prayer. This was related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, and others. Making up a missed witr: According to al-Baihaqi and al-Hakim, the majority of the scholars maintain that it is correct to make qada’ for a missed witr prayer. Al-Hakim grades the following report by Abu Hurairah as sahih according to the criterion of al-Bukhari and Muslim. Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: “If the morning approaches, and you have yet to pray witr, you should pray the witr prayer.” Abu Dawud records from Abu Sa’id al-Khudri that the Prophet said: “If one of you sleeps [past the time of] the witr prayer or he forgets it, he should pray it when he remembers it.” Al-‘Iraqi says that the chain of this hadith is sahih. Ahmad and at-Tabarani record with a hasan chain that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would perform the witr prayer in the morning [if, for some reason, he had missed it during the night]. Generally speaking, there is a difference of opinion over what time it may be made up. The Hanafi school holds it should be performed during those times in which it is not forbidden to observe prayers. The followers of Shaf’i say that it may be made up during any time of the night or day, while according to Malik and Ahmad a missed witr prayer is to be made up for after the dawn.

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ABANDONING SALAAT: A MAJOR SIN IN ISLAM

Source http://www.qss.org/publications/hudaa/2.2/abandon.html

Allaah Most High says (which means): Then there has succeeded them a generation which has given up prayers (i.e, made their prayers to be lost, either by not offering them at all or by not offering them perfectly or by not offering them in their proper fixed times, etc.) and have followed lusts. So they will be thrown in Hell. Except those who repent and believe in the Oneness of Allaah and His Messenger, and act righteously. [Maryam, 19:59-60]

And He said (which means): Woe unto those performers of prayers (hypocrites) who are unmindful of their prayers (i.e., delay their prayer from its stated fixed time). [Al-Maa’oon, 107:4-5]

And He said (which means): O you who believe! Let not your properties or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allaah. And whosoever does that, then they are the losers. [Al-Munaafiqoon, 63:9]

The commentators of the Qur’aan say: “The ‘remembrance of Allaah’ mentioned in these Aayaat means the five daily prayers. If anyone is so busy in buying and selling, or with his daily work of earning a livelihood, or with his children, that he cannot perform prayers on time, he will be among the losers.”

The first thing which will be judged among a man’s deeds on the Day of Resurrection is the Prayer. If this is in good order then he will succeed and prosper but if it is defective then he will fail and will be a loser. [Nasaa’ee, Tirmidhee, Ibn Maajah]

Informing us about the inhabitants of Hell, Allaah Most High says (which means): (The people in Hell will be asked:) What has caused you to enter Hell? They will say: We were not among those who used to pray. Nor did we feed the poor. And we used to talk falsehood (all that which Allaah hated) with vain-talkers. And we used to belie thc Day of Recompense. Until there came to us that which is certain (i.e., death). So no Intercession of intercessors will benefit them [Al-Muddaththir, 74:42-48]

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said (which means): The covenant between us and them is prayer, so if anyone abandons it he has become a disbeliever. [Ahmad, Tirmidhee, Nasaa’ee]

And he (peace be upon him) also said (which means): What lies between a man and disbelief is the abandonment of prayer. [Muslim, Aboo Dawood, Nasaa’ee]

And he (peace be upon him) said (which means): If anyone abandons prayer deliberately then he has no claim upon Allaah. [Ibn Maajah, ADAB-AL-MUFRAD of Bukhaari, Tabaraani]

And he (peace be upon him) said (which means): I have been ordered to fight against the people until they testify that there is no one worthy of worship but Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah and until they perform the Prayers and pay the Zakaah, and if they do so they will have gained protection from me for their lives and property, unless [they do acts that are punishable] in accordance with Islaam, and their reckoning will be with Allaah Most High. [Bukhaari, Muslim]

And he (peace be upon him), mentioning the prayer, said (which means): If anyone keeps to it, it will be light, evidence and salvation for him on the Day of Resurrection. But if anyone does not keep to it, it will not be light, evidence and salvation for him on the Day of Resurrection, and on that Day he will be associated with Qaroon, Pharaoh, Hamaan and Ubayy bin Khalaf (an enemy of Islaam from among the Quraysh). [Ahmad, Tabaraanee, Ibn Hibbaan]

Ibn Al-Qayyim explained: The person who abandons prayer will be raised with such a foursome because his neglect of player may be due to his involvement with his property, his country, his administrative work or his trade. Therefore, if he was involved with his property he will be ressurected with Qaroon; if with his country, then with Pharaoh; if with his administrative work, then with Hamaan; and if with his trade then with Ubayy bin Khalaf, the trader among the disbelievers of Makkah.

`Abdullaah bin Shaqeeq Al-`Aqeelee [Tabi`ee] (Tabi`ee: a successor to the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him)] said: “The Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not consider the abandonment of any good deed to be disbelief except the abandonment of the Prayer.” [Tirmidhee, Haakim]

When `Ali (R) was asked about a women who did not pray, he said: “The one who does not pray is a disbeliever.” [Tirmidhee, Haakim]

Ibn Mas`ood (R) said: “The one who abandons the prayer has no religion.” [Narrated by Muhammad bin Nasr Al Mirwazee]

Ibn `Abbaas (R) said: “The one who leaves off a single prayer deliberately will find, when he meets Allaah Most High, that He is angry with him.” [Narrated by Muhammad bin Nasr Al-Mirwazee, Ibn Abdul-Barr]

Ibn Hazm said: “There is no greater sin after polytheism than delaying a prayer until its time has passed and killing a believer without a just cause.”

Ibraheem Al-Nakha`ee said: “The one who has abandoned the prayer has become a disbeliever.” Aboo Ayyoob Al-Sakhtiyanee said something similar to this. Ibn Hazm writes conclusively: “It has come from `Umar, `Abdur-Rahmaan bin `Awf, Mu`aadh bin Jabal, Aboo Hurayrah and other companions that anyone who skips one obligatory prayer until its time has finished becomes an apostate. We find no difference of opinion among them on this point.” [Al-Muhla by Ibn Hazm 2/326]

Also this was mentioned by Al Mundhiree in AT-TARGHEEB WA AT-TARHEEB. Then the comments: A group of Companions and those who came after them believed that an intentional decision to skip one prayer until its time is completely finished makes one an unbeliever. The people of this opinion include `Umar bin Al-Khattaab, `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood, `Abdullaah bin `Abbaas, Mu`aadh bin Jabal, Jaabir bin `Abdullaah and Aboo Ad-Dardaa’. Among the non-companions who shared this view were: Ibn Hanbal, Ishaaq bin Rahwayh, `Abdullaah bin Mubaarak, An-Nakha`ee, Al-Hakam bin `Utaibah, Aboo Ayyoob As-Sakhtiyaanee, Aboo Dawood At-Tiyaalisee, Aboo Bakr bin Aboo Shaybah, Zuhayr ibn Harb, and others.

REFERENCES:

Al-Haytamee, Ibn Hajr, AZ-ZAWAAJIR `AN IQTIRAAF AL KABAA’IR, Vol. I, (corrected by) Ahmad Abdush-Shaafee, Daar Al-Kutub Al-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, 1987

Dhahabee, Imaam Muhammad bin `Uthmaan, KITAAB AL-KABAA’IR, (Engl. tr.) Mohammed Moinuddin Siddiqui, Dar El-Fiker, Beirut, Lebanon, 1993.

Sabiq, As-Sayyid, FIQH-US SUNNAH, Vol. I, (Engl. tr.) Muhammad Sa`eed Dabas and Jamal al-Din Zarabozo, Maktabat al-Khadamat-e Al-Hadithah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1987.

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DEVELOPING HUMILITY IN PRAYER

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal

You should know – may Allah have mercy upon you – that when the slave [of Allah] leaves his house to go to the mosque, that he is going to face Allah, the Irresistible, the One, the Omnipotent, the Exalted in Might, the Oft-forgiving, in the knowledge that nothing is hidden from Allah, wherever it might be, and that nothing is hidden from Allah and that even something as small as a mustard seed is not concealed from Him, nor even something smaller, nor larger – in the seven earths or the seven heavens, in the seven seas or the lofty mountains, fixed and firm. And verily, the mosque to which he comes is one of the Houses of Allah. He desires only Allah and he sets out to one of Allah’s Houses, which: “Allah has permitted to be raised to honour, for the celebration in them of His Name: In them He is glorified in the mornings and the evenings [over and over] by men whom neither traffic nor merchandise can divert from the practice of regular charity: Their [only] fear is for the Day when hearts and eyes will be transformed.” [Qur’an 24:36-37]

So when anyone from amongst you sets out from his house (for the mosque) he should say quietly to himself words of remembrance [of Allah] – words unconnected with the affairs and business of this world. He should set out calmly, somberly, for this is what the Prophet, saw, ordered us to do; he should set out with (his heart full of) longing and desire [for Allah’s pleasure] and fear and apprehension [of Allah’s anger] and with humility and meekness towards Allah. For the more humble, the more meek, the more submissive he is to Allah, the more virtuous and righteous does he become in Salah and the greater becomes his reward, and the more noble and nearer to Allah becomes the worshipper. But should he be filled with pride, Allah will destroy him and will reject his deeds, for the deeds of the proud are never accepted. It has been narrated in a hadith concerning Prophet Ibrahim, as, Allah’s Khalil, that he spent the night in worship and remembrance of Allah, and in the morning, he was pleased with the night’s worship and he said: “How Good is the Rabb (Lord), and how good is the slave, Ibrahim (`alaihis salam).” On the following day, finding none to share his food with him – and he loved to share his food – he took his food outside to the road and sat, waiting for any passerby to eat with him. then two angels descended from the heavens and approached him.

So he invited them to eat with him and they accepted. Then Ibrahim `alaihis salam suggested that they approach a nearby garden which contained a fresh water spring. They agreed to this and approached the garden, only to find that the spring had run underground, so there was no water. This was a severe blow to Ibrahim, `alaihis salam, and he was embarrassed by what he had said (because there was no spring in evidence) and so the angels said to him: “Ask your Rabb to return the spring.” He did so, but the spring did not appear, and this was a great blow to him and so he said to the angels: “You ask Allah.” So one of them asked Him, and behold! The water returned, then the other supplicated Allah and the water flowed near to them. Then they informed him that his being impressed by his own standing in prayer the previous night had caused his supplication to be rejected. So beware – may Allah have mercy on you – of pride, for no deed will be accepted if it is accompanied by pride. Be humble in your Salah. Should any of you stand in Salah before his Rabb, he should know Allah, in his heart by the great blessings which He bestows upon him and the abundant favour which He grants him, for Allah has honoured him with great goodness, but he has saddled himself with sins. Therefore it is incumbent upon him to be excessive in his humility and meekness towards Allah.

It is reported from Abu ad-Darda that he said, “That may face be covered in dust for my Rabb (is most loved by me), – for that is the best kind of worship for Allah.” So let none of you fear the dust, nor find it distasteful to make sujud in it, for there is no doubt that every one of you comes from it (i.e. mankind was created from dust). Nor should any of you fear an excess of it, for verily, it is by this means that one attempts to attain freedom from slavery and salvation from the Hellfire – a fire before which the fixed lofty mountains which were placed as pegs (holding the earth) could not stand, nor the seven strong heavens, built one above another, which are placed as a well graded canopy over us, nor the earth, which was placed as a dwelling for us, nor the seven seas, of which none knows their depths or their size except the One Who created them. Then what about us, with our feeble bodies, our delicate bones, our flimsy skin? We seek refuge with Allah from the Fire!

So should any of you stand in Salah – may Allah have mercy on you – then let him be as if he sees Allah before him, for though he may not see Allah, verily, Allah sees him. It is narrated in a hadith that Allah’s Messenger, saw, advised a man, saying: “Fear Allah as though you see Him, for verily, though you may not see Him, He sees you.”[Something similar to this wording is quoted in the hadith in which the Prophet, saw spoke to Jibril, `alaihis salam, informing him about the meaning of ihsan, as reported by Bukhari and Muslim.]

This then, is the advice of the Prophet, saw, to the slave in all his affairs, so what about when he performs Salah, when he stands before Allah, in a particular place, a sacred place, desiring Allah and turning his face towards Him? Does not his standing, his situation in Salah merit the same ihsan as all his affairs? It says in a hadith:

“Verily, the slave, when he starts his Salah, should turn his face to Allah, and he should not turn it away from Him until he leaves or turns to right and left.” [That is, when he makes taslim at the end of the prayer.] (Narrated by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa’i).

It is also narrated in a hadith: “Verily, the slave, as long as he is in Salah, possesses three qualities: Blessings are showered upon his head from the heavens above, the angels sit around him, from his feet to the heavens and a caller says: ‘If the slave knew the One Who hears his whispered utterances, he would never leave his Salah.'” [This narration was mentioned by Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Mirwazi in Kitab as-Salah from the hadith of Al-Hasan Al-Basri in a mursal form (an incomplete chain of narrations, in which no Companion is mentioned). Allah showers His Mercy upon the worshipper who approaches prayer in a state of humility and meekness towards Allah, in fear and supplicating Him with desire (for His Pleasure), and in hope (of His Mercy), making Salah to his Rabb, his most important consideration, dedicating his whispered utterances to Him and his standing erect in worship and his ruku` and his sujud, poring out his heart and his feelings and struggling to perfect his acts of worship, for he knows not whether he will perform another prayer after it, or whether he will be overtaken (by death) before he can perform Salah again. He stands before his Rabb, earnestly, with deep feelings, hoping for its acceptance and fearing its rejection, for verily, its acceptance is a cause for joy, while its rejection is a cause for misery and wretchedness. Nothing could be more important to you – O my brother – in this Salah, or indeed in any of your actions [i.e. that Allah should accept them]. What is more deserving of your distress and misery, your fear – indeed your terror – you know not whether your Salah will find favour with Allah at all, nor whether any of your good deeds will be accepted.

Do you know if your sins will be forgiven at all? After all this, you have no assurance that you will be spared from it (i.e. the punishment of the Hellfire). So who is more deserving of your tears and sadness [than Allah] – that He may accept from you (your deeds)? In addition to this, you know not whether or not you will awaken in the morning, nor if you will still be here in the evening – will you be given the good news of Paradise, or the bad news of the Hellfire? I only desire to warn you – O my brother – of this terrible danger. It is not fitting that you should be happy because of your family, your wealth or your children. It is a most amazing thing that you should continue to be unmindful, chasing after vain desires, wasting your time in disregard of this most important matter, for you are being driven at a fierce pace (towards death) day and night, hour by hour, like the blink of an eye. You should expect – O my brother – that your time may come at any moment and do not be unmindful of this great danger which may visit you. Most assuredly, you must (eventually) taste death.

