Wu’dhu

AHADITH ON THE EXCELLENCE OF WU’DHU

Abu Hurairah (raa) said: Rasoolullah (saws) said: Shall I not guide you to that by which Allaah wipes away the sins and raises the ranks? They said: Certainly O Messenger of Allaah! He said Completing the wudoo when it is a hardship, and many steps to the mosques and waiting for the [next] Prayer after the Prayer, that is ‘ar-Ribaat’ (defending the frontiers), that is ‘ar-Ribaat’ that is ‘ar-Ribaat’). [Reported by Muslim (1/151) and others].

Abu Hurairah (raa) reports that Rasoolullah (saws) said When the Muslim (or ‘Believing’) servant makes wudoo and washes his face then the sin of everything he looked at with his eye comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water, and when he washes his hands then the sin of everything he stretched out his hands to comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water. And when he washes his feet every sin which his feet walked towards comes away with the water or with the last drop of the water – so that he leaves clean (clear/pure) from sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/148) and others].

Abu Hurairah (raa) reports that Rasoolullah (saws) came to the graveyard and said Peace be upon you, dwelling of Believing People and we will (all) if Allaah wills join you soon. I would have liked to have seen our brothers! They said: Are we not your brothers, O Messenger of Allaah? He said You are my Companions and our brothers are those who have not yet come! They said: How will you know those who have not yet come from your Ummah, O Messenger of Allaah? He said Have you not seen that if a man had a horse with a white blaze and hoof along with a totally jet-black horse, then would he not know his horse? They said: Certainly, O Messnger of Allaah. He said So they will come with white blazes and marks from the wudoo and I am present before them at the Hand (‘water-tank’) Indeed men will be driven away from my ‘water-tank’ as the lost camel is driven away from their gathering place. ‘Come on’. So it will be said: ‘Indeed they have made changes after you,’ so I will say: Be off, be off. [Muslim 249].

Abu Umaamah (raa) said: Rasoolullah (saws) said When a Muslim makes wudoo the sins he has committed come away from his hearing and from his sight and from his hand and from his feet, so when he sits he sits down having been forgiven. [Reported by Ahmad (5/252) and is hasan].

Abu Maalik al-Ash’aree (raa) said: Rasoolullah (saws) said Purification is half of Imaan. And ‘al-hamdu lillaah’ fills the Scales. And ‘subhaanAllaah’ and ‘al-hamdu lillaah’ fill whatever is between the heaven and the earth. And Prayer is a light. And Sadaqah is a clear proof. And Sabr (patience) is a shining light. And the Qur’aan is a proof for or against you. Every person starts the day dealing for his own soul so he either sets it free or destroys it. [Reported by Muslim (1/140) and others].

‘Uthmaan (raa) said: Rasoolullah (saws) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, his sins come out from his body, even coming out from under his nails. [Reported by Muslim (3/133) and others].

‘Uthmaan (raa) said: Rasoolullah (saws) said Whoever makes wudoo like this – then all of his previous sins are forgiven – and his Prayer and his walking to the mosque are above and beyond that. [Reported by Muslim, 3/113].

Ibn ‘Umar (raa) said: Rasoolullah (saws) said When one of you makes wudoo and makes it well, then goes out to the mosque – having no purpose except Prayer – then his left foot continues to wipe away his evil deeds and his right foot continually writes for him good deeds until he enters the mosque. And if the people knew what there was in the night prayer and Subh prayers – then they would come to them even if they had to crawl. [Reported by at-Tabraanee in ‘al-Mu’jam ul-Kabeer’. And Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh (As-Saheehah, no.454). And its meaning is reported by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from the narration of Abu Hurairah].

Abu Hurairah (raa) said: Rasoolullah (saws) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well then goes out – and then finds that the people have finished the Prayer – then Allaah gives him the same reward as one who had prayed it along with the people without diminishing any of their reward. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.564) and an-Nasaa’ee (no.856) and others. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (As-Saheehah, no.6039)].

Zaid ibn Khaalid al Juhanee (raa) relates that the Prophet (saws) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, then prays two rak’ahs not letting his mind wander in them – then Allaah forgives him all of his previous sins. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.905) and others. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘hasan’ (As-Saheehah, no.6041)].

‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir (raa) said: Rasoolullah (saws) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, then prays two rak’ahs concentrating therein with his heart and his face – then Paradise is obligatory for him. [Reported by an-Nasaa’ee. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (As-Saheehah, no.6062)].

‘Uthmaan (raa) said: I heard Rasoolullah (saws) say Whoever makes wudoo for Prayer and completes the wudoo – then walks to the obligatory Prayer and prays it with the people – or with the congregation – or in the mosque – then Allaah forgives his sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/144) and others].

‘Alee (raa) relates that Rasoolullah (saws) said Completing the wudoo when it is a hardship, and walking to the mosque, and waiting for the next prayer after the previous one (greatly) washes away the sins. [Reported by al-Haakim (1/132) who declared it to be saheeh to the standard of Muslim. And al-Haithumee said in ‘Az-Zawaa-id’: It is narrated by Abu Ya’laa and al-Bazzaar. And its narrators are up to the standard of Al-Bukharee],

Humraan ibn Abaan relates that ‘Uthmaan asked for water to make wudoo – then he mentioned how the Prophet (saws) made wudoo . Then he said: The Prophet (saws) said at the end of the hadeeth Whoever makes wudoo in the same way that I have just made wudoo then stands up and prays two rak’ahs, not thinking of other things, then his previous sins are forgiven. [Related by al-Bukhaaree (Fath ul-Baaree, 11/213) and Muslim (no.226) and an-Nasaa’ee ( 1/63)]

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

THE EFFECT ON ONE’S WU’DHU AFTER HAVING TOUCHED SOMEONE OF THE OPPOSITE SEX

By Shaykh Saailh ibn Fowzaan

Taken from al-Muntaqaa min Fataawa Shaykh Saalih al-Fowzaan – Volume 5, Page 14, Fatwa No.12

Source: fatwa-online.com

Question: The (issue of a) woman touching a man without any intention such as her passing through a busy place or the like, or her receiving something from a seller such as (some) goods and she hands him over the money or the like, does this form of touching nullify her wudhoo if she previously had wudhoo or does it not have any effect (on her wudhoo)?

Response: Firstly, we advise the woman not to get caught in busy places with men and to keep far away from mixing and (unintentional) touching of the men keeping far away from busy places where there is fear of fitnah, because indeed the woman is a (source of) fitnah – causing fitnah for herself and others, so it is obligatory upon her to keep far away from places of fitnah.

As regards her having touched a man without intention, such as that which was mentioned (in the question), then the correct (opinion) from the statements of the people of knowledge is that this does not nullify her wudhoo, rather her wudhoo is nullified if she touched him with desire or he touched her with desire as we have mentioned (before).

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

REGARDING A MEDICAL PLASTIC WHEN MAKING WU’DHU OR GHUSL

By Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee

Taken from Fataawa wa Rasaa.il Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee – Volume 1, Page 181, Fatwa No.17

Source: fatwa-online.com

Question: Is it imperative to remove a medical plaster when making wudhoo. or taking a ghusl?

Response: (The situation regarding) a medical plaster is according to the harm (that may be caused by removing it); If removing it causes harm, then it should remain and you should take a ghusl with it on.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

THE RECOMMENDED ACTS OF WU’DHU

By Shaikh ‘Abdullaah bin Saalih Al-‘Ubaylaan

Taken from his book As-Salaat (pg. 19)

Source Al-Ibaanah.com

From the recommended aspects (sunan) of wudoo, that occur before Wudoo is: What has been reported by Abu Hurairah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) from Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that he said: “If it were not that I feared to cause hardship on my ummah, I would have commanded them to (use) the Siwaak with every wudoo.” [Reported by Maalik, Ahmad and An-Nasaa’ee, and its chain of narration is authentic]

It is also recommended for a Muslim to perform wudoo with a mudd of water. This is based on what Anas (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported that: “Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would perform wudoo with a mudd of water and he would perform Ghusl with a saa’ of water.” [1] [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

After making wudoo, it is recommended for one to say what has been reported by Ibn ‘Umar (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) from Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) when he said: “There is none of you that performs wudoo, then completes it, then says: ‘Ash-hadu an Laa Ilaaha illaallaah, wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa Rasooluhu’[2] except that the eight gates of Paradise open for him, and he can enter from any one he wishes.” [Reported by Muslim and At-Tirmidhee] At-Tirmidhee mentioned the addition to the hadeeth: “Allaahumma, Ija’alnee min at-Tawaabeen waj’alnee min al-Mutatahhireen.”

