Yunus ibn Maysarah relates that the Prophet ﷺ said, ‘’This matter (the Caliphate) will be after me in Madinah, then al-Sham, then Jazira, then Iraq, then in Madinah, then in al-Quds. If it is in al-Quds, its home country is there, and if any people expel it, it will not return there forever’’. Recorded by Tabarani
From the Hadith of Saad bin Abi Waqqas, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said “The people of the west (ahl algharb) will know the truth until the Hour comes.”(Muslim and others) And Albani said, “The People of west are the people of Shaam,” as was said by Imam Ahmad and supported by Sheikh Al Islam Ibn At Taymiyyah in Fadaail Ash Shaam wa Ahluh
From the Hadith of Abu Hurayrah relates that the Prophet [peace and blessings of Allah be upon him] said, ‘’A group of my community will not cease to fight holding on to the order of Allah, the Almighty, the betrayal or desertion of whomever deserts them will not harm them in the least, fighting its enemies, every time a war ends, a war with another people will ensue, Allah will restrain away the hearts of a people to sustain them with it, until the Final Hour comes, like a portion of dark night, and they will get scared by it, until they shall wear for it shields’, and the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, ‘They are the people of Shaam’ and then the Prophet (peace be upon him) pointed with his finger to Shaam until he tired it’’ (Saheeh: Silsila al Ahadith As Saheeha)
On the authority of ‘Abdullah bin Hawalah said: “O Messenger of Allah! Determine for me a land that I should live in, for if I knew that you would be with us for a long time, I would not choose anything over staying with you.” The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Go to Shaam, go to Shaam, go to Shaam.” So, when he saw that I disliked Shaam, he said: “Do you know what Allah – the Mighty and Majestic – Said? He Said: “You are the cream of My lands to which I enter the best of My servants.” (Narrated by Abu Dawud and Ahmad with a Sahih chain) And on the authority of Wasilah bin Al Asqa’ -May Allah be pleased with him- that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Go to Shaam for it is the best of Allahs lands on earth, He drives the best of His slaves to it” (At Tabarani, and declared Sahih by Albani in Saheeh Al Jami)
And on the authority of Abu Hurairah- May Allah be pleased with him- that he heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say “If war ensues, Allah shall inspire from Damascus a group of aid, the best of Arab in horsemanship and the best in weaponry, Allah shall support the religion with them”(Ibn Majah and al Faswi and ibn Asakir and Al Hakim, and declared Hasan by Al Albani)
Abdullah ibn Hawalah [Allah’s blessings be on him] narrated from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) that he said: “Matters will run their course until you become three armies: an army in Sham, an army in Yemen, and an army in Iraq”. Ibn Hawalah said: “Choose for me, O Messenger of Allah! in case I live to see that day”. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said: “You should go to Sham, for it is the best of Allah’s lands, and the best of His slaves will be drawn there! And if you refuse, then you should go to the Yemen and drink from its wells. For Allah has guaranteed me that He will look after Sham and its people!” (Imam Ahmad 4/110, Abu Dawud 2483. Authenticated by Imam Abu Hatim, Imam ad-Diya al-Maqdisi, Sheikh al-Albani and Sheikh Shu’aib Al-Arnaut).
1-4 are taken from the book: Takhreej Ahadith Fada’il Ahl Al-shaam wa Dimashq by: The Imamm Muhammad Nasir Deen al-Albani
1) From Zayd ibn thabit Al-ansari (radiya allahu anhu) said I heard the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم say: “O tooba (a tree in paradise/glad tidings) for the Shaam!, O tooba (a tree in paradise/glad tidings) for the Shaam!, O tooba (a tree in paradise/glad tidings) for the Shaam!”
They said: “O Messanger of Allah! How did they get this?” He replied “The angels of Allah have rested their wings upon the Shaam”
Sheikh Al-albani says: The hadith is Sahih. It was narrated in Al-tirmidhi and other than it.
2) From Abdulla Ibn Hawala, the Messanger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “You will be split up into groups of armies. An army will be in Al-shaam, an army in Iraq, and an army in Yemen.”
Abdullah said: I stood up and said…”choose for me oh Messenger of Allah.” The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Upon you is Al-shaam; and whoever cannot, let him go to Yemen, and let him drink from its water, for Allah has assured (secured) for me Al-shaam and its people.
Rabi’a said: I heard Aba Idris narrating this hadith and he would say: “who ever Allah has given assurance then there is no fear over him.”
Sheikh Al-albani says this hadith is Sahih Jidan (very authentic)
3) From Abdullah Ibn Omar (radiya allahu anhuma) he said: The messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said, I saw a pillar of the book was taken from underneath my pillow and I looked and it was an extending light directed toward Al-shaam. Verily al-iman (the faith), at the time of fitan (turmoil) is in Al-shaam. Sheikh Al-Albani says it is an authentic hadith.
4) From Mu’awiya ibn Qura (raised to the Prophet) (radiya allahu anhu): The Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “If the people of Al-shaam are corrupted then there is no good in you. There will always be a group of my Ummah that will be victorious, and they will not be harmed by those who seek to humiliate them until the hour comes. Sheikh Al-albani declared this as an authentic hadith.