Your time may come in the morning or in the evening. You will be separated from all that you possessed – either (to be rewarded with) Paradise or (to be punished in) the Hellfire. Descriptions and stories of them (have become) superfluous. Have you not heard – O my brother the words of the pious slave: “I am amazed concerning the Hellfire – how does the one who could flee from it sleep? And I am amazed concerning the Jannah – how does the one who desires it sleep? For by Allah! If you neither desire Paradise, nor fear the Hellfire, then you are destroyed and grievous will be your sorrow, interminable your sadness and without limit your tears; you will be amongst the wretched, the punished ones. So if you claim that you are amongst those who seek refuge from the Fire and desire Paradise, then strive for that which you seek and do not be misled by your worldly desires.”

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BEFORE YOU PRAY

by Captain Anas Bin Abdul Hameed Al-Gawz (Darussalam Publishers & Distributors)

Some Ahadith About The Salat

Once Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam), passing by his Companions asked, “Do you know what the Almighty Allah says? He says, ‘I swear by My Honour and Glory, there is no one who performs the Salat at its stated time, but I admit him to the Paradise. But for who performs it without observing its prescribed time, I may have mercy upon him if I like or punish him if I like.'” [At-Tabarani]

Allah’s Messenger (saw) said, “Allah, the Blessed and Exalted is certainly pleased by Salat in congregation.”

Allah’s Messenger (saw) said, “The first thing that a person would be called to account for on the Day of Judgement is the Salat. If it is performed properly, all deeds become in order, and if it is improper, then all his deeds are in vain.”

Allah’s Messenger (saw) said, “All the sins between the five daily Salat; one Friday prayer to the next Friday prayer; and also between (the fasting of) one Ramadhan to the next Ramadhan are wiped off if one avoids the major sins.” [Muslim]

Benefits Of The Salat

“Whenever Allah’s (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) encountered a serious matter, he hurried to the Salat. [Ahmad, Abu Dawud]

Imam Ibn Qayyim (Rahimullah) said in his book Zad Al-Ma`ad:

    The Salat:

  1. a.. Attracts good livelihood
  2. b.. Improves health
  3. c.. Staves off harm
  4. d.. Keeps away diseases
  5. e.. Strengthens the heart
  6. f.. Brightens the face
  7. g.. Delights the soul
  8. h.. Takes away laziness
  9. i.. Invigorates the organs
  10. j.. Replenishes the energies
  11. k.. Refreshes the heart
  12. l.. Nurtures the spirit
  13. m.. Enlightens the mind
  14. n.. Preserves the boon
  15. o.. Prevents adversity – Punishment
  16. p.. Brings the blessings
  17. q.. Drives away Satan
  18. r.. Draws closer to the Almighty Allah

The Salat

How much have you learnt about the Salat so far? You should realise that it is of paramount importance for you. If you find yourself somewhat lazy in condition about performing it in congregation, then you should read the following ahadith of the Noble Prophet (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) that contain an impetus to urge you and an encouragement that will persuade you to perform it. Especially when you know that you are deprived of the great reward when you miss even a single congregational Salat in the Mosque.

At The Time Of The Call To Salat (Adhan)

My Muslim brother, when you hear the Adhan – the Call to Salat – you should realise that this Call is addressed to you. So you should get up, give up your amusement and respond to Allah’s Call which tells you: “Come fast to the Salat, come fast to the Success” and remember the saying of the Prophet (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam), “Whoever said when he hears the Call, ‘O Allah! Lord of this perfect Call and of the regular Salat which is going to be established. Kindly give Muhammad the right of intercession and superiority and send him to the best and the highest place in Paradise which You promised him’, he becomes eligible for my intercession on the Day of Judgement.” [Al-Bukhari]

You may imagine the great reward when you supplicate according to that hadith to become eligible for the intercession of the Noble Prophet (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam). Not only this, but your sins too are forgiven when you repeat after the Mu`adhdhin (Call-maker), as is narrated in the Hadith: “Whoever said when he hears the Mu`adhdhin (Call-maker), ‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah. He is Alone and has no partners with Him, and indeed Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger. I am pleased with Allah as my Lord and with Muhammad as the Messenger’, all his sins are forgiven even if his sins are greater than the surf in the ocean.” [Muslim]

And above all, remember that your supplication is never turned down between the Adhan and the Iqamah (Call for starting the congregational Salat), as is narrated in the hadith reported by Abu Dawud that Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) said, “The supplication between Adhan and Iqamah is never turned down.” [Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi]

So you may imagine the extent of magnanimity and mercy. Can there be a gesture of generosity beyond that?

At The Time Of Wudu (Ablution)

Imagine that you wash away the sins from your body through the ritual of Wudu (ablution) just as you wash out dirt and dust from it. The Noble Prophet (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) has said, “When a Muslim or a Believer washes his face (in the course of Wudu) every sin that he contemplated with his eyes is washed away from his face along with water, or with the last drop of water; when he washes his hands, every sin they wrought is effaced from his hands with the water, or with the last drop of water; and when he washes his feet, every sin toward which his feet have walked is washed away with the water, or with the last drop of water until he comes out pure from all sins.” [Muslim]

Do not forget, my Muslim brother, the great supplication following the Wudu that will open for you all the eight gates of Paradise to enter by whichever of them you wish as the Prophet (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) said, “Whoever amongst you performs the Wudu well, and then says, ‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah. He is Alone and has no partners with Him. And I testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger’, the eight gates of the Paradise would be opened for him and he may enter by whichever of them he wishes.” [Muslim]

At-Tirmidhi adds, “O Allah make me among the penitents and make me of those who seek purification.”

Imagine yourself my Muslim brother, as if you are coming to call on the monarch and you are received by his security and protocol with all the gates of his palace open for you. What an honour and dignity that would be!

Furthermore, the ritual of Wudu is a means of purity in this world and beauty in the Hereafter.

Won’t you, my Muslim brothers, like to be attired in ornament and adornment on the Day of Judgement? This is attained by performing Wudu in a perfect manner as the Prophet (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) said, “The adornment of the Believer reaches where the Wudu reaches.” [Muslim]

Walking To The Mosque

Those were the great rewards for you even as you did not yet leave your home for the Mosque. So what if you walk out? Imagine the great rewards that await you then!

Read the following ahadith and think over Allah’s Munificence and Compassion to His slaves! Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) said, “Whoever said when he walks out of his home, ‘In the Name of Allah, I trust in Allah there is neither might nor any power except with Allah’, he is told, ‘You are led to the right way, safeguarded and protected,’ and Satan leaves him.”

Abu Dawud adds, “Satan says to another Satan, ‘How can you grapple with a man who is led to the right way, safeguarded and protected?'” [Abu Dawud]

Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) said, “Announce good news to those walking to the Mosques in the darkness (for the morning and the night prayers) that they will have radiant light on the Day of Judgement.” [Abu Dawud]

Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) said, “Whoever went towards the Mosque in the morning or evening, Allah prepares for him a reward in the Paradise each time he walks to the Mosque.” [Al-Bukhari, Muslim]

The Prophet (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) said, “Whoever purified (made Wudu) himself in his house and then walked to one of the Houses of Allah (Masjid) to perform an obligatory Salat, his footsteps act as one lowering a sin and the other raising a reward.” [Muslim]

So my Muslim brother, you may think over the tremendous gain that you enjoy for attending a congregational Salat:

  1. a.. Allah’s Safeguard
  2. b.. Allah’s Guidance
  3. c.. Protection from Satan
  4. d.. Radiant light on the Day of Judgement
  5. e.. Prominent place in Paradise
  6. f.. Pardon for sins with every step
  7. What more than that would you wish for?

Entering The Mosque

Do not forget my Muslim brother… that while entering the Mosque, you pray to Allah to open for you the doors of His Mercy, for the reception of your Salat and supplication as we are taught by Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam), “In the Name of Allah; O Allah, bestow blessings on Muhammad; O Allah, open for me the doors of Your Mercy.”

And do not forget my Muslim brother, to seek the Pleasure of Allah by using Miswak (tooth stick) as the Noble Prophet (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) urged and guided by his saying, “Miswak is an instrument for cleansing the mouth and seeking the Pleasure of Allah the Almighty.” [Ibn Khuzaimah, Ash-Shafi`i, Ahmad]

My Muslim brother, remain calm and sober, when you go to the Mosque. This is the morality and decency of a Muslim during worship, as we are guided by the Noble Prophet (Sallallahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) in his saying, “Walk in sobriety and dignity.” [Al-Bukhari, Muslim]

Say: “Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are all for Allah, the Cherisher of the Worlds…” (Quran, Surah Al-An’am:162)

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AL SUNAN AL RAWATIB (12 SUNNAH PRAYERS ASSOCIATED WITH FARD PRAYERS)

Compiled by Sis Tara Gregory

Nahfil salah (2 rakat)

Fard Fajr (Subh) (2 rakat)

Nahfil Duha (Forenoon: After Sunrise, 2-8 rakat)

Nahfil salah (2 rakat)

Fard Zuhr (4 rakat)

Nahfil salah (2 rakat)

Fard Asr (4 rakat)

Fard Maghrib (3 rakat)

Nahfil salah (2 rakat)

Fard Isha (4 rakat)

Nahfil Salaat Al-Witr (1 rakat, always the last thing before sleep)

Nahfil Qiyam ul-layl (tahhajud: night prayer, can be 1-11 rakat)

The prophet of Allah (saw) said: “Allaah will build a house in Heaven for whoever is diligent in observing” 12 Sunnah Rak’aat (as follows): 4 Rak’aat before and 2 after the Dhuhr (Midday) Prayer, 2 after the Maghrib (Sunset Prayer), 2 after the ‘Ishaa’ (Evening) Prayer and 2 before the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer.” Hadith sahih narrated by at-Tirmidhi No. 379 and by others. Hadith No. 6183 in Sahih al-Jaami’

Anbasah ibn Abi Sufyan quoted Umm Habibah as saying “Allaah’s Messenger (saw) said: “A house will be built in Heaven for one who prays 12 Rak’aat in a day and evening as follows: 4 Rak’aat before and 2 after the Dhuhr Prayer, 2 after the Maghrib Prayer, 2 after the ‘Ishaa’ Prayer and 2 before the Fajr Prayer.” Narrated by at-Tirmizi under No. 380. He said: The Hadith narrated by ‘Anbasah quoting Umm Habibah in this chapter is a hassan and sahih hadith. It is under No. 6362 in Sahih al-Jaami’

Qiyam Ul-Layl or Tahajud

‘Aa’ishah (ra) was asked about how he prayed in Ramadaan. She said, “The Messenger of Allaah (saw) never prayed more than eleven rak’ahs (of qiyaam), whether during Ramadaan or any other time. He would pray four, and don’t ask me how beautiful or how long they were. Then he would pray four, and don’t ask me how beautiful or how long they were. Then he would pray three.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, Muslim and others).

Salaat al-Duha or Salaat al-Awwaabeen

Tafsir of Surah Ad-Duha 93.1 Narrated by Ibn Abi Laila: “Only Umm Hani told us that she has seen the Prophet (saw) offering the Duha (Forenoon prayer) She said, ‘On the day of conquest of Mecca, the Prophet (saw) took a bath in my house and offered eight raka’at. I never saw him praying such a light prayer but he performed perfect prostrations and bowings'” (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol.2, Hadith No. 207A)

Narrated Abu Huraira: “My friend (the Prophet saw) advised me to observe three things: 1) to fast 3 days a month; 2) to pray two raka’at of duha (forenoon prayer); and 3) to pray witr before sleeping. (Sahih al-Bukhari Vol.3, Hadith No.202)

“From Zayd ibn Arqam who said: ‘The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went out to the people of Qubaa’ and found them praying. He said: “Salaat al-Awwaabeen is when the young camels lift up their feet (because of the heat of the sand).”’” (Reported by Muslim, 1238).

According to a report narrated by Imaam Ahmad from Zayd ibn Arqam, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to or entered the mosque at Qubaa’ after the sun had risen, and found the people there praying. He said: “Salaat al-Duhaa should be prayed when the young camels lift up their feet (because of the heat of the sand).”

According to a report narrated by Muslim from al-Qaasim al-Shaybaani, Zayd ibn Arqam saw some people praying Duhaa and said: “Do they not know that praying at some other time than this is better? The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Salaat al-Awwaabeen is when the young camels lift up their feet (because of the heat of the sand).’” (Saheeh Muslim, 1237).

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The phrase ‘Salaat al-Awwaabeen is when the young camels lift up their feet (because of the heat of the sand)’ refers to when the sand becomes unbearably hot from the sun’s heat, and burns the soles of the young camels’ feet, so they alternately raise and lower their feet in response to the heat of the sand. ‘Al-Awwaab’ means one who is obedient, or one who turns to obedience. The hadeeth also refers to the best time to offer this prayer, although it is permissible to pray it any time after the sun has risen and before it reaches its zenith.” (Sharh Muslim li‘l-Nawawi). And Allaah knows best.

Salaat al-Witr

‘Aa’ishah (ra) was asked how many rak’ahs the Messenger of Allaah (saw) used to pray in witr? She said, “He used to pray four and three, or six and three, or ten and three. He never used to pray less than seven, or more than thirteen.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, Ahmad and others). With regard to him speaking about it, he said: “Witr is truth, who wishes to offer the Witr prayer with five let him do so, and who wishes to offer Witr with three let him do so; and who wishes to offer the Witr prayer with one Rakaa let him do so.” [by Al-Tahawi, and Al-Hakim, with Sahih chain] It can be offered in silence (i.e. low voice) and can be offered with a loud voice.

The Prophet (saw) also said: “Allaah has added one more prayer for you, which is witr, so pray it between Salaat al-‘Isha’ and Salaat al-Fajr.” Witr in Arabic means “odd” and refer to the particular prayer described here. and all the night prayer is considered Witr , because its number of Rakaa is witr i.e. an odd number. ‘Ali says: “The witr prayer is not required like your obligatory prayers, but the Prophet would perform the witr prayer and say: ‘O you people [followers] of the Qur’an, perform the witr prayer, for Allah is one and He loves the witr.'” This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, at-Tirmidhi who calls it hasan, and al-Hakim who grades it sahih.

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The Obligation and Virtue of the Prayer

By Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen

Translated by: Abu Maryam

Source: small pamphlet entitled Sifat Salaat An-Nabee

The Prayer: is the second pillar from the pillars of Islaam and the most important pillar of Islaam after the Shahaadah (testimony) of Faith.

The Prayer: is a link between the servant and his Lord. The Prophet SAWS said: “Indeed, when one of you prays, he speaks privately with his Lord.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree] And Allaah says in the qudsee hadeeth: “I have divided the prayer between Myself and My servant into two parts, and My servant will have what he asks for.

So when the servant says: ‘Al-Hamdulillaahi Rabb-il-‘Alameen’, Allaah says: ‘My servant has praised Me.’

And when he says: ‘Ar-Rahmaan-ir-Raheem’, Allaah says: ‘My servant has extolled Me.’