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s Note: A saa’ consists of four amdaad (plural of mudd). A mudd is a handful using two hands cupped together, of an average-sized man.

[2] Translator’s Note: This is the transliteration of: “I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah, alone and with no partner. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger.”

[3] Translator’s Note: This is the transliteration of: “O Allaah, Make me amongst those who repent and make me from amongst those who purify themselves.”

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

WIPING OVER THE KHUFFS

By Shaikh ‘Abdullaah bin Saalih Al-‘Ubaylaan

Taken from his book As-Salaat: 29-30

Source Al-Ibaanah.com

As for what is related to wiping over the Khuffs, then that can be done as a substitute for washing the feet if they (i.e. the feet) are covered with khuffs or socks or stockings. This (ruling applies) regardless if there are found holes in them, so long as they can still be called socks and stockings and one is able to walk upon them.

But if the holes are very big, such that most of the foot is visible, then wiping over them is not permissible because their presence and the condition of the footwear in this manner is just as if one were not wearing them.

A condition for one to wipe over his footwear is that he must put them on while he is in a state of purification. This is based on the hadeeth of Al-Mugheerah bin Shu’bah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: “I was with the Prophet one day when he made wudoo, so I extended out my hands to take his khuffs. So he said: ‘Leave them, for I put them on while they were purified.’ Thereafter, he wiped over them.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

The wiping is to be done to the top part of the khuff only, based on the hadeeth of ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: “If the Religion were based upon opinion, it would be more befitting to wipe the bottom of the khuff than the top of it. But I saw the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) wiping over the top part of his khuffs.” [Abu Dawood reported it with a sound chain of narration]

Likewise, it is not permissible for a resident to wipe over his footwear for more than one day and night. This is based on the hadeeth of ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: “The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave three days and nights for the traveler (for wiping) and one day and night for the resident.”

The time limit for the wiping begins with the first wipe. So for example if he were to put on his khuffs (footwear) for the Fajr prayer (after having made wudoo), and not wipe over them until the time for Dhuhr prayer, then the time limit for his wiping would end the next day during the time for Dhuhr prayer. So in this case, he could wipe over his footwear five times – for Dhuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, ‘Ishaa and Fajr. Furthermore, he may pray whatever supererogatory prayers he wishes with this wiping up until the time of the Dhuhr prayer when he wiped his feet the day before. So then he makes wudoo (after breaking it), but this time washing his feet.

And if a person has returned to his country after traveling and there remains some time left from his day and night, then he may complete that while in his country. But if the day and the night have expired while he was wearing his khuffs, then it is upon him to remove them and wash his feet, upon just arriving. This is because the travel has finished and its rulings have come to an end. Likewise, if he were to wipe over his footwear while being a resident and then travel, then he should complete the wiping limits of a traveler.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

THE PRESCRIBED PERIOD FOR WIPING OVER SOCKS (KHUFFAYN)

The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa

Fataawa Islaamiyyah – Volume 1, Page 236

Source: fatwa-online.com

Question: Is the time during which socks may remain on the feet limited to a day and a night, or five prayers only? And if a person is in a state of ritual impurity, and he prays more than five prayers, beginning the wiping, for example, after the ‘Ishaa. prayer, then wiping for the Fajr, Zhuhr, ‘Asr and Maghrib prayers, then the time for the the ‘Ishaa. prayer comes and the wudhoo. of his Maghrib prayer is still intact – can he pray the ‘Ishaa. prayer with the wudhoo. of the Maghrib prayer, or should he remove his socks and perform wudhoo.?

Response: It has been authentically reported that the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) limited the time for wiping over the socks to three days and nights for the traveller and a day and a night for the resident, and he did not restrict wiping to a specific number of prayers.

Based upon this, the resident may pray with wiping more than five prayers, for example; wiping over them in wudhoo. after invalidating his wudhoo. at Maghrib time, then praying Maghrib and the ‘Ishaa. together at Maghrib time, then wiping over them for every one of the following prayers: Fajr, Zhuhr, ‘Asr, and then praying Maghrib and the ‘Ishaa. together at Maghrib time on the second day, due to sickness or any other valid legal reason for combining the prayers.

And with Allaah lies all success and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his companions.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

RULINGS ON PURIFICATION FOR THE SICK

By Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz

Taken from Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 2, p17-23, DARUSSALAM.

All praise be to Allaah, the Lords of the Worlds, and may peace and blessings of Allaah be upon the noblest of the Prophets and Messengers, our Prophet, Muhammad and upon all his family and Companions. As for what follows:

Verily, Allaah, the Most Glorified, Most High has legislated purification for every prayer, because the elimination of impurity and the removal of pollution – whether on the body, the clothes or the place of prayer – are two of the conditions of prayer. So when the Muslim wishes to pray, he must perform the well known ablution (Wudhu) to purify himself from minor impurity, or make Ghusl if the impurity is of the major kind. And before making ablution, Istinja’ must be performed with water, or Istijmar by the one who has urinated or defecated in order that the purification and cleansing be complete. What follows is an explanation of some of the rulings related to this.

Istinja’ with water is obligatory every time something is discharged from the bowel and bladder, such as urine or faeces. But it is not necessary for the sleeper or one who passes wind to perform Istinja’. He is only required to perform ablution, because Istinja’ is only prescribed for the removal of impurity, and there is no impurity in this situation.

Istijmar is performed using stones, or another material in its place (such as wood, paper etc.) It must consist of three clean stones, as proved by the Hadith of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) which states that he said:

“Whoever performs Istijmar, let him make it Witr (i.e. use an odd number of stones).” [Abu Dawud no.35 and Ibn Majah no. 337]

And he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) also said: “If any of you goes to defecate, he should take with him three stones, for they will be sufficient for him.”

Muslim narrated that he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) forbade Istijmar with less than three stones. It is not permissible to make Istijmar with animal droppings, bones or food or anything which contains some forbidden material. It is preferred for a person to perform istijmar with stones, or the like such as tissues etc. After which, he should use water, because the stones remove the essence of the pollution, but the water purifies the area and is therefore more thorough. A person has a choice of Istinja’ with water, or Istijmar with stones or the like. It is reported on the authority of Anas, may Allaah be pleased with him, that he said: “The Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) entered the toilet and I and a young boy like me carried materials, including water and ‘anaza (a short spear) and he would perform Istinja’ with the water.” [al-Bukhari no.152 & Muslim no.271.]

It is reported on the authority of ‘Aishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, that she said to a group of women: “Order your husbands to clean themselves following defecation with water, for I am too embarrassed to do so, and the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to do so.” At-Tirmidhee said that it was authentic [At-Tirmidhee no.19]

If a person wants to use only one of them (i.e. stones or water), it is preferred to choose water, because it cleans the area removing the essence and the traces and it is more thorough in cleansing. If he chooses to only use stones, he should content himself with three, if it cleanses the area, but if it is not enough, he may use four or five (or more) until he has cleaned the area, but it is better to finish with an odd number, based upon the saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam): “Whoever performs Istijmar, let him make it Witr.” [Abu Dawud no.35 and Ibn Majah no. 337]

It is not permissable to make the Istijmar with the right hand, according to the Hadith of Salman, may Allaah be pleased with him, in which he said: “The Messenger of Allaah forbade us from performing Istinja’ with the right hand.” And he said: “None of you should hold his penis in his right hand while he is urinating. nor should he wipe himself with the right hand after answering the call of nature.” [Al-Bukhari no.153 & Muslim no.267] But if his left hand has been cut off, or is broken or there is some disease in it, he may use his right hand, and there is no objection to that.