And when he says: ‘Maaliki-yawm-id-Deen’, Allaah says: ‘My servant has honored Me.’

And when he says: ‘Iyyaaka Na’bdu wa Iyyaaka Nasta’een’, Allaah says: ‘This is between Me and My servant and My servant will have what he asks for.’

And when he says: ‘Ihdinaas-Siraat-al-Mustaqeem. Siraat-aladheena an’amta ‘alaihim. Ghairil-Maghdoobi ‘alaihim wa lad-Daalleen’, Allaah says: ‘This is for My servant and for My servant will be what he asks for.’” [Reported by Muslim]

The Prayer: is a garden of ‘ibaadaat (acts of worship), in which every splendid type of worship is found. There is the takbeer, by which the prayer is initiated, the standing in which the person praying recites the words of Allaah, the bowing in which he extols his Lord, the rising from the bowing position, which is filled with the praising of Allaah, the prostration in which he glorifies Allaah by His highness and in which he implores him through supplication, the sitting in which there is the tashahhud and (more) supplication and the closing with tasleem.

The Prayer: is a means of support and assistance in times of distress and grief. And it prevents one from evil and shameful deeds. Allaah says: “Seek assistance in patience and prayer.” And He says: “Recite what has been revealed to you from the Book and establish the prayer. Verily, the prayer prevents one from evil and shameful deeds.”

The Prayer: is the light of the believers in their hearts and in their place of gathering (on the Day of Judgement). The Prophet SAWS said: “The prayer is light.” And he SAWS said: “Whoever guards it (his prayers), it will be a light, a proof and a (means of) salvation for him on the Day of Judgement.” [Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Hibbaan and At-Tabaraanee]

The Prayer: is the joy and delight of the believers’ souls. The Prophet SAWS said: “My delight was placed in the prayer.” [Reported by Ahmad and An-Nasaa’ee]

The Prayer: wipes away sins and expiates evil deeds. The Prophet SAWS said: “Do you think that if there was a river by the door of one of you and he bathed in it five times a day that there would remain any dirt on him?” They (the Companions) answered: “There would not remain any dirt on him.” The Prophet SAWS said: “That is how it is with the five (daily) prayers, through them Allaah washes away the (minor) sins.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim] And the Prophet SAWS said: “The five (daily) prayers and Jumu’ah (prayer) to Jumu’ah (prayer) are an expiation for what (sins) occur between them so long as one is not guilty of major sins.” [Reported by Muslim]

The Prayer in Congregation: Ibn ‘Umar RAA reported that the Prophet SAWS said: “Prayer in congregation is better than praying alone by twenty-seven degrees.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim] Ibn Mas’ood RAA said: “Whoever would be happy to meet Allaah tomorrow as a Muslim, then let him preserve (in establishing) these five prayers from the place where they are called from (i.e. masjids), for verily, Allaah has legislated for your Prophet the ways of guidance. And indeed these (five prayers in the masjid) are from the ways of guidance. And if you were to pray in your homes as this man who refrains (to pray in the masjid) prays in his home, then you would have abandoned the Sunnah of your Prophet. And if you were to abandon the Sunnah of your Prophet SAWS you would go astray. There is not a man that performs the ablution and does it well, then sets out to go to one of these masjids except that Allaah records a good deed for him for every step he takes and raises him up one level and erases one evil deed due to it. You have certainly seen us, and no one would refrain from the prayer (in the masjid) except the hypocrite whose hypocrisy was well known. And indeed a man would be brought supported by two men until he was made to stand in the row (for prayer).” [Reported by Muslim]

Al-Khushoo’ (Submissiveness) in the Prayer, which means that the heart be present and attentive, and preserving that are both from the means of entering Paradise. Allaah says: “Successful indeed are the believers. Those who in their prayers are submissive. And those who turn away from vain talk. And those who pay their Zakaat. And those who protect their private parts – Except in front of their spouses or those (women) whom their right hands possess, for indeed they are not held to blame (in that). So whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors. And those who keep their trusts and covenants. And those who preserve their prayers. They are the inheritors – the ones who will inherit Al-Firdaus (highest level in Paradise), in which they will abide forever.”

Being sincere to Allaah in the prayer and performing it according to the manner it is described in the Sunnah are the two fundamental conditions for its acceptance. The Prophet SAWS said: “Verily, actions are by intentions and every person will have what he intended.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim] And he SAWS said: “Pray as you have seen me pray.” {Reported by Al-Bukhaaree]

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A BROTHER-IN-LAW WHO RARELY PRAYS

By Shaikh Ibn Baz

Question: I have a brother-in-law who rarely prays. I live with my husband’s family and [the female members of] his family sit with him even if the Imam is praying. What should I do? I am not one of his relatives (mahram). Is there any sin upon me since I do not have the ability to advise him?

Response: If he does not pray, then he is deserving to be boycotted. You should not greet him nor should you respond to hit greeting, until he repents. This is because not praying is a great form of kufr [that takes one out of the fold of Islam]. This is true even if the person does not deny that it is obligatory. This is according to the most correct opinion among the scholars. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “The covenant that is between us and them [the disbelievers] is the prayer. Whoever abandons it has committed blasphemy.”

This was recorded by Ahmad and the compilers of the Sunan with a sound chain. The Prophet (peace be upon him) also said, “Between a man and disbelief and polytheism is the abandoning of the prayer.” This was recorded by Imam Muslim in his Sahih.

However, if a person denies the obligation of the prayers then he is a disbeliever according to the consensus of the scholars. Therefore, it is obligatory upon his family to advise him and to boycott him if he does not repent. It is also obligatory to take his matter to the ruler for him to be asked to repent. If he repents, [that is accepted from him]. If he does not repent, he is to be killed. This is because Allah has said in the Quran, “But if they repent and offer prayer perfectly and give zakat, then leave their way free” (al-Tauba 5).

Also, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “I have been prohibited from killing those who pray.”1

These evidences show that one who does not pray is not to have his “way left free” and there is no prohibition against killing him if he is taken to the authorities and he does not repent.

And Allah is the One who provides guidance.

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WHAT INVALIDATES SALAH

Source http://muttaqun.com/aboutsalah.html

Talking Intentionally About Something Other Than Salah

Zaid ibn Arqam relates: “We used to talk while we were in salah and a person would speak to the person next to him until the verse was revealed: ‘And stand before Allah in devout obedience’ and we were then commanded to observe silence during the salah.” [Related by the group.]

Ibn Mas’ud reports: “We used to greet the Messenger of Allah while he was in salah and he would respond to our greeting. When we returned from Abyssinia, we greeted him [during prayer] but he did not respond to our salutation. We said to him: ‘O Messenger of Allah, we used to greet you while you were in salah and you used to respond to us!’ He then said: ‘Prayer demands one’s complete attention.'” [Bukhari and Muslim]

Praying the Entire Salah Behind the Rows, All By Yourself

Wabsah relates that the Messenger of Allah saw a man praying behind the rows by himself and the Prophet ordered him to repeat his salah. [related by the five save an-Nasa’i].

The Messenger of Allah was asked about a man who prays by himself behind the rows and he said: “He is to repeat his salah.” [Ahmad. At-Tirmidhi called this hadith hasan and Ahmad’s chain is good.]

‘Ali ibn Shaiban relates that the Messenger of Allah saw a man praying behind the row and he waited for him and (when he finished) told him: “Go forward (and join the row) for the salah of a person standing alone behind the rows is not valid.” [related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi. Ahmad says it is hasan. Ibn Sayyid an-Nass said its narrators are well-known, trustworthy people.]

The majority stick to the hadith of Abu Bakra who said that he preformed part of the prayer, behind the row, and the Prophet did not order him to repeat his salah. Repeating the salah signifies overzeal in practicing what is recommended and better.

Turning the Entire Upper Body Away from the Qiblah During Fard (Obligatory) Salah, Without Genuine Need

‘Aishah says: “I asked the Messenger of Allah about turning in salah and he said: ‘It is the portion that the Satan steals from the slave’s prayer.'” [Ahmad, al-Bukhari, an-Nasa’i, and Abu Dawud]

Abu ad-Darda’ narrates from the Prophet: “O people, be careful about turning for there is no salah for the one who turns. If you must do it, do it in the voluntary prayers and not in the obligatory prayers.” [related by Ahmad]

Anas relates that the Messenger of Allah said to him: “Be careful about turning during the salah as turning in the salah is disastrous. If you must do it, then do it in the voluntary prayers but not in the obligatory prayers.” [related by at-Tirmidhi who calls it sahih]

In the hadith of al-Harith al-Ash’ari, the Prophet said: “Allah gave Yahya, son of Zakariyah, five commands that he was to abide by and was to order the tribe of Isra’el to abide by…” One of them was, “Verily, Allah orders you to pray, and when you pray, do not tum for Allah looks to the face of His slave in salah as long as he does not turn.” [Ahmad and an-Nasa’i]

Abu Dharr reported that the Prophet said: “Allah faces the slave while he is in the salah and keeps facing him as long as he does not turn. If [the slave] turns, [Allah] turns away from him.” [Ahmad and Dawud. Dawud said its chain of narrators (isnad) is sahih]

Making Many Actions that Lead a Viewer To Believe That You Are Not in Salah

An-Nawawi says: “If a person performs a lot of actions that are not part of the salah, he invalidates his salah, and, on this point, there is no difference of opinion. If the acts are few, then they do not invalidate the salah and, on this point, there also is no difference of opinion. This is the exact position. However, there does exist a difference of opinion over what exactly constitutes a few actions and many actions…”. He says that the exact definitions of too much and too little are determined by generally accepted standards. One is not harmed in his salah by common acts such as nodding in reply to a salutation, taking off one’s shoes, raising the headdress and putting it back in place, putting on or taking off a light garment, carrying or holding a small child, preventing someone from passing in front of the person in prayer, covering one’s spittle in one’s clothing and similar other actions. As for the other acts, those which are considered to constitute many actions (e.g., taking many consecutive steps, performing actions repeatedly) they invalidate the prayer.

An-Nawawi also says: “The scholars are in agreement that many actions invalidate the prayer if they are performed consecutively [i.e., one after another]. If one separates the actions, for instance, taking a step and then stopping for a while, then taking another step or two, and then another two steps, after a pause (though a short one) between them, then the salah will not be harmed, even if he in this manner should take a hundred or more steps. There is no difference of opinion on this point. As for light actions, such as moving one’s finger in glorifying Allah or in itching, and so forth., these do not invalidate the prayer according to the well-known, authentic opinion, even when they are done repeatedly and consecutively, but they are disliked.”

AshShaf’i says: “Even if one counts the verses on one’s fingers, it would not invalidate one’s salah, but it is best to avoid [such an act].”

Laughing Hearty During Salah

Ibn al-Mundhir records that there is a consensus of opinion that laughing (during the salah) invalidates the prayer. An-Nawawi says: “This is the case if one laughs aloud, and produces sound. Most of the scholars say that there is no problem with smiling. If one is overcome by laughter and cannot control it, his salah will not become invalid if it is of minor nature. If it is a hearty laughter, it will invalidate the salah. Custom would determine whether it is a major or a minor laughter.”

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ESSENTIALS OF SALAH

Reference: Important Lessons by Shaikh Ibn Baz

Shaikh Ibn Baz may Allah bless him was asked about the essential matters of the salaah and he answered saying:

First, one must know that there are conditions of the salaah that must be met before entering into it. Meaning that the salaah cannot be valid without them. Second, there are pillars of the salaah (arkaan) that must be performed in the salaah. Meaning, that if any of them is left out, the salaah would not be valid. Third, there are the obligations (waajibaat) of the salaah that if left out or done in the wrong place or time, require the one praying to make the prostrations of forgetfulness (Sajdatais-Sahw) to cover the error. Finally, there are the non-obligatory acts of the salaah (sunan) that if performed bring the salaah closer to perfection but if left out do not invalidate or harm the salaah. It should be noted that the scholars of Islam have classified these areas – based upon the confirmed sunnah of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) – for the benefit of the Ummah to preserve the correct knowledge of their religion after the time of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions (radiallahu ‘anhum). We will list each as follows:

Conditions (Shuroot) of Salaah:

Sanity or mentally competent (al-‘aql)

Distinguish between right and wrong (i.e. aware and cognizant of the prayer and what it involves (at-tamyeez)

Ritual purity (raf’ al-hadath)

Elimination of filth (izaalatun-Najaasah)

Covering the private area (satrul-‘Auwrah)

Entrance of the time of the salaah (dukhoolul-waqt)

Facing the Kaabah (istiqbaalul-Qiblah)–Intention (an-niyyah)

Pillars of Salaah (Arkaanus-Salaah) and they are 14:

1 Standing if able

2 Opening takbeer (takbeeratul-Ihraam)

3 Recitation of Al-Faatihah

4 & 5 Bowing and rising from it

6 Standing up after bowing

7 & 8 Prostration on the seven “parts” (1) forehead with nose, 2-3) palms of both hands, 4-5) both knees,

6-7) toes of both feet) and rising from it

9 Sitting between the two prostrations

10 Tranquility or settledness in every act of salaah

11 & 12 The final tashahhud and sitting in it

13 Salaah upon the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)

14 The two closing salaams

Obligations of Salaah (Waajibaat) and they are 8 :

1 Making all the takbeers excluding the opening takbeer

2 Saying: ‘Sami’ Allahu liman hamidah’ (Allah hears whoever praises Him) whether imaam or follower

3 Saying: ‘Rabbanaa lakal-hamd’ (Our Lord for you is the praise) for all

4 Saying: ‘Subhaana Rabbiyal-Atheem’ (Free from all imperfection is the Great Lord) while bowing

5 Saying: ‘Subhaana rabbiyal-‘Alaa’ (Free from all defect is the Most High Lord) while prostrating

6 Saying: ‘Rabbighfir lee’ (Oh My Lord forgive me) between the two prostrations

7 & 8 The first tashahhud and sitting in it

The Non-Obligatory Acts of Salaah (Sunan) Some are:

The du’aa of opening or entrance (al-istiftaah)

Putting the right hand on the left when in standing position

Raising the hands with palms raised and open to the shoulder or ear level at the first takbeer, when going into rukoo’ (bowing) and coming out of it, when standing out of the first tashahhud and going into the third rak’ah.

Saying more than one tasbeeh in the bowing or prostration positions

Asking for forgiveness more than once when between prostrations

Bowing with the head level and back straight

Not holding the limbs closely to the sides or balled tightly with the stomach touching the thighs while in prostration

Raising the forearms off the ground when in prostration

Sitting on the left leg with the right bent in the first tashahhud and between the two prostrations At-Tawarruk (placing the left foot under the right thigh) in the last tashahhud while bending the right leg.

Making salaah and asking for blesing upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and upon Ibraahim and upon the family of Ibraahim in the first tashahhud.

Making du’aa in the second tashahhud

Making salaatul-Fajr aloud, as well as the first two sections (rak’atain) of the Maghrib and Ishaa prayers.

Reciting softly or silently (moving the lips) for the Dhuhr, and ‘Asr prayers and in the third rak’ah of Maghrib and the last two of Ishaa.

Recitation of other than Al-Faatihah from the Qur’aan and taking care to follow the remaining matters related from the sunnah in the salaat besides those we have mentioned.

Nullifiers of the Salaah (mabtulaat):

Intentionally speaking when aware of its prohibition.

As far as doing so forgetfully or out of ignorance, then it is excused.

Laughing

Eating

Drinking

Uncovering the ‘auwrah

Significantly turning one’s body away from the Qiblah (this applies if one is sure of the direction of the Qiblah – Ed.)

Excessive playing in the salaah

Breaking or losing ritual purity (at-tahaarah).

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AHADITH ON ABANDONING SALAT

`Abdullaah bin Shaqeeq Al-`Aqeelee Tabi`ee (Tabi`ee: a successor to the companions of the Prophet ] said: “The Companions of the Prophet did not consider the abandonment of any good deed to be disbelief except the abandonment of the Prayer.” [Tirmidhee, Haakim]

When `Alee was asked about a women who did not pray, he said: “The one who does not pray is a disbeliever.” [Tirmidhee, Haakim]

Ibn Mas`ood (R) said: “The one who abandons the prayer has no religion.” [Muhammad bin Nasr Al Mirwazee]

Ibn `Abbaas (R) said: “The one who leaves off a single prayer deliberately will find, when he meets Allaah Most High, that He (T) is angry with him.” [Muhammad bin Nasr Al-Mirwazee, Ibn Abdul-Barr]

Ibn Hazm said: “There is no greater sin after polytheism than delaying a prayer until its time has passed and killing a believer without a just cause.”

Ibraheem Al-Nakha`ee said: “The one who has abandoned the prayer has become a disbeliever.” Aboo Ayyoob Al-Sakhtiyanee said something similar to this. Ibn Hazm writes conclusively: “It has come from `Umar, `Abdur-Rahmaan bin `Awf, Mu`aadh bin Jabal, Aboo Hurayrah and other companions that anyone who skips one obligatory prayer until its time has finished becomes an apostate. We find no difference of opinion among them on this point.”

This was mentioned by Al Mundhiree in AT-TARGHEEB WA AT-TARHEEB. Then he comments: A group of Companions and those who came after them believed that an intentional decision to skip one prayer until its time is completely finished makes one an unbeliever. The people of this opinion include `Umar bin Al-Khattaab, `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood, `Abdullaah bin `Abbaas, Mu`aadh bin Jabal, Jaabir bin `Abdullaah and Aboo Ad-Dardaa’. Among the non-companions who shared this view were: Ibn Hanbal, Ishaaq bin Rahwayh, `Abdullaah bin Mubaarak, An-Nakha`ee, Al-Hakam bin `Utaibah, Aboo Ayyoob As-Sakhtiyaanee, Aboo Dawood At-Tiyaalisee, Aboo Bakr bin Aboo Shaybah, Zuhayr in Harb, and others.

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SALAAT AD-DUHAA

Source: Kaifa tuTTilu 3omrak elintaaji (how to make your producing life longer)

By Mohamed bin Ibrahim anNa3eem

It is known that a human body contains 360 joints and the Prophet (saws) encouraged us to give daily charity to thank Allah for the blessings of these joints.

Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet (saws) said: “The son of Adam has 360 joints, daily sadaqah (charity) must be given for every joint. So each good word a man utters, is sadaqah and a man’s assistance to his brother is sadaqah and a drink of water (for someone) is sadaqah and the removal of a harmful thing from the way is sadaqah”. (aT-Tabbarani – authenticated by Al-Albaani)

Imagine how much time you will need to perform these kinds of charities 360 times a day and they are a daily debt upon you?

But if you pray 2 rakaat of Duhaa prayer every day, they will be enough to settle this daily debt of yours. It will save your time and effort and these charities will increase your good deeds if you perform them. In addition to that, you will also receive the reward of 3Umra for performing the Doha prayer.

Abu Dhar Al Ghifary narrated that the Prophet (saws) said: “In the morning sadaqah is due on every joint of the body, of every one of you. Every glorification of Allah is a sadaqah, and every utterance of praise of Him is sadaqah, and every utterance of profession of His Greatness is sadaqah, and enjoining good is sadaqah and forbidding what is disreputable (evil) is sadaqah, and two bows (Rak’ahs) which one prays in the forenoon will suffice. (Muslim)

About the time of Salaat-al-Duhaa

Salaat al-Awwaabeen is otherwise known as Salaat al-Duhaa, and may consist of 2, 4, 6 or 8 rak’ahs, prayed after the sun has risen and before the time for Zuhr approaches. It is better to delay it until the day is hotter, the evidence for which is as follows:

The Messenger of Allaah (saws) said: ‘Salaat al-Awwaabeen is when the young camels lift up their feet (because of the heat of the sand).’” (Saheeh Muslim, 1237).

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The phrase ‘Salaat al-Awwaabeen is when the young camels lift up their feet (because of the heat of the sand)’ refers to when the sand becomes unbearably hot from the sun’s heat, and burns the soles of the young camels’ feet, so they alternately raise and lower their feet in response to the heat of the sand. The hadeeth also refers to the best time to offer this prayer, although it is permissible to pray it any time after the sun has risen and before it reaches its zenith.” (Sharh Muslim li‘l-Nawawi).

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ERRORS IN PRAYERS THAT MUST BE AVOIDED

Quran & Sunnah Society

Salat (namaaz) or prayer is one of the most important pillars of Islam. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) warned that the first thing man will be questioned about on the Day of Resurrection is prayer. Abu Hurairah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) saying:

The first act of worship man shall be questioned about on the Day of Resurrection is prayer. If it was performed correctly1, man shall certainly succeed and prosper, if it is not, he shall certainly lose and fail. If, however, man’s prayer was incomplete, the Lord, the Exalted, would say (to His Angels), “See if my slave performed supererogatory (nafl) prayers to make up what he had missed of the obligatory prayers. The rest of man’s deeds will be reckoned in the same manner2.

Buraidah reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, The covenant3 which is between us and those (who embrace Islam) is prayer. Whoso neglects it, becomes an unbeliever4.

On the other hand, Allah has prepared great rewards for the believers who observe prayer and are particular about it. Perfect prayer effaces sins. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Have you considered, a river running by the door of you in which he bathes five times a day; would any of his dirt stay on him? They said “None of his dirt would stay on him.” The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said So does Salah; therewith Allah eliminates sins5.

Therefore, brothers and sisters it is very important to be regular on prayer, and perform it correctly. One may perform prayer according to the way he was taught by his parents or sheikh, according to their madthhab. But you should always remember that it is only the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) who must be followed. The angels will not ask you, while in the grave, “Did you follow this imaam or that imaam?” Your imaam will not be with you then, nor will he defend you on the Day of Resurrection.

The traditions quoted here, and in every issue of Ad-Deen an-Naseehah, are authentic. Anyone who rejects the authentic Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) exposes himself to destruction, as stated by Imaam Ahmed.

The following are some common errors committed by Muslims in their Salah. These errors must be avoided hoping that Allah would accept this act of worship and reward us for it.

1) Wearing pants, or garments that hangs below the ankles.

This is one of the greatest sins. Abu Dtharr reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, There are three people whom Allah shall not speak to on the Day of Resurrection, nor shall he look at them, nor shall he purify them, and they shall have a painful torment: One whose garment hangs down below his ankles, almanaan6, and (a merchant) who sells of his merchandise by means of false oath7.

Some people think that wearing clothes that hang below the ankles is not a sin if they abstain from doing so while praying only. Others think that wearing such a garment is a sin only if it is worn out of pride; otherwise, they believe there is no harm in doing so. However, the above and many other traditions indicate clearly that wearing clothes that hang below the ankles (for men) is a grave sin regardless of whether such garments are worn out of habit or pride. There are other authentic traditions that emphasize wearing clothing that hangs below the ankles out of pride entails harsher punishment. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said The part of the garment which hangs below the ankles is (punishable by) Fire (on the Day of Resurrection)8.

It is commonplace to see brothers folding up the hems of their pants for prayer. However, as soon as prayer is completed, they unfold their pants. The belief that wearing garments that hang below the ankles is prohibited during prayers only is a misconception commonly held by many Muslims. Such Muslims are unaware that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) forbade praying with folded clothes9. Based on this prohibition, scholars have agreed that praying with folded sleeves or pants is unlawful.

2) Consuming food of bad smell such has garlic or onion, or smoking10 before coming to prayer.

Angels and the praying people are bothered by offensive smell. On the contrary, one should wear perfume, if available before coming into mosques. Jabir reported that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: He who eats from the smelly plant [garlic or onion], let him come not near our mosque; the angels are bothered by that which bothers men11.

3) Proceeding to mosque for prayer with brisk walk, or even running for fear of missing part of the prayer.

This may disturb those who are already in prayer. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: When prayer has already started, do not walk quickly to join in. Proceed calmly and reposefully; then join in whichever part you catch up, and complete whichever part you missed (i.e., soon after the imaam ends the prayer)12.

4) Saying Takbeer al-Ihram while in rukoo’.

Many of those who come late to the mosque and join in prayer which is already in progress, rush to take the same posture, while people are in rukoo’, and say takbeer al-Ihram, or the opening takbeer of prayer while bowing for fear of missing that ruk’ah. Takbeer al-Ihram is to be pronounced when one is standing upright, only.

5) Mumbling the niyyah or intention, and uttering it in a low audible voice.

The heart is the place of intention. Mumbling words such as “I intend to pray such prayer or such number of rak’aat, or I intend to fast, or do such act of worship or another,” just before starting prayer is a bid’ah which was practiced neither by the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) nor his companions, nor by their followers.

Uttering the above words of niyyah allows shaitaan to put irrelevant words in the mouth of the person who utters the niyyah. Do you remember at one time or another that once you stood up for dhuhr prayer and discovered yourself saying, “I intend to pray four rak’aat of Isha,” or when you were standing for Asr prayer you made your intention to pray fajr instead? This confusion is from shaitan. Had you kept silent, shaitan would have no chance of confusing you.

6) Neglecting raising the hands in the opening takbeer of salah and before and after rukoo’, and upon standing up for the third rak’ah.

Abdullah bin Umar said, “I saw the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) raising his hands to the level of his shoulders, upon starting prayer, and before bending for rukoo’ and when he stood up again13.

Raising hands with every takbeer, subsequent to the first takbeer in janazah, Eed or rain prayers is not recommended. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used to put his hands on his chest (while standing in prayer)14.

7) Neglecting the opening du’a of prayer, t’awwudth, and basmalah.

T’awwudth is saying “Aoudhu billahi min ashshaitan ir-rajim” and basmalah is saying “Bismillah hirRahmaan irRaheem.”

8) Neglecting praying facing a sutrah.

The sutrah is an object, such as a wall, or a post, which a person faces while praying. Or any other object which a person places to serve as a sutrah, by putting it on the ground in order that no one may cross in front of him while praying. The Messenger of Allah SAWS said: Pray facing a sutrah, and let no one cross in front of you while praying. If he insists, then prevent him by force because he is accompanied by shaitan15.

And he said: When one of you prays facing a sutrah, let him pray close to it so that shaitan may not be able to nullify his prayer16.

The above tradition indicates clearly that shaitan crosses in front of a praying person who prays without a sutrah, causing his prayer to be null and void without being aware of it. Even if one prays in an open field, he should place a sutrah in front of him.

Allah says: (Verily) He (the shaitan) and his own people see you while you do not see them17.

9) Reluctance to stand in the front line in congregational prayer.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Were people to realize the value of making adthan (the call for prayer), and the great reward (for doing so) and the virtue of standing in the first line (in congregational prayer), and had no choice but to make a draw (to decide who makes adthan or stands in the first line) they would have justifiably done so. And were people to know the significance of coming early to (congregational) prayer, they would have raced with one another (to reach the mosque first). And if they were to know the great reward (for coming to mosque) for Isha’ and Fajr prayers, they would have come even if they had to crawl (i.e. even if they were disabled, they would have come crawling for fear of missing its great reward.)18.

10) Gazing upward during prayer, or looking at the imam, right or left.

This may cause loss of concentration. We are commanded to lower our gaze, and look at the point at which the head rests during sujood. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) warned: Let those who raise their gaze up during prayer stop doing so, or else their sights would not return to them. [i.e. lose their eyesight]. (Muslim)

11) Leaving gaps in lines of congregational prayer.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) commanded: Straighten your lines, level your shoulders and block the gaps. Shaitan passes through [line] gaps19.

12) Reciting surat al-Fatiha fast without pausing after each verse.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used to pause after each verse of this surah20.

13) Fidgeting during prayer, or looking at a watch or fiddling with one’s fingers, clothes or moving feet or other parts of the body restlessly. All of this diminish the reward for prayer. Submissiveness is a condition of acceptance of prayer. Allah’s command signifies: And stand [in prayer] to Allah submissively21.

14) Holding the Qur’an and reciting from it by the muqtadi in congregational prayer to check the imam’s recitation.

This act distracts the person who is doing so and prevents him from concentration. It is a dispraised act during salah.

15) Racing with the imam, or moving with or before him in congregational prayer.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Move not before the imam does. When the imam says. Allahu akbar, you say, Allahu akbar. When he says, waladh-dhalleen’ you say, aameen. In another narration, he said: Surely the imam is there to be followed22. He also said: Does not the one who raises his head before the imam does fear that Allah would transform his head into a donkey’s head23.

16) Lowering the head excessively, or pushing it up, and arching the back during rukoo’.

The head must be kept in normal position, while the back must be straight during rukoo’ to form with legs a right angle.

17) Sticking the arms to the sides of the body, in rukoo’ or sujood, and sticking the belly to the thighs in sujood.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Let not one of you support himself on his forearms (in sujood ) like the dog. Let him rest on his palms and keep his elbows away from his body24. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used to keep his arms away from his body during rukoo’ and sujood that the whiteness of his armpits could be seen25.

18) Praying while part of the back is exposed.

This happens to those who wear tight and short shirts or tight pants; when they bow or prostrate, part of their backs are exposed. Such part of the body is awrah, or the part which must be covered always. Exposing part of the back during salah, renders salah null and void.

19) Neglecting ta’meen (to say ‘Aameen) loudly when the imam recites the concluding verse of surat al-Fatiha, “waladh-dhalleen”.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) commanded: When the imam says, ‘waladh-dhalleen’, say ‘Aameen’, because the angels also say, ‘Aameen’, and the imam says, ‘Aameen’. He whose aameen coincides with the aameen of the angels, Allah forgives his past sins26. In another narration, the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Then say, ‘Aameen’, Allah loves you27.