Because the Islamic law is based upon facility and ease, Allaah, the Most Glorified, Most High has lightened the burden of worship on those who have some excuse, according to the excuse. He, the Most High says: “And (He) has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.” [Surah al-Hajj 22:78]

And He says: “Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.” [Surah al-Baqarah 2:185]

And He says: “So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can.” [Surah at-Taghabun 64:16]

And the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “If I order you to do something, do it as much as you can.” [Al-Bukharino.7288 & Muslim no.1337]

And he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Verily the Religion is ease.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari]

If a sick person is unable to cleanse himself of minor impurity with the water by making ablution, or he is unable to purify himself of major impurity by making Ghusl, due to weakness, or fear of making his illness worse, or delaying his recovery, he may perform Tayammum [Dry ablution using sand or dust.] This is done by striking his hands in clean dust once, then wiping his face with the palms of his hands and his fingers slowly, based upon the Words of Him, the Most High: “And if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes after answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (by sexual relations) and you find no water, perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands (Tayammum). Truly, Allaah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.” [Surah An-Nisa 4:43]

The ruling on those who are unable to use water is the same that of those who are unable to find water, according to the words of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam): “The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” [Al-Bukhari no. 1]

A sick person may fall into one of a number of categories:

1. If his illness is a simple one and he does not fear to use the water, such as an ailment from which there is no fear that using the water will delay his recovery, or increase his pain, or cause any infection, such as a headache, toothache and the like, or he is able to use warm water without harm, then it is not allowed for him to make Tayammum. Because the permission to perform it is in order to prevent harm, and there is no fear of harm to him, and because he can find water, therefore he must use it.

2. If he fears from an illness which he fears may – should he use water – cause his death or harm one of his organs, or may lead to some illness which might cause his death or harm one of his organs, or cause the loss of some faculty, then it is permissible for him to perform Tayammum, based upon the words of the Most High: “And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you.”[Surah an-Nisa’ 4:29]

3. If he is suffering from some illness which makes him unable to move, and he finds no one to bring him water, it is permissible for him to perform Tayammum.

4. Anyone suffering from a wound, an ulcer or fracture, or any illness which will be exacerbated by using water, and who becomes Junub [in a state of sexual impurity] is allowed to perform Tayammum, based upon the above evidences. If he is able to wash the healthy areas of his body, he must do so and make Tayammum for the rest.

A sick person who is in a place in which he finds neither water nor dust, or anyone who can bring him either one of them, may pray whatever condition he is in, and he is not allowed to delay the prayer, as Allaah, the Most High say: “So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can.” [Surah at-Taghabun 64:16]

6. An invalid afflicted with incontinence of urine, who is not cured by his treatment, must make ablution for every prayer after the start of its prescribed time, wash off any urine that has affected his body, and wear a clean garment for his prayer, if this is not a burden on him. But if it is, he is excused from it, based upon the Allaah Words: “And (He) has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.” [Surah al-Hajj 22:78]

And His Words: “Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.” [Surah al-Baqarah 2:185]

And the words of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam): “If I order you to do something, do it as much as you cable.” [Al-Bukhari no.7288 & Muslim no.1337]

He must try to the best of his ability to prevent the spread of the urine to his clothes, or his body, or the place in which he will pray. And everything that invalidates ablution also invalidates Tayammum, and in addition, the ability to use water or its presence. And Allaah knows best.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

WIPING OVER FOOTWEAR, BANDAGES, AND TURBANS FOR WU’DHU

By Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen

Translated by Abu Rumaysah

Source al-manhaj.com

WIPING OVER SHOES AND SOCKS:

Q1: What is the meaning of Khuffs (leather socks) and Jawaarib (socks)?

A1: All praise is due to Allaah, and I invoke peace and blessings upon our Prophet Muhammad, and upon all of his Companions.

The meaning of the khuff is that which is worn upon the foot being made of leather and it’s likes. The meaning of Jawaarib is that which is worn on the foot being made of cotton and it’s likes, and it is what is referred to commonly as shurraab (socks, stockings).

Q2: What is the ruling regarding wiping on the khuffs and jawaarib, and what is the evidence for that from the Book and the Sunnah?

A2: Wiping (over them) is a sunnah which has come to us from the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and it is better for the one wearing them to wipe over them, rather than taking them off to wash his feet. The evidence for this is the hadeeth of Al-Mugheerah bin Shu’bah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) once made ablution and Al-Mugheerah said: “I moved to remove his khuffs and he said: “Leave them, for indeed my feet were in a state of purity when I wore them.” So he wiped over them.” The legislation of wiping over the khuffs is established in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of Messenger of Allaah. As for it’s legislation in the Book, then it lies in the ayah: “O you who believe, when you stand for prayer, wash you faces and hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads and feet up to the ankles.”

There are two correct ways of reciting the saying of Allaah “wa Arjulikum” (and your feet) having reached us from the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam):

1. Reciting it as “wa Arjulakum” with a fat-ha on the laam, hence linking it in meaning to “wa wujoohakum” (and your faces), i.e. wash the feet.

2. Reciting it as “wa Arjulikum” with a kasra on the laam, hence linking it in meaning to “bi ru’oosikum” (your heads), i.e. wipe the feet. And that which explains when one should wipe the feet and when one should wash them is the Sunnah, for Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would wash his feet when they were uncovered and wipe over them when they were covered by khuffs.

As for its legislation in the Sunnah, the Sunnah is mutawaatir from the Messenger of Allaah in this regard. Imaam Ahmad said: “There is no aversion in my heart to wiping. There are forty ahaadeeth with regards to it from the Messenger of Allaah and his Companions.”

And the saying of the poet goes: “From those that are mutawaatir is the hadeeth, ‘the one who lies..’ , and ‘the one who builds a house for Allaah’s sake and hopes for reward’, and the Sight, the Intercession and the Pond, and the wiping over the socks, and ….” So this is the evidence from the Book of Allaah, and the Sunnah of His Messenger.

Q3: What are the authentic, established conditions for wiping over the socks and what are their evidences?

A3: There are four conditions:

First: That he be in a state of purity when he wore them. And the evidence for this is his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saying to Mugheerah: “Leave them, for indeed my feet were in a state of purity when I wore them.”

Second: That the khuffs or jawaarib be pure and clean. If they have filth on them, then it is not permissible to wipe over them. And the evidence for this is that Allaah’s Messenger prayed with his Companions one day in shoes, and during the prayer he removed them. Then afterwards he informed his Companions that this was because Jibreel had informed him that they had filth or dirt on them. And this indicates that the prayer is not acceptable when there is something in it, which is impure, and because when the wiper wipes over the filth it sullies him also, and so he is also not in a state of purity.

Third: That he wipes over them when he is in a state of minor impurity, not when he is junoob, or in any state that necessitates ghusl. And the evidence for that is the hadeeth of Safwaan bin Assaal (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: “The Messenger of Allaah ordered us not to remove our socks for three days and nights when we were on a journey except if we were junoob, but not from excretion, urination or sleep.” So the condition is set that the wiping is only for minor impurity, not for the major impurity due to this hadeeth.

Fourth: That wiping be for the period determined by the Sharee’ah, and that is a day and a night for one who is a resident, and three days and nights for the one on a journey. This is due to the hadeeth of ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: “The Messenger of Allaah set a limit of one day and night for the resident, and three days and nights for the traveler” meaning for wiping over the khuffs. [Related by Muslim] And this period starts the first time one wipes over the socks, and it finishes 24 hours after for the resident and 72 hours after for the traveler.