20) Resting only the tip of the head on the floor during sujood.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: I am commanded to prostrate on seven bones the forehead and the nose, the two hands [palms], the two knees, and the two feet28. Applying the above command necessitates resting the forehead and the nose on the ground during sujood.

21) Hasty performance of prayer which does not allow repose and calmness in rukoo’ or sujood.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) saw a man who did not complete his rukoo’ [bowing], and made a very short sujood [prostration]; he said: If this man dies while praying in this manner, he would die upholding a religion other than the religion of Muhammad. Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: My beloved friend, Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) forbade me to perform postures of prayer copying the picking of a rooster; (signifying fast performance of prayer), moving eyes around like a fox and the sitting like monkeys (i.e. to sit on thighs)29.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: The worst thief is the one who steals from his own prayer. People asked, ‘Messenger of Allah! How could one steal from his own prayer?’ He said: By not completing its rukoo’ and sujood30.

To complete rukoo’ is to stay in that posture long enough to recite ‘subhana rabbiyal Adtheem’ three times, slowly, and ‘subhana rabbiyal-a’ala’ three times, slowly, in sujood. He also announced: He who does not complete his rukoo’ and sujood, his prayer is void31.

22) Sitting in tawarruk position in the last rak’ah of Fajr and Jum’ah prayers.

It is praiseworthy to take tawarruk position only in the last rak’ah of Dhtuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha’ prayers. Tawarruk is described in Sahih al-Bukhari as resting the body, during sitting position, on the left thigh and putting the left foot under the right leg, while setting the right foot upright; and supporting the body by the left hand with which the left knee is grasped. See the accompanying diagram, which was hand-drawn (not copied) after looking at “The Reliance of the Traveler.”

23) Moving the two palms upon saying, ‘assalamu aleikum warahmatul-lah’ to end prayer.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) saw some of his companions doing so. He objected: Why do I see you moving your hands like the tails of wild horses. They never did that again32.

24) Counting tasbeeh with the left hand.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used to count tasbeeh on the fingers of his right hand after salah. Abdullah bin Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, (There are) two good deeds, any Muslim who does them shall enter Jannah but few are those who do them: to say, “subhanAllah” ten times, and “alHamdulillah” ten times, and “AllahuAkbar” ten times. And I have seen the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) counting them on his hand. lbn Qudamah said: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used his right hand for tasbeeh33.

The above hadeeth indicates clearly that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used only one hand for counting tasbeeh. No Muslim with sound mind would imagine that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used his left hand for counting tasbeeh. Aa’ishah, with whom Allah is pleased, said that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) used his left hand only for Istinjaa’, or cleaning himself after responding to the call of nature. He never used it for tasbeeh. Yasirah reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) commanded women to count tasbeeh on their fingers.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: They (the fingers) will be made to speak, and will be questioned (on the Day of Resurrection.)34

The above hadeeth indicates that it is preferable to count tasbeeh on the fingers of the right hand than to do so on masbahah (rosary).

25) Shaking hands with other praying people right after fardh prayer is over, saying, ‘taqabbala-llah’, or ‘haraman’

This is a bid’ah which was never practiced by the Prophet’s companions or their followers, may Allah be pleased with them.

26) Raising hands for dua’ soon as prayer is over.

This was not the practice of the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam). The Sunnah is to start with dthikr soon after salah is over. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: When you recite, ‘At-tahiyyat…’, (just before tasleem), choose whichever du’a you like35.

The best forms of du’a are those authentically related to the Prophet, (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam).. Insha’ Allah, we will publish the authentic du’a masnoon, soon.

27) Walking away right after tasleem, at the end of prayer, and neglecting dthikr.

Dthikr is reciting subhanal-Lah 33 times, alhamdu Lilah 33 times Allahu Akbar 33 times, reciting La ilaha illal-Laah 10 times reciting ayat al-Kursi [i..e. verse 255 of surah 2 al Baqarah], or other authentic dthikr.

28) Crossing in front of a praying person.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) warned: Were the one who crosses in front of a praying person to know the consequences of doing so, he would have waited for forty better than to cross in front of him36. The forty in the tradition may be days months or even years. Allah knows best.

29) Neglecting prayer when one is sick or ill.

Salah is one of the most important pillars of Islam. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) never neglected it during his sickness, nor while combating enemies. Prayer must be performed regardless. If one cannot perform ablution for one legal reason or another, then he must perform dry ablution tayammum by patting with his palms a dusty surface, then wiping the face and hands. If he cannot stand up in prayer, he may pray while sitting or lying down on his side. Otherwise, it is enough for him to pray by moving his eyes up for rukoo’ and down for sujood, and complete the rest of the prayer postures in the same manner.

30) Praying in a graveyard.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: Pray not in graveyards, nor sit on graves37.

The format of prayer is enjoined by the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam). No imam or a scholar has the right to alter it by adding to or deleting from it. There is no book of authentic hadeeth or Prophetic tradition reporting that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) commanded men to pray in one way, and women in another. He commanded: Pray as you saw me praying38. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) did not differentiate between men and women in prayer..

Some scholars opine that it is better for women to gather themselves in sujood. As every body knows, prayer is an act of worship, and like every other act of worship, there must be a textual proof for it in the Qur’an or the authentic Sunnah. A future issue of Naseehah will, insha’Allah, include the format of prayer as reported in the authentic traditions. Let us pray to Allah, extolled be His glory, seeking His forgiveness, and asking him to guide us to the straight path. Aameen.

Footnotes

[1]It should be borne in mind that performing prayer correctly means performing it in accordance with the traditions only, not according to the madthhab to which a person adheres.

[2]Sahih Sunan at-Tirmidthi.

[3]This tradition refers to the covenant which Allah has taken from Muslims, through His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and made mandatory on them praying five times a day. Neglecting salah is apostasy.

[4]Sunan an-Nasaa’ee and Sunan ibn Majah

[5]Sunan an-Nasaa’ee

[6]Almanaan is a person who gives out gifts only to reproach the recipient for what he has given him.

[7]Sahih Muslim. The above hadeeth refers to a merchant who swears falsely that he is not making a profit in his merchandise or that it cost him too much in order to convince the customer to buy it.

[8]Sahih al-Bukhari

[9]Sahih Muslim

[10]It must be borne in mind that smoking is haram, and that smoking just before coming to mosques is even worse.

[11]Sahih Muslim.

[12]Sahih Bukhari & Sahih Muslim.

[13]Ibid

[14]Al Bukhari, Abu Dawood & others.

[15]Ibn Khuzaimeh

[16]Ibid

[17]7.27

[18]Sahih Muslim

[19]Imam Ahmad and others.

[20]Abu Dawood

[21]2.238

[22]Sahih Muslim

[23]Ibid

[24]Ibid

[25]Ibid

[26]Sahih Bukhari & Sahih Muslim

[27]Sahih Muslim

[28]Ibid

[29]Imam Ahmad & at-Tayalisi

[30]At-Tabarani & al-Hakim

[31]Abu Dawood & others.

[32]Abu Dawood & an-Nasaa’ee

[33]Abu Dawood

[34]At-Tirmidhi

[35]An-Nasaee

[36]Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim

[37]Sahih Muslim and others

[38]Sahih al-Bukhari

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SAJDAH HAS MEDICAL ADVANTAGES

Dr. Muhammad Karim Beebani, Saudi Gazette

Source: The Muslim World weekly July 7, 2000

Sajdah is a unique position or stance in the regular prayers, which a Muslim is supposed to offer at least five times a day. Although the basic purpose of obligatory prayers is not to provide an exercise for people yet it is being increasingly recognized that it has plenty of medical advantages for the human body. Here it is worth mentioning that Holy Prophet Muhammadhas mentioned in a hadeeth in Ibn Majah that prayer is a cure for many diseases. The fact is that a person who offers his prayers regularly that too in the mosque is protected from many diseases which he many not even know. The position of Sajdah in which the forehead touches the earth is exclusively associated with the Muslim form of prayer. It is the climax of a Muslim’s prayer and as mentioned in a Hadeeth a Muslim is nearest to Allaah in this position.

Abu Huraira reported in Bukhari that the messenger of Allaah (pbuh) said: “The nearest a servant comes to his Lord is when he is prostrating himself, so make supplication (in this state)”

Syeda Aa`ishah Siddiqa (Ra) narrates that Holy Prophet used to prolong the prostration to such an extent that one could recite fifty verses (of the Qur’an) before he would lift his head, (Bukhari).

In another Hadeeth narrated by Anas bin Malik Holy Prophet (pbuh) advised Muslims to perform Ruku (bowing) and Sajdah properly.

In another Hadeeth he advised to perform Sajdah and Bowing calmly and to get up only when the body has come to ease.

In supplication for the victory. He also performed long bowing (Ruku) and Sajdah in the special prayers at the time of eclipse. Hence the first positive effect upon a person who prostrates or does Sajdah is that he comes nearest to Allaah and hence in that condition he can supplicate. This is a great psychological advantage and it gives relief to the person concerned as life is full of worries and in this position he gets at least a transient refuge from the agonizing problems. When a person goes to the position of prostration Sajdah his whole body is in active motion. This position can be considered as a mini dive as the musalli (one who offers prayer) goes to rest his forehead on the ground while his hands are placed at the sides. This brings most of the body muscles if not all in active motion and serves to give them some exercise.

The hands are then specifically stretched out and thence the forearm as well as arm muscles are supposed to bear the weight in the Sajdah position. It gives good exercise to the muscles of the upper limb. Holy Prophet (pbuh) in a hadeeth advised not to put the forearms flatly on the ground but to keep them elevated above ground and this is better for the forearm and arm muscles.

Sajdah is a unique position as this is the only position in which brain (or head) becomes lower than the heart and hence for the first time the blood gushes towards the brain with full force whereas in all other positions (even when lying) brain is above the heart when it has to work against gravity to send blood to the brain.

In the position of Sajdah due to the increased blood supply the brain receive more nourishment and it has good effect upon memory, vision, hearing, concentration, psyche and all other cognitive abilities. People who offer their prayers regularly have more will power and can cope with the difficulties of life in a much better manner. They have less incidence of headaches, psychological problems and other defects of cognitive function.

In the unique position of Sajdah the neck muscles get best exercise. They have to bear the load when the forehead lies at the ground hence the neck muscles become stronger. One can note the tense pressure at the neck muscles in the position of Sajdah specially the active motion of the neck and the facial muscles when the head is being lifted. (e.g. one inch above the ground) and it will be noticed that they are in a very active motion.

More strong cervical muscles mean the cervical vertebra will be better protected. Strength of cervical muscles is important as the head rests upon cervical vertebra supported by cervical musculature.

Infact head performs rotator movements over the cervical vertebra. In any accident cervical neck examination is especially important to the physicians because of its extraordinary importance.

It is uncommon that a person who offers his prayers regularly will get the usual neck myalgias or cervical spondylosis as the neck muscles particularly become very strong due to the 34 sajdahs offered daily in five prayers.

Position of Sajdah is also said to be a good treatment for the retroversion of uterus, a disease of women.

The unique position of Sajdah also has positive effects upon the back muscles as while going into Sajdah and getting up from it the back muscle contract actively and they become stronger. Probably it is because of this reason that a person who is regular in prayers will uncommonly get backache.

After performing Sajdah either the musalli stands up or he sits to pray Attahiyyat. In this position the person sits calmly while his hands rest at his thighs which are folded backwards. This is much similar to the relaxation position of Yoga and has soothing effect upon one’s health and mentation.

Holy Prophet Muhammad used to elongate the position of Ruku (bending) and Sajdah positions and he advised to do so. In the light of the above facts it is appropriate to say that from medical point of view as well this advice is a golden rule for health.

Finally it must be reminded that prayer is not meant to be an exercise. However there are a lot of medical advantages associated with it. Still the best blessing is the peace of mind, which a person derives by the accomplishment of his duty to Allah by fulfilling an obligation.

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WHY DO WE PRAY?

By Shaykh Suhayb Hasan ‘Abdul Ghaffâr

After a long and hectic day at work, how difficult it is for a tired person to go out to the mosque and concentrate on his prayers to Allaah, the Almighty. Snuggled up in a warm and cozy bed, how difficult it is to get up at the call of the Mu`azzin: “Come to prayer! Come to success!”

The famous doctor and philosopher, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), recalls such a moment in his life. One cold and icy night, he and his slave were resting at an inn in a remote part of Khuraasaan. During the night, he felt thirsty, so he called to his slave to bring him some water. The slave had no desire to leave his warm bed, so he pretended not to hear Ibn Sina’s call. But finally, after repeated calls, he reluctantly got up and went to fetch the water. A little while later, the melodious sound of the azaan (call to prayer) filled the air. Ibn Sina began to think about the person calling the people to prayer. “My slave, `Abdullaah, he mused, has always respected me and admired me. He seizes any opportunity to lavish praise and affection on me, but tonight he preferred his own comfort to my needs. On the other hand, look at this Persian slave of Allaah: He left his warm bed to go out into the chilly night, he made ablution in the icy water of the stream, and then he ascended the high minaret of the mosque to glorify Him Whom he truly serves: “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah. I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.” Ibn Sina records: “I learned the essence of true love, that love which results in complete obedience.” The love of Allaah demands total and unconditional obedience. Allaah, the Almighty says: { Say [oh, Muhammad!]: “If you love Allaah, follow me: Allaah will forgive you your sins, for Allaah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful } (Soorah 3:31)

Prayer: A Cry of the Inner Soul

His arrogance and pride have often led man to behave as an oppressor and a tyrant. Some men have been carried away by their own self- importance that they have even claimed divinity. Pharoah, the ruler of Egypt, was among those who announced: “I am your supreme Lord!” With his sense of greatness and pride, Pharoah subjugated the Israelites and made their lives wretched and miserable. But is man really as strong and great as his ego tells him? The Qur`aan tells us the reality of man’s nature: { It is Allaah Who created you in a state of weakness, then gave you strength after weakness, then after strength, gave you weakness and a hoary head: He creates what He wills, and He is the All-Knowing, the All-powerful } (Soorah 30:54)

Weakness in the beginning and weakness in the end: This is the essence of man. He is so weak and helpless at birth that his entire existence depends on his parents and his family. If he were to be abandoned in these first crucial years, he could not survive on his own. He needs a gentle and loving hand, not only in his infancy, but in his childhood and even in his teenage years. As this child enters the years of youth and independence, he begins to take control of his own life. He looks with pride at his strong physique, his handsome features and his many talents. He begins to despise those of lesser abilities, even scorning his parents, who exhausted their own health to nurture him. He becomes unjust and cruel, using his strength and vigour to dominate others. He thinks he is master, free to act as he wills. But does this youth, these good looks last forever? In only a few decades, he begins to lose his strength…his youth is replaced by old age. Weakness in the beginning, weakness in the end.” The message is clear: The real Master is Allaah. He Alone is Mighty, He Alone, is Great. He Alone is never tired, never needs rest, is never dependent upon anyone. Allaahu Akbar! – Allaah is the Greatest! In our everyday lives, we say a warm thank you for the small acts of kindness which others do for us. So what about thanking Allaah, Who, in His infinite Mercy, has provided for every single one of our needs. Just observe the beauty and perfection of the earth around you and fall down in gratitude to your Lord.