So if we were to assume that one purified himself for Fajr on Wednesday at 5am, and he remained in this state till the ‘Ishaa prayer, then he slept and woke for Fajr at 5am on Thursday then he has to make wudoo with washing his feet as the period has expired. But were he to make wudoo before 5am then his wiping is valid and he can pray Fajr with this wiping. And he can keep praying as much as he wishes afterwards as well with that same wudoo, for the wudoo does not become void when the period of wiping ends according to the strongest opinion of the scholars. And this is because the Messenger of Allaah did not set a time period for the state of purity, but he set a time period for the wiping only. So when the period for wiping has finished then there is no wiping after this, but if he was in a state of purity when the period expired, then his state of purity remains. This is because this state of purity has been established according to the dictates of the Sharee’ah, so then it cannot be removed except by an evidence from the Sharee’ah. And there is no evidence for the state of wudoo ending as the time period for the wiping ends. And because the basic principle is that everything endures according to what it is upon until it’s termination is made clear. So these are the conditions that are set for wiping over the khuffs. And there are other conditions that some scholars have mentioned but some of these are problematic.

Q4: What is the correctness of the condition set by some of the Legal Jurists that the feet be covered…?

A4: This condition is not correct because it has no evidence for it. For indeed as long as the name khuff or jawaarib is applicable to the item then wiping over them is permissible, because the Sunnah has described wiping over the khuffs in a general way. So it is not possible to specify what the Legislator generalizes except with another evidence from the Legislator or a Sharee’ah principle by which the specification becomes clear. So building upon this it is permissible to wipe over torn or thin khuffs, because the purpose of the khuff is not to cover the outer skin, rather it is to protect the feet and benefit them…so there is no difference in this between a thin, thick, torn or complete sock. The important point is that as long as the term khuff is applicable to the item, then wiping over it is permissible.

Q5: A person makes tayammum, then he wears the khuffs, then he finds water, is it permissible for him to wipe over the socks knowing that he was in a state of purity when he wore them?

A5: It is not permissible for him to wipe over the socks when the state of purity is the purity of tayammum due to the saying of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “… for indeed my feet were in a state of purity when I wore them.” And the purity of tayammum has no connection to the feet, rather it is only concerned with the hands and face. So building upon this, if a person does not have water with him, or he is sick and unable to use water for wudoo, then he can wear the khuffs even without being in a state of purity, and he can wear them for an unlimited time (making tayammum) until he finds water or is cured from his illness, because the feet are not connected to the tayammum.

Q6: Is the intention obligatory, meaning that when a person intends to wear socks or shoes should he have the intention that he will wipe over them, and likewise should he have the intention that he is going to wipe over them as a resident or a traveler, or is the intention no obligatory?

A6: The intention is not obligatory because the ruling of wiping is concerned only when the need arises and therefore it is not requiring an intention. Just like if a person were to wear a garment, it is not a condition that he has to have the intention that this garment covers his ‘awrah when he prays. So it is not a condition that he has to have the intention that he will wipe over the socks when he wears them. Likewise he does not have to have an intention as to how long he intends to wipe for, rather if he is traveling then he has a period of three days whether he had the intention for this or not, and if he is resident he has a period of one day whether he had the intention for this or not.

Q7: What is the journey in which the wiping period of three days and nights becomes permissible?

A7: The journey in which it becomes permissible to shorten one’s prayer, is the journey in which it becomes permissible to wipe over the socks for three days and nights, this is because in the hadeeth of Safwaan bin Asaal which we have mentioned, he says: “when we were on a journey.” So for as long as a person is on a journey in which he shortens his prayer he can wipe over his socks for the period of three days.

Q8: When the traveler comes to the end of his journey, or a resident starts a journey and he has already started wiping over his socks, how does he calculate the length of his wiping?

A8: When a resident wipes over his socks and then starts a journey, then he should complete the wiping of a traveler (i.e. 3 days and nights) according to the strongest opinion. And if he was traveling and then completes his journey, then he should complete the wiping of a resident. Some of the People of Knowledge have mentioned that if one were to wipe as a resident then start a journey he should complete the period of wiping as if he were a resident, but the strongest opinion is what we have first mentioned. This is because this person has some time remaining in the period of his wiping before he started on a journey, then he started traveling so it is true to say that he is a traveler and therefore from those that can wipe over their socks for three days.

Q9: A person is doubtful as to when he started wiping over his socks, what should he do?

A9: In this state the answer is based upon what is certain, so if he is doubtful if he started wiping for Dhuhr or ‘Asr prayers, then he should make his starting period ‘Asr because the basic principle is the absence of wiping. And the evidence for this is the rule that the principle remains upon what it is and that the basic principle in this case is the absence of wiping. And also a man once complained to the Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that he thought that he had passed wind in his prayer, so he told him not to leave the prayer until he heard a noise or smelt something.

Q10: A person wipes over his socks after the period of wiping has expired and prays, what is the ruling of his prayer?

A10: If he wipes after the period has expired, whether he is traveling or a resident, then his prayer with this purification is invalid because the wudoo is invalid due to the period of wiping having expired. So it is obligatory on him to make a new and complete wudoo, washing his feet, and to repeat his prayers that he prayed with that invalid wudoo in which he wiped over his socks after the period had expired.

Q11: If a person removed his socks while he was in a state of wudoo, then he put them on again before his wudoo broke, is it permissible to wipe over them?

A11: If he removes his socks and then puts them back on again while he is in a state of wudoo, then if this wudoo was his first wudoo (i.e. the one in which he washed his feet) and this did not break for the duration he had his socks on, then there is no problem in him putting his socks on and wiping over them again when he makes wudoo. But if this wudoo was a wudoo in which he wiped over his socks then it is not permissible for him to put his socks on and continue wiping over them, because it is necessary for him to wear them when his feet have been purified with water, and in this case the purity is with wiping over the socks, this is what is known from the speech of the People of Knowledge. But if one were to say that if he put his socks on again while he was still in a state of purity, even if it were the purity of wiping over the socks, then he could continue wiping over them as long as the period of wiping lasted then this is a strong opinion. But I do not know of anyone who held this opinion, and the thing which prevents me from holding this opinion is that I have not come across anyone from the People of Knowledge who holds this opinion, so if one of the People of Knowledge were to have this opinion then this would be the correct one according to me. This is because the purity gained from wiping is a complete state of purity, so it is desirable to say that if he can wipe over his socks after putting them on after having washed his feet, then he can wipe over them after the purification of wiping over them. But I have not seen anyone who holds this opinion.

Q12: So therefore we do not say that removing the socks is from the things that invalidate the wiping?

A12: Removing the socks (in this second case) does not invalidate his state of purity but it invalidates his wiping, so if he were to put them on again another time and then broke his wudoo then it is necessary for him to remove his socks and wash his feet when he makes wudoo. The important point is that it is necessary for him to have put the socks on when he has made a wudoo in which he has washed his feet (in order to wipe over them later on) as far as we know from the speech of the People of Knowledge.

Q13: A person wipes over his shoes in the first instance, then in the second he removes his shoes and wipes over his socks, is this wiping of his correct? Or is it necessary for him to wash the feet?

A13: There is a difference of opinion over this. So from the People of Knowledge are those that opine that if one were to wipe over one of the two khuffs, be it the upper or the lower then the ruling remains with that and the wiping does not move to the second. And from them are those that opine that it is permissible for the wiping to move to the other for as long as the period of wiping remains. So for example, if one were to wipe over the shoes, then he removed them and wished to make wudoo, then he can wipe over his socks. This is the strongest opinion. Likewise if he were to wipe over his socks, and then put on another pair, or put on a pair of shoes, then there is no problem in his wiping over the upper layer for as long as the period of wiping remains. But the period is calculated from the point of the first wiping, not the second.

Q14: Many people ask as to how the wiping should be done and the place of wiping?