Prayer: The Ascension for a Believer

After the Messenger of Allaah was commissioned for Prophethood, the first thing he was commanded to do by Allaah was to pray. The angel Jibreel came to him and a spring of water gushed out of the rocks in front of them. Jibreel u then showed Allaah’s Messenger how to make ablution. He then showed him how to offer prayers to Allaah. He began to pray two rak`ah twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening. He then went home and showed his wife Khadeejah what he had learnt from the angel Jibreel. From that time, the Prophet e never went through a day without praying. Just before his migration to Madinah, he was taken on a night journey to Jerusalem and then to the heavens (Mi`raaj). During this journey, Allaah, Almighty, ordered him to pray five times a day. This prayer was a gift given to every Believer to enable him to experience a spiritual ascension five times a day. The Prophet e said: “The prayer is the Mi`raaj of the Believer.” It gives every Muslim the chance to communicate with his Lord. During each prayer, the Muslim recites Soorah Al-Faatihah: This recitation is not a dull monologue by the Believer, but Allaah promises that it is a conversation between Him and the worshipper. The Messenger of Allaah reported that Allaah, the Almighty says: `When my slave says in his prayer: “All praise is for Allaah, the Lord of the worlds,” I say: “My slave has praised Me” When he says: “The Merciful, the Compassionate, Master of the Day of Judgement,” I say: “My slave has glorified Me.” When he says: “You Alone we worship and your Aid we seek,” I say: “This is between Me and My slave.” When he says: “Show us the Straight Path,” I say: “This is for My slave, and I give My slave what he wants.”

The Messenger of Allaah once said: “Prayer is the pillar of religion.” (Narrated by Al-Baihaqi) He also informed us that Islaam is built upon five pillars, the second being to establish prayer five times a day. (Narrated by Al-Bukhaari) This makes the image very clear: Islaam is like a building supported by five columns; remove just one column and the entire building weakens. In the same way, when a person stops praying, his faith becomes weak, and the mildest blows can cause it to crumble. The prayer is so very important that the Prophet e said: “Verily, between man and polytheism and disbelief is abandoning prayer.” (Narrated by Muslim)

Allaah says, concerning the plight of the disbelievers on the Day of Judgement, that they will be asked by the Believers: “What led you into the Hell-fire?” They will say: “We were not of those who prayed.” (Soorah 74:42-43). Allaah also says: ” Successful indeed are the Believers, those who humble themselves in their prayers ” (Soorah 23:1-2), and: ” And those who guard [strictly] their worship, such will be the honoured ones in the Gardens [of Bliss] ” (Soorah 70: 34- 35).

Allaah has emphasized the need for humility and concentration in prayers. There is no doubt that Satan is the most bitter enemy of man; he always tries to disturb the Believer’s prayers. He (the worshipper) finds his mind suddenly engulfed with memories, problems, worries, work and his family… and he will often find himself wondering whether he has prayed three rak`ah or four. This is how Satan steals the prayer. Man was created only to worship Allaah. He says: ” I created not the jinns and mankind except to worship me ” (Soorah 51:56). Man is to live in this world as a worshipper of Allaah and prayer is the best for of worship. On the Day of Judgement, man will have to answer for his deeds. Allaah says: ” Then shall you be questioned about the joy [you indulged in] ” (Soorah 102:8)

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PRAYING ON PRAYER MATS

Source http://www.salafitalk.net/st/viewmessages.cfm?forum=16&topic=3216

The narrations found in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and elsewhere, describing the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) praying on a khumrah [small mat] and a haseer [large mat] show the permissibility of praying on other than the bare ground. A few of the scholars held the opinion that the prayer may only be offered on the bare ground, so these narrations are a proof against their position. They do not provide a proof for the one who takes this action as part of his Deen, since the Companions did not take this as Deen. Rather, they understood it to be permissible, and thus prayed on mats, bedding, clothing, etc. whenever it made sense, for example: in the extreme heat to protect oneself from the heat of the ground.

Furthermore, the scholars have stated that it is better for a person to pray directly on the ground if he is able. Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “The ahaadeeth and the aathaar (narrations from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam and the Companions) show that they used to prefer placing their foreheads directly on the bare ground if they were able, and when necessary, like in extremely hot weather and the likes, they would pray with something between them and the ground, using something they had with them: a part of their clothing, turban, or cap…” [Majmoo’ al-Fataawee (22/172)]

However, if someone still holds that these ahaadeeth prove the legislated nature of praying on prayer rugs, then we can look again to Shaykh al-Islaam (may Allaah have Mercy on him) who responded to this argument from a number of angles:

[1] The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) did not pray on them consistently, rather he prayed on them only occasionally, and for a reason, like the extreme heat or the likes. [as opposed to those who make it their Deen and pray on them all the time]

[2] That which the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) prayed upon was small in size, just big enough for one’s prostration or slightly larger, not like the full-body sized prayer rugs the people have.

[3] The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) did not pray on them thinking to protect himself from najaasah (impurities), or just to be sure of the purity of his prayer area, as the people who advocate prayer rugs do.

[4] It is not something the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) told the Companions to do, and thus they used to pray directly on the ground. So if it was recommended or “sunnah” to do it, then they would have done it.

[5] The Prophet’s masjid (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) had a dirt floor, and while he had access to the mats, bedding, and other things mentioned in the narrations, he did not take any of these things into the masjid to pray on them. [Summarized from Majmoo’ al-Fataawee (22/175-179)]

[6] The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) did not used to place one mat upon another, as the prayer rug advocates do, placing their rug on top of carpet or another rug.

[7] He did not have pictures of the ka’bah, other masjids, colored designs, Allaah’s Names, etc. on the mat he used occastionally, unlike the prayer rug advocates. Instead, he would keep such visual distractions away from his prayer area, as he returned a garment that had markings on it for one that did not in order not to be distracted in his prayer, and it is reported that Ibn ‘Umar used to remove visual distractions from the qiblah direction in the masjids, like swords and mus-hafs.

[8] He did not have the pride that would keep one from placing his face on the bare ground, as he used to prostrate directly on it, even when it was moist and remained on his forehead. And many of the prayer rug advocates could never imagine doing such a thing.

Shaykh al-Islam (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Praying on rugs, in the sense that the worshipper insists on that – this was not the way of the salaf, the Muhaajireen and Ansaar and those who followed them in truth at the time of the Messenger of Allaah. Rather they used to pray on the ground in his mosque, and none of them had a rug that was used just for prayer. It was narrated that when ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Mahdi came to Madeenah he spread out a rug, and Maalik ordered that it be taken away. It was said to him, “He is ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Mahdi.” Maalik said, “Do you not know that spreading a rug in our mosque is bid’ah (an innovation)?” Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 22/163

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18 BENEFITS OF PRAYER

By Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah [d.751]

Taken from Zaad al-Ma’aad (4/304-305)

Source http://www.bakkah.net

[In the Name of Allaah, the Compassionate, the Most Merciful…]

In his excellent book, Zaad al-Ma’aad, in the section which includes the book, At-Tibb an-Nabawee, Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have Mercy on him) stated in his alphabetized discussion of medicines and nutrition:

– Prayer –

Allaah the Exalted has said: ( And seek help in patience and in prayer. Surely that is something quite difficult on (people) other than people of humility and submissiveness ) [2]

And He has said: ( O you who believe! Seek help in patience and in prayer! Verily, Allaah is with those who are patient. ) [3]

And He, the Exalted One, has said: (And command your family to pray, and be patient upon that. We are not asking you for any provisions, (rather) We provide for you, and the favorable outcome is for (those with) taqwaa (consciousness of Allaah that produces righteous actions). ) [4]

And in the Books of Sunnah it is reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) used to hasten to prayer whenever an affair disturbed him. And previously discussed was the concept of healing most ailments through prayer before seeking out other ways of dealing with them.

– 1 – Prayer is something that causes one to receive sustenance.

– 2 – It is something that safeguards one’s physical health.

– 3 – It keeps away harmful things.

– 4 – It casts away illnesses.

– 5 – It strengthens the heart.

– 6 – It brightens one’s countenance.

– 7 – It delights the soul.

– 8 – It gets rid of laziness.

– 9 – It makes the limbs active.

– 10 – It increases one’s physical strength.

– 11 – It expands the chest (making one at ease and giving him insight).

– 12 – It is nourishment for the soul.

– 13 – It illuminates the heart.

– 14 – It safeguards one’s blessings.

– 15 – It repels catastrophes.

– 16 – It brings on blessings.

– 17 – It keeps away the Shaytaan (the Devil).

– 18 – It draws one close to Ar-Rahmaan (Allaah, the Most Merciful).

And overall it has an amazing effect on the health of the body and heart, and in strengthening them and expelling harmful pollutants from them. No two people have been afflicted with any disability, disease, or other calamity, except that the portion of the one who prays is less and his outcome is cleaner. Also, prayer has an amazing effect on the evils of the dunyaa (the worldly life) and how it repels them, especially when the prayer is performed properly and completely, inwardly and outwardly. Nothing keeps the evils of the dunyaa at bay and brings on the benefits of it like prayer. The reason behind this is that prayer is one’s connection to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So based on the strength of a person’s relationship with his Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, the doors of goodness will accordingly be opened up for him, bad things and the reasons for them befalling him will be cut off, and the elements of success granted by His Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, will begin pouring in, along with safety and good health, wealth and worldly riches, relaxation, bliss, enjoyment, and all types of joyful affairs will be brought to him, and in an expedient manner, too. [5]

FOOTNOTES:

[1] The title and the numbering of the 18 benefits are both additions from the translator: Moosaa Richardson.

[2] A translation of the meaning of Soorah al-Baqarah (2):45

[3] A translation of the meaning of Soorah al-Baqarah (2):153

[4] A translation of the meaning of Soorah Taa-Haa (20):132

[5] Zaad al-Ma’aad (4/304-305) of Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Mu’assasatur-Risaalah, 4th ed., 1424.

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PULLING SOMEONE BACK FROM THE COMPLETE ROW TO AVOID PRAYING ALONE

Shaykh Naasir ud-Deen al-Albaanee

Taken from Al-Asaalah No. 10

Translated by Ismaal Alarcon

Question: If you enter the masjid and the first row of prayer is complete, can you pull someone from it behind so that he can pray with you (in the second row) or should you just pray by yourself?

Answer: If the hadeeth about pulling someone back from the first row so that one would not pray alone in the second row were authentic, it would be obligatory to base the opinion on it. However, its chain of narration is not authentic, as I have explained in Irwaa-ul-Ghaleel and As-Silsilah Ad- Da’eefah (second volume). Therefore so long as this hadeeth is not authentic, then the person who enters the masjid and the row of prayer in front of him is complete, he must try to squeeze into the row that is before him. This is possible in most cases, during this era in which a majority of Muslims have abandoned the act of joining tightly (by squeezing together) in the lines of prayer, for many of them do not stand close together in the lines of prayer. So if he finds that the row is complete, he should try his best to find an empty space in it, even if he has to gesture to the one he wants to pray next to, to make some space for him to enter. But if he is not able to do this, either because the people in the row are closely packed together or because some of the people praying do not make room for him, then he could stand in the second row by himself, and his prayer will be valid. This is because the Prophet’s saying, “There is no prayer for the one who prays in the row by himself” is only in reference to the extent of one’s ability and adequacy to perform all the rest of the acts of worship. We know, for example, that standing for the obligatory prayer is a pillar (of the prayer). Therefore, if one prays sitting while he has the ability to stand, his prayer is not valid. However, if he is not able to stand, then he could pray sitting, as the Prophet, sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “Pray standing. But if you are not able to, then sitting. But if you are not able to, then on your bed.” This goes the same for the case of the individual who prays behind the row by himself, in that his condition is that he is not able to join into the row that is before him. So the hadeeth, “There is no prayer for the one who prays alone behind the row”, is most likely applicable to the person that takes this issue lightly or to the one who turns away from this legal ruling. As has been done by many people, especially those mu’addhins who do not join into the rows, but rather pray by themselves in places near to the door (of the masjid). So these individuals are the ones whom the hadeeth is directed to. As for the man who enters the masjid and tries to join into the row but is not able to, nor does anyone come that will join him (in the second row), then he can pray by himself. And Allaah does not burden a soul with a responsibility, except that He has given it the ability to fulfill the responsibility. And this is the view of Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah.

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THE PROSTRATION OF FORGETFULNESS

By Shaikh ‘Abdullaah bin Saalih Al-‘Ubaylaan

Taken from his book as-Salaat (pg. 59-62)

Source: Al-Ibaanah.com

The evidences indicate that the prostration of forgetfulness is of four types:

1. It is either done because something was added to the prayer

2. Or when something was left out from the prayer

3. Or when one has doubt (as to whether he added to or subtracted from his prayer)

4. Or in the case of taharr (which is when one has doubt then gets it correct).

So if it is done because something was left out from the prayer, then its ruling is found in what has been reported from ‘Abdullaah bin Buhainah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) that: “The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) led them one time in Dhuhr Prayer and then stood up after performing the first two raka’aat and did not sit (for tashahhud) in between. So the people stood up with him and continued until when the prayer was finished and the people were waiting for him to make the tasleem, he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said the takbeer while sitting and prostrated twice before making the tasleem. Then he made the tasleem (i.e. saying as-Salaam ‘Alaikum on both sides).”

What was left out of the prayer in this hadeeth was the first tashahhud. As for when something is added to the prayer then its ruling is what has been reported by Abu Hurairah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) that: “The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) prayed one of the two evening prayers (either Maghrib or ‘Ishaa) with two rak’aat then he made the tasleem and then got up to go to a wooden post in the front of the masjid and rested his hand on it. Amongst the crowd was Abu Bakr and ‘Umar but they were afraid to speak to him. The people left the masjid quickly saying: ‘The prayer has been shortened.’ So a man whom the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to call Dhul-Yadain said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, did you forget or was the prayer shortened?’ So he said: ‘I did not forget nor was the prayer shortened.’ So he said: ‘Rather you indeed did forget.’ So Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) prayed two rak’aat and then made the tasleem. Then (while remaining seated) he said the takbeer and prostrated just like before or perhaps longer and then raised his head. Then he said takbeer again and prostrated just like before or perhaps longer and then raised his head saying takbeer…”

So in this hadeeth there was something added to the prayer and it was saying the Salaam after the (first) two raka’aat. This is why Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) prostrated out of forgetfulness after the Salaam, setting the previous principle as a guideline.