A14: The way of performing the wiping is to pass the hand over the feet from the extremity of the toes to the start of the shin only. Meaning that the part of the khuff that is wiped is the upper part only. And the wiping is done by passing both hands over both feet simultaneously i.e. the right hand wipes over the right foot and the left hand over the left foot at the same time, as one would wipe the ears. Because this is what is clear and obvious in the sunnah due to the saying of Mugheera bin Shu’ba (in his hadeeth), “and he wiped over them”, and he did not say he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) started with the right or left, rather the clear and literal meaning is what we have explained. Yes, if one of the hands cannot be used then you start with wiping the right foot then the left. And many people wipe by using both their hands to wipe the right foot, and both their hands to wipe the left foot. This has no basis as far as we know, all that the scholars have said is to wipe the right foot with the right hand, and the left foot with the left hand.

Q15: We see people wiping over the upper and lower parts of the khuffs, so what is the ruling of this wiping and what is the ruling of their prayers?

A15: Their prayers and wudoo are correct, but they should be informed that wiping over the lower part of the khuffs is not from the Sunnah. So in the Sunnah is the hadeeth of ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: “If the Religion were according to opinion then the underside of the khuffs would have been wiped, but I have seen the Messenger of Allâh (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) wiping over the upper part of the khuff.” And this indicates that only the upper part of the khuff is legislated to be wiped.

Q16: What is the stance on the saying of Ibn Abbaas: “The Messenger did not wipe after (the revelation) of Surah Al-Maa’idah” and that what is related from Alee preceded this revelation?

A16: I do not know if this narration is authentic or not. And I have mentioned before this that ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib is from those that narrated the hadeeth of wiping from the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and he narrated it after his death, and he explained that the Messenger set it’s time limits, and this indicates that this ruling is established to exist after the death of the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) according to him, and it is not possible to abrogate anything after the death of the Messenger.

Q17: Are the rulings for wiping the same for women as for men? Or is there a difference?

A17: There is no distinction between man and woman in this. And it is desired that you learn a basic rule, and that is that in principle that whatsoever is established with regards to men is also established with regards to women, and whatsoever is established with regards to women is also established with regards to men, unless there is an evidence which indicates otherwise.

Q18: What is the ruling on removing the sock, or part of it to examine ones feet or to remove a small stone for example?

A18: If he puts his hands in his socks (without removing them) then there is no problem in this. But if he removes them then he should look, if he removes only a small portion than this is all right. But if he removes the majority of the sock then wiping over them in the future becomes invalid [in the case where this is not the first wudoo].

Q19: It has become common amongst the common folk that they wipe over their socks for the five daily prayers only, then after this they put them on another time (i.e. after washing their feet).

A19: Yes this has become common amongst the generality of the people who think that wiping for one day and night means that you wipe only for the five daily prayers, and this is not correct. Rather the limitation of one day and night means that he can wipe for one day or night whether it is for five prayers or more. For, as has preceded, the beginning of the period of wiping starts with the first wiping. So it is possible that the person pray ten (obligatory) prayers or even more. For if he were to make wudoo for Fajr on Tuesday, and then put his khuffs on, and his state of purity (i.e. he did not make wudoo) lasted until he slept Tuesday night, then he wakes up Wednesday morning for Fajr and wipes over his feet for the first time then he can continue wiping till the Fajr of Thursday morning. So in this case he has prayed the Fajr, Dhuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, and ‘Ishaa of Tuesday in his khuffs, and none of these are counted in the period of wiping because they occurred before he wiped over his socks. Then he prayed the Fajr, Dhuhr, ‘Asr, Mahgrib and ‘Ishaa of Wednesday with wiping. It is even possible that he pray the prayers of Thursday with this same wiping. So for example say he wiped over his socks 5am Wednesday morning for Fajr, then he woke up for Fajr Thursday morning and made wudoo at 4:45am, he can wipe over his socks again in this case. Then if he were to remain in his state of purity until ‘Ishaa of Thursday, then he can pray the five prayers of Thursday with that same wiping. Therefore in this example he has prayed fifteen prayers (without removing his khuffs).

Q20: If a person were to make wudoo and wipe over his khuffs, then the period of wiping expires and he removes his socks before ‘Asr prayer for example. Can he pray ‘Asr prayer and is his prayer correct, or does his wudoo break with removing the socks?

A20: The strongest opinion from the sayings of the People of Knowledge, which was chosen by Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah and a group of scholars from the People of Knowledge is that the wudoo does not break with the removal of the khuffs. So if he were to remove his khuffs and he is in a state of purity in which he had wiped over his socks then his wudoo does not break. This is because he is in a complete state of purity as required by the dictates of the Sharee’ah, and it is not possible to break this state of purity except with an evidence from the Sharee’ah. And there is no evidence which states that removing the khuffs or socks that have been wiped over breaks the wudoo, so due to this the wudoo remains, but if he were to put the socks on again intending to wipe over the socks in the future then this is not allowed as far as I know from the words of the People of Knowledge.

WIPING OVER THE TURBANS:

Q21: Is it permissible to wipe over the turbans and what are the limits of this and what is the definition of a turban?

A21: Wiping over the turbans is from those actions that have been reported in the Sunnah of the Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and it is permissible to wipe over them. So one wipes over the turban or the majority of it, and it is also the Sunnah to wipe over the bare regions of the head like the forehead and the back of the head and the ears.

Q22: Does the white cotton skullcap, and headscarf (khimaar) of the woman enter within the definition of the turban?

A22: As for the white cotton skullcap then this does not enter into the definition of the turban at all. As for what is worn in the days of winter, which covers the head and the ears and that which is below that coiled around the neck then this is like the turban due to the difficulty in removing it so one can wipe over it. As for the women then they can wipe over their headscarves according to the well-known opinion in the madh-hab of Imaam Ahmad as long as the headscarves hang below their necks, because it occurred from some of the women of the Sahaabah, may Allaah be pleased with them.

Q23: The fez is above the head and tends to be attached to the neck, so is this wiped over?

A23: Clearly when it is not difficult to remove the fez then it is not permissible to wipe over it because in some aspects it resembles the skullcap, and the principle is the obligation of wiping over the head until it is made clear to man that this is from those that are permissible to wipe over.

WIPING OVER BANDAGES/SPLINTS:

Q24: What is the ruling on wiping over the bandage, and what things are included in its meaning, and what is the evidence for its legislation from the Book and the Sunnah?

A24: Firstly it is necessary that we understand what a bandage/splint is. A bandage/splint in it’s origin is that which is used to set broken bones. In the convention of the Legal Jurists it is that which is placed over a part of the body which needs to be washed while purifying oneself due to a necessity like the preventative measure over a break, or the plaster/bandage which is placed over a limb or over a pain in the back or the likes. Wiping over this compensates for washing. So if we were to assume that there was a bandage over the forearm of the one making wudoo due to a necessity, then he can wipe over it rather than wash it (the area covered by the bandage). And his purification would be complete, meaning that were he to remove this bandage or splint then his state of purity remains and does not break. This is because the purification is complete in the eyes of the Sharee’ah and there is no evidence that states that removing the bandage breaks the wudoo or the state of purity. And there is no evidence that can be taken into consideration that contradicts this. There are some weak ahaadeeth pertaining to this which some of the People of Knowledge used saying that all of them taken together raise them to a level that can be considered a proof. And from the People of Knowledge are those that say that they cannot be depended upon due to their weakness, and then they differ amongst themselves – some say that the person should leave washing the place of the bandage because he is incapable of washing it, and others say that he should perform tayammum and not wipe over it. But the closest saying to the principles by looking at the ahaadeeth that occur on this is that he wipes (over the bandage or splint), and this wiping removes the need for tayammum. So at this point we say that if one were to find a wound on a limb that needs to be washed during wudoo, then there are a number of options:

First: That it be uncovered and washing it will not harm him, then in this state washing the area is obligatory.

Second: That it be uncovered and washing it will harm him but wiping over it will not. So in this case wiping over it is obligatory rather than washing.

Third: That it be uncovered and both washing it and wiping over it will harm him. Then he performs tayammum.

Fourth: That it is covered by a plaster or the likes due to a need – so in this case, he wipes over this covering and he does not have to wash the area covered.

Q25: Are there conditions for wiping over the bandage? Meaning if the need for it was no longer present?

A25: The bandage is not wiped over except when there is a need. And “a need” is not merely for a wound or pain, rather anything that necessitates this plaster or bandage, for example, to “strengthen it” falls within the need.

Q26: Is a wrapping or muslin included in its meaning?

A26: Yes it is. Also know that wiping over the bandage is not like wiping over the socks in that there is a specific time period, rather he can wipe over it for as long as the need remains, and likewise he can wipe over it from both the major and minor impurity not as in the case with the khuffs as has preceded. So when ghusl is obligatory upon him, he wipes over it (the bandage) just as he wipes over it when making wudoo.

Q27: How should he wipe over the bandage? Does he wipe over all of it or a part of it?

A27: Yes he should wipe over all of it because the principle is that the replacement has the same ruling as the replaced as long as nothing in the Sunnah occurs which establishes other than this. So in this case the wiping replaces the washing, so just as it was necessary to wash the whole limb, then likewise it is necessary to wipe over the whole bandage. As for wiping over the socks then this is a concession and the Sunnah states that only a part of it be wiped (i.e. the top only).

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

GUIDELINES FOR PERFORMING TAYAMMUM

By Shaikh ‘Abdullaah bin Saalih Al-‘Ubaylaan

Taken from his book as-Salaat (The Prayer), which is a transcription of a lecture he gave (pg. 26-28)

Source http://www.Al-Ibaanah.com

Tayammum is done as a substitution for water. The proof for this is Allaah’s saying: “…and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with good earth, wiping your faces and hands with it.” [Surah Al-Maa’idah: 6] And also the Prophet’s (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saying: “The earth was made a masjid (place of prayer) and purity for me.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Tayammum is permitted in two situations:

1. When there is no water to be found

2. When one is not able to use it due to sickness and so on.

Tayammum can be performed for both types of ritual impurities (hadath):

1. Minor Impurity such as urine and feces, and

2. Major Impurity such as sexual relations or semen excretion.

It is permissible to perform Tayammum with everything that is found on the earth from its various types, such as sand, dirt and other types of earth. This is even if the earth is smooth land and there is no sand or dirt found on it, it is permissible to perform Tayammum on it.

The evidence for this is what has been reported by Jaabir (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The earth was made a masjid (place of prayer) and a purity for me. So any man from my ummah (nation) who has the time for prayer come upon him, then let him pray, for he has his place of prayer and his purifier with him. So if the prayer time comes upon him and he is in a land in which there is sand or the prayer time comes upon him and he is in a smooth surfaced land, then in this situation, he is ordered to perform Tayammum with this earth.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Such a person can pray what he wishes from the prayers with this Tayammum, whether the prayer be obligatory or supererogatory. This is because the ruling that Tayammum takes is the same ruling as water. So whatever nullifies one’s wudoo (ablution), then it also nullifies and renders void one’s Tayammum. However, if water is found (and one has Tayammum), something extra is required. So if water becomes available it becomes obligatory for this person to make wudoo (ablution) with it even if his Tayammum hasn’t gotten nullified by one of the factors that cancel out wudoo.

This is based on the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: “Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘The earth serves as the wudoo (ablution) of the Muslim even if he doesn’t find water for ten years. But if he finds water, then he should fear Allaah and let his skin touch it.” This hadeeth was reported by Al-Bazaar and it has a supporting witness from a similar narration of Abu Dharr (radyAllaahu ‘anhu). However, he does not have to repeat the prayers he performed while using that Tayammum.

The description of Tayammum, is that one must first make his intention based on the hadeeth: “Verily, actions are only by intentions.” And then he must mention the name of Allaah (saying Bismillaah). Then he is to strike the earth with his two hands one time and then wipe the palms together along with the back of each hand and his face. This is based on the hadeeth of ‘Ammaar bin Yaasir in which occurs: “He (i.e. Allaah’s Messenger) struck the earth one time and then wiped his left palm on his right palm, the back of his hands and his face.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

PURIFICATION FOR SALAT

Sheikh Saalih bn Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan

First Khutbah

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of all that exists. He likes the oft repentant and the oft-purifying people. I testify that there is no god but Allah, with whom there is no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, the truthful, the honest, may Allah show mercy to him, his Companions, and followers until the Day of Judgment.

O People! Fear Allah! Know that purification is the key of Salaah (prayer) and the most important condition of its validity. Allah the Almighty says in the Qur’an which translates as: “O ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from answering the call of nature, or ye have been in sexual contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and wipe your faces and hands. Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete His favor to you, that ye may be grateful” (Al-An’am: 6).

In this verse, Allah orders purification from minor impurities by Wudhu (ablution) and from major impurities by Ghusl (bathing) ahead of Salaah. The above verse indicates that purification from both types of impurities can be made by pure water if it is available and there is the ability to use it, otherwise, if it cannot be used due to an illness or scarcity, Tayammum (dry ablution) is to be resorted to.

The above verse further indicates the facility that Allah gives to His servants, and the alleviation of hardships concerning the legislation of ablution with water or with pure earth in the absence of water, or the inability to use it. It also points out that Allah wants to purify His servants from impurities, sins, and immoral acts. “…and to complete His favor to you…” (Al-An’am: 6) by giving you a concession with regard to Tayammum instead of water in case of its absence or in difficulty in using it “… that ye may be grateful” (Al-An’am: 6) to Allah in return for His favors and the ease He gives you by removing difficulties. This is done by praising Him, acknowledging His graces, and being steadfast in obeying Him.

The Qur’anic verse explains the parts of the body on which ablution is made, namely the face, hands, head, and feet. It tells us that the face, hands, and feet are to be washed with water, while the head is to be wiped over completely. In the case of major impurity, a Ghusl (ceremonial bathing) is to be made.

As for the description of Tayammum explained in the Prophetic Sunnah, it consists of two strikes with the hands on pure earth, then wiping the face and the hands. Any pure dust found on a bed, wall or any other object may serve the same function of earth – when doing Tayammum.

The description of Wudhu (ablution):

1. To make Niyyaah (intentions) to remove the state of impurity by performing Wudhu (ablution).

2. To say Bismillah (In the Name of Allah).

3. To wash the hands three times.

4. To wash one’s mouth three times. (one must make sure that water reaches all parts of the mouth, all the way to the back).

5. To rinse one’s nostrils with water three times. (but one needs to be careful when doing this while fasting, so as not to get water into the throat

6. To wash one’s face three times upward from the place where the hair of the head grows to the lower part of the chin lengthwise and across from one ear to the other. The beard is a part of the face, which should be washed on the surface, even if it is thick. It is preferable to pass the fingers through it.

7. To wash one’s hands up to the elbows three times,

8. To wipe all the head, by passing wet hands from the front of the head until they reach the back of the head, then return back to the front again. The ears are to be wiped after the head from the interior to the exterior parts by inserting his two index fingers in the two holes of his ears and rotating his thumb on the outer parts.

9. To wash one’s feet up to the ankles three times. During ablution, all parts of the body to be washed should be submerged in water, i.e., letting the water flow over them. If the water does not reach any of these parts, ablution will be invalid. Ibn ‘Umar reported that a man, who was performing ablution left a portion equal to the size of a nail unwashed of his right foot. On sighting him, the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) said: “Go back and perform ablution thoroughly” (Muslim).

If any part of the body to be cleansed is wounded in such a way that water may harm it, one should keep the water off the wound and wash the remaining uninjured parts. He should wipe over the wounded part. If the wound is tied by a bandage, or a sticker or it is a bone fracture, which is covered by a splint, it is sufficient to wipe over the covering with water, without a need to wash the wounded or broken part of the body.

If one wears leather socks, shoes, or any similar footwear, he may wipe over them, without taking them off. One can also wipe over cloth socks, if they are not transparent. The duration of wiping over leather socks and other similar footwear is one day and night for the resident and three days and nights for the traveler who is permitted to shorten Salaah (prayer).

If one has a bandage on his wound, he may wipe over the bandage until it is untied or until the wound heals.