As for when one has doubt, then he must prostrate, as mentioned previously, before saying the Salaam. This is based on the narration of Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who reported that Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “If one of you has doubt in his prayer and he doesn’t know how many (rak’aat) he has prayed – either three or four – then he should cast away the doubt and base it on what he is certain of. Then he should make two prostrations before making the Salaam. So if he prayed five (rak’aat), his prayer will intercede for him. And if he prayed his prayer completely, then in both cases it will serve as a spite against the Devil.” [Reported by Muslim]

In the case of taharr (second consideration), which is when doubt overcomes the person praying, then he realizes the correct status of his prayer and continues, then its ruling is that he perform the prostration of forgetfulness after the Salaam. This is based on what has been reported by Ibn Mas’ood (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: “The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) once prayed and when he (finished and) made the tasleem it was said to him: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, something has been introduced into the prayer.’ So he said: ‘And what is it?’ So they said: ‘You prayed in such and such manner.’ So he bent his knees below him and faced the Qiblah. Then he made two prostrations and made the tasleem. Then he turned around and faced the people, saying: ‘If something were to be introduced into the prayer, I would surely inform you of it. However, I am a human being just like you. I forget just as you forget. So if I forget, remind me. And if one of you has doubt in his prayer, and then realizes what is correct, then let him complete it and then prostrate twice.’” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim] In the report of Al-Bukhaaree, it states: “Then let him complete it then prostrate then make the tasleem.” In the report of Muslim: “The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) prostrated the two prostrations of forgetfulness after making the tasleem and speaking.”

So we can summarize what has been stated above in the following manner:

If the forgetfulness in one’s prayer causes one to detract something from it, then he must prostrate before making the tasleem based on the hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah bin Buhainah.

And if the forgetfulness causes one to add something to the prayer, whether he makes the tasleem (after two rak’aat) as in the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) or he rises to make a fifth rak’ah during prayer then goes back (to sitting), he must prostrate after the Salaam.

And if he has doubt – he doesn’t know how many raka’aat he has prayed, whether three or four – he must build upon what he is certain of, and this is the lowest (of the choices),[1] and then prostrate before the tasleem.

And if it is the case of taharr (second consideration), which is when one has doubt then becomes certain of what is correct, he must prostrate after saying the Salaam.

And to Allaah belongs the Success, and may the peace and blessings of Allaah be on our Prophet Muhammad and his Companions.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF PRAYER WITHIN ITS PROPER TIME

By Hussain al-Awaa’ishah

Taken from As-Salaat Wa Atharuhaa Fee Ziyaadatil Eemaan

Translated by Abu Iyaad

Source: salafipublications.com

Allaah the Exalted said: Indeed the prayer has been enjoined upon the Believers at stated times.[1]

Al-Bukhaaree (rh) said: “At stated (fixed) times. He has set time limits for them”

Abu Amr ash-Shaybaanee said: The owner of this house – and he pointed to the house of Abdullaah (ibn Mas’ood) – said: I asked the Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) ‘Which action is most loved by Allaah?’ He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Prayer at its proper time.” Then he said: What next? He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Righteous conduct towards the parents.” Then he said: What next? He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Jihaad in the path of Allaah.” He (Abdullaah) said: He informed me with them, If I asked him for more he would have told me more.[2]

The Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) explained in this hadeeth that prayer at its proper time is the the most loved of actions and he (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) put this before righteousness to parents and Jihaad in the path of Allaah. The evidence for this is the use of the particle ‘What next’. This particle is used to denote order and this is well known to the people of the arabic language.

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr said in ‘Al-Fath’: “Ibn Bazeeza said: That which requires looking into is the placement of Jihaad at the forefront of all the actions of the body, as it entails sacrificing ones self, with the exception of having patience upon preserving the obligatory prayers, performing them at their times and also good conduct with ones parents, a matter which is necessary all the time. None can remain patient in being observant of Allaah in this matter except the Siddeeqoon (the truthful) and Allaah knows best.”

I will put forward an example which will make clear the intent here: There is a man immersed in his trade and whatever other engagements it entails and whom Shaytaan has managed to deceive so that he misses the takbeeratul-ihraam(the opening takbeer of the prayer in congregation) or a portion of the prayer in congregation. You come to him with texts about Jihaad in the path of Allaah the Exalted and also stories about the bravery of the Companions (ra). You instill in him the aspiration for Paradise and make him renounce the world. He looks at the world after you have admonished him and he sees it become small and insignificant. He reflects upon the Hereafter and sees it becoming great and awesome in his soul. So he races towards the Garden whose width is as the width of the Heavens and the Earth. He rushes to write his will, he concludes the rights he owes to others and says farewell to his family and loved ones and embarks upon the journey to battle. He is killed as a martyr in the path of Allaah. If you had not called this man to Jihaad in the path of Allaah, the Exalted but had called him to preserving the prayers, mentioning the texts which cause inspiration and instill fear and the stories which have great effects (upon the soul), what would you have seen from him? Perhaps he would have responded and cried over what occured. He would have made firm his resolution to safeguard the prayers upon their times and perhaps he would manage that for some number of days. But then Shaytaan comes and whispers to him, and his engagements and appointments increase, his commitments and meetings reach high proportions and Shaytaan therefore, obtains from him what he desired. He misses some of the times of prayer and then returns to struggle against his soul in order to help himself against Shaytaan. Then the same thing occurs another time and in this manner he is constantly wrestling with and battling against Shaytaan, five times in every day of his, and life is nothing but days and days… This is a battle aginst the soul and the former example is also a battle against the soul. But where does the first type stand when compared to the second? This striving, is striving for a whole lifetime and that striving is only for an hour or perhaps days, months or years. But in either of the two situations I say: In both there is good.

I ask Allaah the Exalted that He makes me amongst those who safeguard the times of prayer and its khushoo’ and likewise all of His commands, and that he writes me amongst the martyrs. Indeed He has power over all things.

Mis’ab bin S’ad said: I said to my father: O my father! Do you consider this verse: ‘Those who are forgetful in their prayers'[3]. Which of us is not forgetful? Which one of us does not converse with his soul (during the prayers)? He said: That is not what is meant. It refers to the wasting of the (correct) time for prayer. A man plays about, (wasting time in idle talk) until the time for the prayer passes.[4]

Moosa bin Ismaa’eel said: Mahdi narrated from Ghaylaan who narrated from Anas (ra) that he said: I cannot recognise anything (now) which used to be in the era of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). It was said: The Prayer. He said: Do you not do what you do with regard to the prayer.[5] He meant delaying it past its proper time.

Uthmaan bin Abi Rawwaad, the brother of Abdul-Azeez said: I heard Zuhree say: I entered upon Anas bin Maalik in Damascus and he was crying. So I said to him: What makes you cry? He said: I do not recognise anything which I used to know except this prayer and this prayer is being wasted/neglected.[6]

Ibn Hajr said in ‘Fath ul-Baari’: Al-Muhallib said: “And the meaning of ‘wasting it’ is delaying it past its proper, recommended time, not that they perform it outside its time limit.” Ibn Hajr differed with this in his explanation which he mentions in his book and says that the meaning is performing the prayer outside its stated times.

I say: The poet has spoken the truth here: I said they are both bitter (even) the sweeter of the two is bitter

Anas (ra) wept over this matter and yet what are we doing. What is that thing which is desirable for us to do. Is it not befitting for us that we make the plants to grow with our tears?! Due to our neglect and wasting of the prayer and likewise the rest of Allaah’s commands.

Ubaadah bin Saamit (ra) said: I testify that I heard the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) say: “Allaah Azzawajall has made five prayers obligatory. Whoever beautifies the wudhoo, prays them at their proper times, and completes the rukoo’, the sujood and khushoo within them, has a covenant with Allaah that He will forgive him.Whoever does not do that then he has no covenant with Allaah and if Allaah wills He will forgive him and if He wills He will punish him.”[7]

Ka’b bin Ujra (ra) said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came to us and we were a group of seven, four of us were freed slaves and the remaining three had not been slaves formerly. Our backs were against the wall of the mosque and he said: “Why are you sitting down?” We said: We were waiting for the prayer. He (Ka’b) said: So he paused for a while, then turned to us and said: “Do you know what your Lord says?” We said: No. He said: “Indeed your Lord says: Whoever performs the prayer at its time, preserves it in this manner constantly, and does not waste it deeming its true worth to be insignificant has a covenant with Me that I shall enter him into Paradise. And whoever does not perform the prayer at its proper time, preserve it in this manner constantly and wastes it considering its true worth to be insignificant has no covenant with me. If I will I shall punish Him and if I will I shall forgive Him.”[8]

Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood (ra) said: The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) passed by his companions one day and said to them: “Do you know what your Lord, the Blessed and Exalted says?” They said: Allaah and His Messenger know best. The Messenger said this three times and then said: “By My Power and Magnificence non prays them at their proper times except I will enter Him into Paradise and whoever prays them at other than their times, if I will I shall show mercy to Him and if I will I shall punish him.”[9]

NOTES:

[1] Surah Nisaa 4:103

[2] Reported by Bukhaaree

[3] Surah Maa’oon 107:5

[4] Reported by Abu Ya’laa with a Hasan isnaad and it is also in [Saheeh ut-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb], no. 575.

[5] Reported by Bukhaaree, Chapter: Delaying the Prayer Past its Proper Time.

[6] Reported by Bukhaaree, Chapter: Delaying the Prayer Past its Proper Time.

[7] Reported by Maalik, Abu Daawood, an-Nasaaee and Ibn Hibbaan declared it Saheeh. It is also in [Saheeh ut-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb], no. 396.

[8] Reported by at-Tabaraanee in [Al-Kabeer] and [al-Awsat], by Ahmad and it is also in [Saheeh ut-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb], no.397.

[9] Reported by at-Tabaraanee in [al-Kabeer] and it is also in [Saheeh ut-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb], no. 398.

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NOT PERMISSIBLE TO BREASTFEED WHILE PRAYING

By Shaykh Muhammad ‘Umar Baazmool (Instructor at Umm Al-Quraa University in Makkah)

Source: http://www.bakkah.net

QUESTION: Is it permissible for a woman to breastfeed a baby while she prays?

ANSWER: No, it is not permissible for a woman to breastfeed a baby while she prays. The Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said: “Verily within the prayer there are actions (that keep one busy).” [1]

So there is no doubt that breastfeeding is a seperate affair, one that interferes with and nullifies one’s focus on the prayer. So then it is not permissible for a woman to feed her child while praying, not from her breast, and not from a bottle.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree #1216 (3/108 of Fat-hul-Baaree)

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PROPER ORDER OF ACTIONS AFTER PRAYER

By Shaykh Muhammad ‘Umar Baazmool (Instructor at Umm Al-Quraa University in Makkah)

Source: http://www.bakkah.net

QUESTION: After the prayer, what is the proper order to do the following things, and are they to be done out loud or silently?

* supplications from the Sunnah

* phrases of remembrence (ath-kaar)

* recitation of the last three soorahs of the Qur’aan

* recitation of Aayah Al-Kursee

ANSWER: What seems to be the proper order for these things is as follows:

1) When the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) finished his prayers, he started with his saying of “Astagh-firullaah” three times. [1]

2) Then he would say “Allaahumma antas-Salaamu wa minkas-Salaam, tabaarakta yaa thal-jalaali wal-ikraam.” [2]

3) Then he would say the other reported supplications, like, “Laa ilaaha ill Allaah wa laa na’budu illaa iyyaah…” [3]

4) Then he would commence making the tasbeehs, saying, “sub-haan Allaah,” “al-hamdu lillaah,” and “Allaahu akbar,” 33 times each. [4]

5) Then he would recite Aayah Al-Kursee, as it is what has been reported that he (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) used to recite after each prayer. [5]

As for the recitation of Soorah Al-Ikhlaas, Soorah Al-Falaq, and Soorah An-Naas, then they are to be recited in the morning and in the evening only. It has not been authentically narrated, to the best of my knowledge, that they were recited after each prayer, and Allaah knows best. [6]

And as for the question, “Are these things to be said out loud or quietly?” It has been authentically reported from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him), as Al-Bukhaaree reported [7], that he said they used to know when the Messenger’s prayer (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) was over due to the voices of the Companions making takbeer, meaning the supplications after the prayer.

Imaam Ash-Shaafi’ee, may Allaah have Mercy on him, said that this raising of their voices with takbeer after the prayer was only done sometimes, not always, and it was done to teach the people. Imaam Ash-Shaafi’ee had warned that it is not for the Muslims to raise their voices with these phrases of thikr and supplications, unless there is a need to teach them to the people. If the people are not in need of learning them, then the norm is that a person does not raise his voice, rather he says these things in a silent way so that he himself hears them, and Allaah knows best.

FOOTNOTES

[1] Saheeh Muslim #1333 (3/92 of Sharh An-Nawawee) and Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmithee #300 (1/176)

[2] Saheeh Muslim #1334 (3/92 of Sharh An-Nawawee) and Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmithee #298 (1/175)

[3] Saheeh Muslim #1342 (3/94 of Sharh An-Nawawee)

[4] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree #843 (2/397-398 of Fat-hul-Baaree) and Saheeh Muslim #1346 (3/95 of Sharh An-Nawawee)

[5] This is based on the hadeeth: “Whoever reads Aayah Al-Kursee after each obligatory prayer, nothing will prevent him from going to Paradise except that he must die.” It was collected by An-Nasaa’ee in As-Sunan Al-Kubraa #9848 (9/44 of the 1421 Mu’as-sasatur-Risaalah printing), on the authority of Aboo Umaamah. Al-Albaanee gathered and discussed its numerous chains, declaring the hadeeth to be authentic in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethis-Saheehah #972.

[6] Imaam Ahmad collected a narration mentioning that ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir (may Allaah be pleased with him) was ordered by the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) to recite the mu’awwithaat (the last three soorahs of the Qur’aan: Ikhlaas, Falaq, and Naas) after each prayer. It is #17417 in the Musnad (28/633 of Ar-Risaalah), and Al-Albaanee declared it to be authentic in his checking of Shaykh Al-Islaam’s Al-Kalim At-Tayyib (p.114).

[7] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree #841 (2/395-396 of Fat-hul-Baaree)

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WHEN IS THE TIME OF ISHA PRAYER OVER?