The description of Ghusl (washing following major ceremonial impurity) is as follows:

1. To make (intentions) Niyaah to wash oneself to remove the state of ritual impurity, etc.

2. To say Bismillah.

3. To wash the hands three times.

4. To wash the private parts.

5. To perform ablution similar to that made before Salaah (prayer).

6. To pour water three times on one’s head, letting the water reach the roots of the hair.

7. To pour water on the whole body, leaving no part unwashed, otherwise, the Ghusl (ceremonial bathing) will be invalid.

The wisdom of washing these particular parts of the body during Wudhu (ablution) is because they are the most likely used in doing all actions. With these parts, a man may obey or disobey Allah. They are the quickest parts of the body stirred to either obedience or disobedience. The Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) reported that whenever one of those parts is washed in ablution, a sin committed by such part is removed.

When Allah ordered that these members should be washed in ablution and to wash all the body during Ghusl (ceremonial bathing), He said, which translates as: “but to make you clean, and to complete His favour to you, that ye may be grateful” (Al-An’am: 6).

Thus, Allah showed the wisdom of this commandment i.e. to purify Muslims from impurities and from sins. In a Hadith, it was narrated that the people of this Ummah will be resurrected with bright faces, hands, and feet due to the traces of ablution. They will be distinctive among other peoples (nations) by this sign. This is an indication of ablution and its benefit for Muslims in this worldly life and in the Hereafter.

When one accomplishes purification, it is preferable to say: “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, with Whom there is no partner, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger” (ashhadu alla ilaha ill Allah wahdahu la sharika lahu wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluh).

It was narrated from ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) said: “Whoever of you performs ablution thoroughly then says: I testify that there is no god but Allah, with Whom there is no associate, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, the eight gates of Paradise will be opened to him to enter from whichever he wants” (Ahmad and Muslim).

In another narration, the following addition is made: “O Allah! Make me among the oft repentant and the oft purified (Allahumma aj’alni minat-tawwabin waj’alni minal-mutatahhirin). The wisdom of this invocation following ablution is to join the internal purification of testifying to Allah’s Oneness and the external purification of performing ablution.

Servants of Allah! Do not be extravagant in using water for ablution or bathing as the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) forbade extravagance in using water. He (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) used to perform ablution with a handful of water and to perform Ghusl (ritual bathing) with five handfuls of water. We thus should follow the Prophet’s example (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam). Extravagance in using water for ablution or Ghusl (ceremonial bathing) is discouraged. Perhaps one may excessively use water without achieving the required purity, as he may have unknowingly not allowed the water to reach certain parts of his body.

Servants of Allah! Fear Allah and keep on performing purification before Salaah (prayer), and purify yourselves as Allah commanded you, and follow the example of the Messenger of Allah (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam). As Allah says which translates as: “And obey Allah and the Messenger; that ye may obtain mercy” (Aal-Imran: 132).

May Allah bless you and I through the guidance of the Holy Qur’an.

Second Khutbah

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of all that exist. We praise Him for His Bounties and Benevolence. I testify that there is no god but Allah, with whom there is no partner and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. Allah sent him with guidance and the Religion of Truth to make it prevail over all religions. May Allah bless him and his family and Companions!

O people! Fear Allah and know that Wudhu (ablution) is half of faith, and that purification for Salaah (prayer) by performing Wudhu (ablution) or Ghusl (ceremonial bathing) is a hidden matter between a servant and his Lord, about which he will be questioned on the Day of Resurrection. Allah says concerning the description of the believers, which translates as: “Those who faithfully observe their trusts and their covenants” (Al-Mu’minun: 8).

Some people are so indifferent to purification that they do not perform it as perfectly as ordained by Allah. Some people may perform Salaah with an imperfect Wudhu or Ghusl during all or most of their lives, which renders their Salaah invalid. Some of the dwellers of the desert may perform Tayammum all the time, even when water is available, thinking that the use of water is optional. However, Tayammum is lawful only in the absence of water or in the case of inability to use it. Thus, if one makes Tayammum despite the availability of water or despite his ability to use it, his Salaah becomes invalid. In this case, he will be considered as one who performs Salaah without purification (Wudhu or Ghusl), which is one of the conditions for the validity of the Salaah.

As purification from impurities is obligatory by making Wudhu or Ghusl, it is equally necessary to purify one’s garment and the place in which he will perform Salaah. If any of these contains impurity, it should be cleaned with water until impurity is removed.

So, fear Allah, you servants of Allah and know that the best speech is the Book of Allah…

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

THE MANNER OF PURIFICATION AND SALAH FOR THE SICK

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen

Source: fatwa-online.com

All praise belongs to Allaah, we praise Him seek His assistance and forgiveness, turn to Him in repentance, and seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of ourselves and the evil of our deeds. Whoever Allaah guides, no one can lead him astray. And whoever Allaah allows to stray, no one can guide him. I bear witness that there is nothing which deserves to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, and He has no partner. And I bear witness that Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) is His servant and Messenger – Peace and Blessings be upon Him and His family, His companions and those who follow them in goodness.

Verily this is a brief treatise about that which is compulsory in the purification (tahaarah) and salaah of the sick people.

Verily, there are ahkaam particularly for the sick in these things (prayer and purification) which the Sharee’ah requires to be given consideration because of their condition.

Verily, Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) has sent his Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) with the true and tolerant religion which is built on (the principle of) ease, facility and non-complication.

Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) has said in the Qur.aan: {And He has not laid upon you in the religion any hardship…}, [Soorah 22, Aayah 78].

He (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) also said: {Allaah intends for you ease, and he does not want to make things difficult for you…}, [Soorah 21, Aayah 185].

He (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) also said: {So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can; Listen and obey…}, [Soorah 64, Aayah 16].

And the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((Verily the Religion is ease)), [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and Saheeh Muslim].

He (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) also said: ((What I have ordered you (to do), do as much of it as you can…)), [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree].

Based on this fundamental principle, Allaah has reduced the (amount of) religious duties (worship) for the people who have reason to be excused (Ahlul-A’dhaar). This is also the case if someone is not able to perform wudhoo. for himself. Then someone else may help him to do so. Each one according to his condition, in order to enable him to worship Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) without inconvenience or hardship. Praise be to Allaah, the Lord of all the worlds.

The Purification (Tahaarah) of the sick person

• 1 – It is mandatory for the sick person to purify himself with water. Therefore, he must make wudhoo. from the minor impurities (urine, feces, pus etc.) and ghusl from the major impurities (menses, sexual intercourse etc.); [{O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles…}, [Soorah 5, Aayah 6]];

• 2 – If he is unable to purify himself with water because of inability (to move) or fear of worsening his condition or delaying his recovery – in that case he may make tayammum (purification with clean sand); [{…But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands…}, [Soorah 5, Aayah 6]];

• 3 – Tayammum is performed by striking the pure earth or clean earth with both hands one time, wiping over his whole face, then wiping the palms of his hands, each of them wiping the other.

• 4 – If he is unable to clean himself then someone may help him to perform tayammum. The other person would strike the clean earth himself with his (own) hands, then wipe over the face and hands of the sick person.

• 5 – If there was a wound in any part of the body that has to be cleaned then he should wash it with water. But, if the washing with water would affect it, then he can dip his hands in the water and just pass his hand over the wound. And if even just wiping over it would affect it, then he may make tayammum.

• 6 – If there was a broken limb that was wrapped tightly with a bandage or caste (that has to be washed) then he should wipe over the bandage or caste with water rather than washing it. He does not have to make tayammum in this case because the wiping is done in place of washing.

• 7 – It is permissible to make tayammum on the wall or anything clean that has dust covering it. If the wall had been covered with something other than dirt or sand (earth) – for example, if it had been painted – then he should not make tayammum on it except if there is dust covering it.

• 8 – If he was unable to make tayammum on the ground or wall or something that has dust covering it, then there is no harm if he puts some dirt or sand in a container or handkerchief and make tayammum from that.

• 9 – If he makes tayammum for prayer and he retains his state of purification until the time of the next prayer, then he may perform that prayer with the first tayammum and he does not have to repeat the tayammum for the next prayer. This is so because he remained in his state of purification and there was nothing which invalidated his state of purification.

• 10 – It is mandatory for the sick person to clean his body from all impurities. But if he is unable then he may pray in this condition and the prayer is correct and he does not have to repeat it; [{What I have forbidden to you, avoid (completely); what I have ordered you (to do), do as much of it as you can…}, [Soorah 64, Aayah 16]].

• 11 – It is also mandatory for the sick person to perform prayer in clean clothing and if his clothing became defiled by impurities then it is obligatory to wash them or change them for clean clothing. But if he is unable to do so, then he may pray in this condition and his prayer is correct, and he does not have to repeat it; [{So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can; Listen and obey…}].

• 12 – It is mandatory for the sick person to pray on something clean and if his place of salaah became unclean he must wash it or change it for something clean or lay over it something clean. But if he is unable to do that then he may pray in that condition and his salaah is correct and he does not have to repeat it.

• 13 – It is not permissible for the sick person to delay his salaah until after its proper time because of inability to perform Tahaarah (purification). But he should purify himself to the extent that he is able so that he may perform his salaah on time even if there were impurities on his body or his clothing or his place of salaah which he is not able to remove; [{…Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours}, [Soorah 4, Aayah 103]]

The salaah of the sick person

• 1 – It is mandatory for the sick person to perform the obligatory salaah standing even if he cannot stand up straight or even if he leans on a wall or a stick that he needs to hold him up; [((Pray standing; but if you are unable (to do so), then pray sitting; and if you are unable (to pray sitting) then (pray) lying on your side)), [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree]; An-Nasaa.ee added: ((And if you are unable, then lying on your back. Allaah does not burden anyone except according to his ability))].

• 2 – If he is unable to stand, then he may pray sitting and it is better if he sits with his legs closed in the place of Qiyaam and Rukoo’.

• 3 – If he is unable to perform the salaah sitting then he may pray lying on his side facing the qiblah, preferably lying on the right side. If he is unable to face qiblah then he may pray in whatever direction he is facing and the salaah is correct and he does not have to repeat it.

• 4 – If he is unable to perform the prayer on his side then he prays lying flat with his feet towards the qiblah, and it is preferable that he raise his head a little to direct it toward the qiblah. If he is unable to point his feet toward the qiblah, then he may pray however he is and he does not have to repeat the prayer.

• 5 – It is mandatory for the sick person to make rukoo’ and sajdah in his salaah. If he is unable, then he should make a gesture for both of them by nodding his head, lower for sajdah than he does for rukoo’. If he is able to perform rukoo’ but not sajdah then he should make rukoo’ when its time for rukoo’ and make a gesture for sajdah. And if he is able to make sajdah and not rukoo’ then he should perform sajdah when its time for sajdah and make a gesture for rukoo’.

• 6 – If he is unable to make a gesture by nodding his head for rukoo’ and sajdah then he would make a signal by closing his eyes a little for rukoo’ and closing them more for sajdah. As for pointing with the finger as some of the sick people do, it is not correct and I don’t know if this has any basis in the Qur.aan and Sunnah or in the sayings of the scholars (Ahlul-‘Ilm).

• 7 – If he is unable to gesture with the head nor signal by the eyes, then he should pray with his heart by making takbeer and reading of the Qur.aan and making intention for rukoo’, sajdah (prostrating), qiyaam, qu’ood by his heart knowing that every person will have what he intends; [The reward of the sick will not be less than the reward of the healthy person when he prays according to his condition, according to the hadeeth: ((If someone becomes sick or travels Allaah records for him the reward equal to what he received when he was healthy and resident)), [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and Ahmad]].

• 8 – It is mandatory for the sick person to perform each salaah in its proper time, and to do everything that he is able to do of that which is obligatory in the salaah. If it became difficult for him to perform each salaah in its proper time, then he may combine Zhuhr and ‘Asr salaah and he may combine Maghrib and ‘Ishaa. either combining them in the earlier time – whereas he would advance ‘Asr to the time of Zhuhr and ‘Ishaa. in the time of Maghrib, or combine them in the later time – delaying Zhuhr until the time of ‘Asr, and delaying Maghrib until the time of ‘Ishaa. – according to whichever may be easier for him (i.e. if it is easier to advance the salaah or to delay it.)

As for Fajr, it is not combined with the salaah before it nor the prayer after it.

• 9 – If the sick person is travelling, seeking treatment in another country, then he can shorten the four rak’ah salaah so that he will pray Zhuhr, ‘Asr and ‘Ishaa. as two rak’ah each, until he returns to his country. It being the same whether his journey is for a long period or short period; [{And when you (Muslims) travel in the land, there is no sin for you if you shorten your prayer…}, [Soorah 4, Aayah 10]].

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

PERFORMING PRAYER WITH TAYAMMUM THEN FINDING WATER

By Ash Shaykh Al ‘Allaamah Saaleh al-Fawzaan

Taken from Al-Muntaqaa – Question 22, Page 19, Volume 5

Translated by Abu ‘Abdullaah, Muhammad Chaudhry.

Source http://www.madeenah.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=170&Itemid=47

Question: If a man performed the Fajr prayer in a state of Tayammum because there was no water, would he then have to repeat his prayer if he (later) found water after the sun had risen?

Answer: If he performed Tayammum during the time (of prayer) and prayed because he did not have any water, then his prayer is valid. And thereafter, if he found water, even before the passing of the time (of that prayer) then he is not (required) to repeat his prayer, because the prayer he just performed was done so in a state of legislated purity which Allaah (Ta’aala) has commanded with, so he is not (required) to repeat it.

Allaah (Ta’aala) says: {…and you find no water, perform tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands…}, [Soorah aNisaa., Aayah 43] However, if water was found (or made available) before the completion of the prayer, then the prayer (being performed) is invalidated (due to the availability of the water) and it is obligatory upon him to purify himself with the water and perform the prayer in (a state of) wudhoo.

~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~*~~~

IS ABLUTION NULLIFYED BY LOOKING AT A NAKED PERSON?

Taken from Fataawaa Al Lajnah Ad Daaimah, Volume 5: Fatwaa no: 6541

President: ‘Abdul ‘Aziz bin Baaz, Deputy President: ‘Abdur Razzaaq ‘Afeefee, Member: ‘Abdullaah bin Ghudyaan, Member: ‘Abdullaah bin Qu’ood

Translated by Zulfiker Ibrahim AlMemoni AlAtharee.

Source http://madeenah.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=176&Itemid=47

Question: Does ablution[1] become invalid by merely looking at women or men who are naked [2] ; also does it become void if a person looks at his own private parts [3] ?

Answer: All praise is due to Allaah alone, and may the peace and blessings be with His Messenger, his family, and his companions.

To proceed: The ablution of a person does not become invalid by merely looking at women and men who are in a state of nudity, or by simply seeing one’s private parts, as there is no evidence or proof with regards to this.

Allaah is the possessor of all prosperity & success, and may the peace and blessings of Allaah be with our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and his companions.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Refer to Surah: 5 [Alma’idah] Ayah no: 6 in the Qur’aan for a description regarding the ablution Islamically known as (ÇáæÖæÁ). [TN]

[2] Also can be translated as ‘no clothes on’. Imam Bihaaud-Deen Almaqdasi [555-624 AH] says: A person dressed [with clothes] that does not cover his private parts, is known as being nude and not dressed. Refer to ‘Aluddah’ explanation of ‘Alumdah’ Chapter of the Expiation of Oaths. [TN]

[3] The Messenger of Allah, peace & blessings be with him described the private part of a Muslim man as being [at the end of a lengthy Hadeeth]: ‘That which is in between his navel and knees [regarded as being] his private part. Reported by Imam Darul-Qutnee in his Sunan, Hadeeth no: 876 which is graded as being Hasan [sound]. [TN]

A penny for your thoughts...

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s