By Shaykh Muhammad Naasirud-Deen Al-Albaanee

Taken from his book Tamaam Al-Minnah (p.140-142)

Source: http://www.bakkah.net

[ In the Name of Allaah, the Merciful, may His Complete Salaah and Salaam be upon the finest of His Creation, His last Messenger Muhammad, and upon all his family members and companions, to proceed: ]

As for his (Sayyid Saabiq’s [1]) statement: “…And as for the time of ‘Eshaa’ Prayer then it extends until the time of Fajr, and this is understood from the hadeeth of Aboo Qataadah who said that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said: “Negligence (regarding the prayer) is not from oversleeping, but negligence is found in the one who does not pray (while conscious and aware) until the time of the next prayer comes.” Muslim collected it. The hadeeth proves that the time of every prayer extends until the entrance of the time for the following prayer, except for Fajr Prayer, for surely it’s time does not remain until Thuhr Prayer, rather the scholars have unanimously agreed that its time ends at sunrise…”

I say (Al-Albaanee): The author (Saabiq) is following Ash-Showkaanee [2] and others in they way they used this hadeeth as a proof. However there is no evidence in it for what they are concluding, especially when there is no mention of the times of the prayers in it, nor is it even in reference to the times of the prayers. This hadeeth only mentions the sin of the one who knowingly and intentionally delays the prayer until its time is gone, whether another prayer comes to end its time (like ‘Asr with Maghrib after it) or not (like Fajr with Thuhr after it). This is proven by the fact that this narration is specifically regarding the Fajr Prayer itself, when the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) and his Companions slept through the time of Fajr during a journey. The Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, were astounded by what happened to them, so the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said to them: “Am I not your example?” Then he mentioned the hadeeth. This is how it is found in Saheeh Muslim and other books.

So if this hadeeth was intended to mean what they are claiming about the time of the prayers continuing until the entrance of the one that follows it, then it would be a clear proof that Subh (Fajr) extends to the time of Thuhr, but they are not saying that! Rather they are holding that Fajr is an exception to this rule. So these deductions, after we have made clear the reason the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said his statement, are invalid, as certainly the hadeeth was mentioned specifically about the Subh (Fajr) Prayer, so how can it be an exception to the hadeeth?!?!

In reality the hadeeth is not legislating the times of the prayers, but it is an open disapproval of knowingly and consciously delaying the prayers from their times. Regarding this, Ibn Hazm said in response to the conclusion we have reviewed: “This does not prove what they are saying, and they agree with us that the time of Subh (Fajr) does not extend until Thuhr. The hadeeth does not prove that the time of every prayer connects to the time of the one after it, it only exposes the wrongdoing of the one who delays the prayer outside of its time, whether the end of its time is connected to the beginning of another prayer or not.

Furthermore, the hadeeth does not negate the negligence of the one who delays his prayer until its time is over, even if the time of another payer has begun, nor does it affirm his negligence, rather this report is silent regarding these things. These issues are addressed in other reports that specifically mention the times of the prayers individually and legislate their beginning and ending times. And we must say that anyone who transgresses the time limit of any action from those that Allaah legislated their proper times, he has transgressed the limits of Allaah, and He, Most High, says [3]: ( And whoever transgresses the limits of Allaah, they are the oppressors ) ” [4]

So when it becomes clear that the hadeeth is devoid of any evidence indicating that the time of ‘Eshaa’ Prayer lasts until Fajr, upon us is a return to the other narrations that are clear proofs about the legislation of the time of ‘Eshaa’, like his statement (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam): “…and the time for ‘Eshaa’ Prayer is up until half of the night”. It is found in Muslim and elsewhere, and this narration exists in it entirity in the book (Fiqhus-Sunnah).

This is further supported by what ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab wrote to Aboo Moosaa Al-Ash’aree, “…and pray ‘Eshaa’ before one-third of the night passes, unless you delay it, then to half of the night, but do not be from the heedless ones.” This report was collected by Maalik, At-Tahaawee, and Ibn Hazm, and its chain is saheeh. This narration is clear evidence to show that the time of ‘Eshaa’ goes until the middle of the night [5] only, and this is what is correct. Ash-Showkaanee favored that, saying, “…and the last time for ‘Eshaa’ to be offered is the middle of the night.” [5] And Siddeeq Hasan Khaan followed him in his explanation [6], and a similar statement has been gathered from Imaam Maalik as found in Bidaayatul-Mujtahid [7]. And it is the choice of a group of Shaafi’ee scholars as well, like Aboo Sa’eed Al-Istakhree and others. [8]

And Allaah knows best.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Translator’s note: He is the author of the book, Fiqhus-Sunnah, may Allaah have Mercy on him. Shaykh Al-Albaanee praised the book, saying, “Verily the book Fiqhus-Sunnah by Shaykh Sayyid Saabiq is from the finest books authored in its field that I have come across, by way of its fine organization, clear writing style, and an absence of complex and intricate phrases that are found in many books of Fiqh…” (Tamaam Al-Minnah, p.10) Having said that, Shaykh Al-Albaanee went on to mention the problems with the book, and they are many. Sometimes Saabiq used weak or baseless narrations to prove his opinion, sometimes he called authentic narrations dha’eef (weak), sometimes he makes analogy in the presence of an authentic hadeeth, etc. Refer to the article What is Wrong With the Book Fiqhus-Sunnah? for full details of his mistakes. So Shaykh Al-Abaanee, may Allaah reward him and have Mercy on him, went through the first parts of the book and made valuable comments and corrections. He then sent them to the author, along with an encouragement to fix these problems in the next printing of his book, but as the Shaykh said, “I was hoping for that, but now my hope is lost as this man has gone on printing his book upon the same blameworthy manner…” (Tamaam Al-Minnah, p.6) The Shaykh then decided to gather his criticisms and corrections and print the book Tamaam Al-Minnah after seeing more and more printings of Fiqhus-Sunnah for over 35 years, without retracting from except a small number of his more obvious errors. Shaykh Al-Albaanee first sent Sayyid Saabiq his own handwritten manuscript of Tamaam Al-Minnah (after making a copy for himself) in the year 1373, and then the book was published in 1409! May Allaah reward the Shaykh for his generous advice, patience, and obvious love for the Muslims.

[2] Translator’s note: See Naylul-Awtaar (1/430 of the Daar Al-Ma’rifah printing).

[3] the meaning of Soorah At-Talaaq (65):1

[4] Al-Mahallaa (3/178)

[5] Translator’s note: The night is from the setting of the sun to the entrance of the True Fajr, as agreed upon by the scholars.

[6] Ad-Durar Al-Bahiyyah (Translator’s note: See At-Ta’leeqaat Ar-Radhiyyah, 1/40. You may have noticed that Shaykh Al-Albaanee attributed both statements to Ash-Showkaanee – that ‘Eshaa’ extends only until half the night, and that it extends all the way to Fajr. There is no contradiction here, as Ash-Showkaanee often changed his positions on many issues, as found in his Fiqh books. This is one clear example of that as his own words show. I do not know, however, which of the two positions was his final choice.)

[7] Ar-Rowdhatun-Nadiyyah (1/69-70) (Translator’s note: See At-Ta’leeqaat Ar-Radhiyyah 1/356-359.)

[8] Translator’s note: See Bidaayatul-Mujtahid (1/241 of the Maktabatu Ibni Taymiyyah printing).

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SLEEPING THROUGH THE FAJR PRAYER

By Shaikh Muqbil

Translated by Aqeel Walker

Taken from Ijaabatus-Saa’il, pp. 40-41

Source: http://www.assalafi.com/Fiqh

Question: The person who prays all of the obligatory prayers but he delays the Fajr prayer, are the (other) prayers that he prays consider correct (i.e. acceptable)? And what do you advise him?

Answer: If he does not pray the Fajr prayer at all, then he is considered a disbeliever (Kaafir), and if he delays it (the Fajr prayer), then he is considered a disobedient sinner. It has been reported in the Saheeh of Al-Bukhaaree that it was said, “O Messenger of Allaah, so-and-so slept until morning came.” So the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “That is a man whom the Shaytaan has urined in his ears.” It has also been reported in the Saheeh of Al-Bukhaaree that the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “The Shaytaan comes to one of you and he ties a knot at the back of his head, tying three knots. And he (the Shaytaan) says into every knot, ‘Sleep, you have a long night upon you.’ So when he gets up and remembers Allaah, one of the knots is untied, and when he makes ablution another knot is untied, and when he prays the three knots are untied. Therefore, he will get up lively and with a good spirit, and if he gets up and does not remember Allaah, and he does not perform ablution, and he does not pray, then he gets up with a bad spirit and lazy (i.e. sluggish).”

So this is if he delays it (the Fajr prayer), he is considered a disobedient sinner, O Allaah, except if he does that rarely (with) the sleep (i.e. over sleeping) happening to him occasionally and he just is unable to get up. This is like what happened to the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) during an expedition from one of the expeditions. He and his companions, they traveled during the night, then at the end of the night they settled down (to make camp). So he (the Prophet – Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Who will awaken us?” Bilaal said, “I will.” Then they slept and Bilaal went to sleep after them due to the fatigue and staying up late at night. Bilaal slept and nothing woke them except the heat of the sun. So the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) got up and commanded the Mu’aththin to call the Athaan (call for prayer). Then they prayed just as they would pray it (the Fajr prayer), meaning they prayed two Rak’ahs of the sunnah prayer of Fajr. Then they prayed the obligatory prayer. So if this happens occasionally (i.e. oversleeping) there is no harm in that, if Allaah, the Most High, wills. Then, also I have remembered something – that the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Whoevver sleeps through the prayer or forgets to make it, its time is when he remembers it.”

So this proves that there is no negligence in sleep and forgetfulness, and this is if it occurs occasionally. However, if it is the normal habit of the person, then no.

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PUSHING BACK THE ONE WHO PASSES IN FRONT OF THE ONE WHO IS PRAYING

By Imaam ash-Shawkaanee

Source: http://www.troid.org

‘Nayl al-Awtaar’ [3/5-6] of with slight summary.

1.From ibn Umar that the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said, “when one of you is praying then do not let anyone pass in front of him, and if he refuses then fight him for indeed he has a companion [i.e. a shaytaan] with him.” Reported by Ahmad, Muslim and ibn Maajah.

2.From Abu Sa’eed who said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying, “when one of you prays towards something that acts as a sutrah for him from the rest of the people and someone wishes to pass in from of him [i.e. between him and the sutrah] then push him back, and if he refuses then fight him for he is a shaytaan.” Reported by the Group except for at-Tirmidhee and ibn Maajah. [Note: A sutrah is a object that is placed in front of the one who is praying such that the people become aware that he is praying and do not pass directly in front of him but rather from beyond the sutrah.] His saying [no.1], “when one of you is praying then do not…” this is a general statement which finds specification in the hadeeth of Abu Sa`eed [no. 2], “when one of you prays towards something that acts as a sutrah for him,” so it is not permissible to push back or fight except for the one who has a sutrah. An-Nawawee said, “they have agreed that all of this [pushing and fighting] is for the one who has not been negligent in his prayer, rather he has been careful and prayed towards a sutrah or has prayed in a place in which he is safe from people passing in front of him.” His saying [no.1], “then do not let anyone pass in front of him.” The literal sense of forbiddance is that it is haraam to do so. His saying [no.1], “and if he refuses then fight him.” I.e. He first pushes him back without fighting him thereby starting with the easiest way, then he moves on to employing more force then even more until he reaches the point that he fights him. Qaadee Ayaadh and al-Qurtobee said, “they have unanimously agreed that this does not require him to fight him with a weapon, this because it contradicts the basic principle of concentrating and busying oneself with the prayer.”

A group of the Shaafi`ee scholars generalised and said that it is upon him to literally fight the one who passes in front of him but ibn al-Arabee declared this far fetched saying, “what is meant by fighting is pushing back [with force].” Al-Baajee was of a strange opinion saying, “it is possible that what is meant by fighting is cursing and rebuke.” Al-Haafidh [ibn Hajr] followed his up by saying that this would require him to speak in the prayer thereby invalidating it which is not true of enacting the easy matter [i.e. pushing back]. Al-Ismaa`eelee reported the hadeeth with the wording, “and if he refuses then place his hand on his chest and push him back,” this is explicit that the pushing back is to be done with the hand. This was done by Abu Sa`eed to the slave who wished to pass in front of him – he pushed him back by pushing his chest – then when the slave returned he pushed him back with more force as occurs in al-Bukhaaree and others.

Al-Bayhaqee quoted from ash-Shaafi`ee that “the meaning of fighting was to push back with more force than was employed on the first occasion.” Qaadee Ayaadh said, “if he pushed him back in a permissible manner and caused his death then there is no retribution [qawad] against him by agreement of the scholars but is blood money due upon him or not? There are two opinions of the scholars concerning this both of these being voiced by the Maalikee scholars.”

Qaadee Ayaadh and ibn Battaal report a consensus that it is not permissible to walk from ones place in order to push back or to perform a great deal of movement and action in pushing back. This is because these types of actions are more detrimental to the prayer then having someone walk in front of you. An-Nawawee said, “I do not know of any of the legal jurists who were of the opinion that this pushing back was obligatory.” Al-Haafidh followed this up by saying that the Dhaahirees had explicitly stated that it was obligatory. The literal sense of the hadeeth supports them. His saying [no.2], “for indeed he is a shaytaan.” Al-Haafidh said, “applying the term shaytaan to the human being who passes in front of the one praying is something permissible for their occurs in the Qur`aan the saying of the Exalted, “the shaytaans of the humans and jinn.” The reason for this application is that he has done an action of Shaytaan. It is said that the meaning is that it is Shaytaan who has incited him to pass in front of the one who is praying and not go back. Ibn Battaal said: the permissibility of applying the term shaytaan to the one who causes fitna in the religion can be derived from this hadeeth.” Al-Haafidh said, “this is built upon the fact that the word shaytaan can be literally applied to humans and figuratively applied to jinns but such a premise requires investigation.”

It is also said that the meaning of Shaytaan is companion as occurs in the first hadeeth. Ibn Abee Jumrah derived from his saying, “for indeed he is a shaytaan” that the meaning of fighting is to push back gently and not to literally fight, this because combating shaytaan is through seeking refuge with Allaah and erecting a barrier from him by mentioning the Name of Allaah and the likes. He went on to say, “so does the fighting lie in fighting the distraction that the one who is praying faces due to someone passing in front of him or does it lie in his trying to bridle the sin of the one passing (by pushing him back)? The second option is more obvious.”

Al-Haafidh said, “others said: rather the first is more obvious because the concentration of the one praying takes precedence over his being concerned with bridling the sin of another. Ibn Abee Shaybah reported from ibn Mas`ud that someone passing in front of the one praying severs half his prayer. Abu Nu`aym reported from Umar, ‘that if the people knew how much their prayer was diminished due to someone passing in front of them they would never cease to pray towards something that would act as a sutrah from the rest of the people.’ So these two narrations dictate that the pushing back is linked to the distraction that the one praying faces and is not specified to the one passing. These two narrations even if they end at a Sahaabah they have the ruling of being from the Messenger, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallaam, because the likes of this is not said from personal opinion.”

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